FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mouthwash" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mouthwash

For the Addie Cyr song see "Mouthwash (song)" Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Mouthwash is a song by Kate Nash and is her third single, and the second to be lifted from her debut album Made of Bricks. ...


For the ska-punk band, see "Mouthwash (band)" Mouthwash are a ska-punk band, originally formed in West Norwood, London in 1995[1]. // Mouthwash originally formed as a three-piece band consisting of Ben McCarthy (vocals/bass guitar), Rob Tortelli (guitar) and Chris Hugall (drums). ...


Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. Antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse claims to kill the bacterial plaque causes caries, gingivitis, and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. However, it is generally agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing[1][2]. In the absence of a ready-made mouthwash, gargling with plain water is preferable, to remove food particles, sugars and other pollutants in the mouth[citation needed]. Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Not to be confused with Plack. ... This article is about dental caries in humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Halitosis, breath odour, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odours exhaled in breathing. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Dental floss is a thin, nylon string that is used to remove food and plaque from the teeth. ...


Mouth washes may also be used to help remove mucous and food particles deeper down in the throat. Alcoholic and strong flavored mouth washes may cause coughing for this purpose.

Contents

History

The first known reference to mouth rinsing is in the Chinese medicine, about 2700 BCE, for treatment of gingivitis. Later, in the Greek and Roman periods, mouthrinsing following mechanical cleansing became common among the upper classes, and Hippocrates recommended a mixture of salt, alum and vinegar[3]. The Jewish Talmud, dating back about 1800 years, suggests a cure for gum ailments containing "dough water" and olive oil[4]. Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...


Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the famous 17th century microscopist, discovered living organisms (living, because they were motile) in deposits on the teeth (what we now call dental plaque). He also found organisms in water from the canal next to his home in Delft. He experimented with samples by adding vinegar or brandy and found that this resulted in the immediate immobilization or killing of the organisms suspended in water. Next he tried rinsing the mouth of himself and somebody else with a rather foul mouthwash containing vinegar or brandy and found that living organisms remained in the dental plaque. He concluded — correctly — that the mouthwash either did not reach, or was not present long enough, to kill the plaque organisms.[citation needed] Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ...



That remained the state of affairs until the late 1960s when Harald Loe (at the time a professor at the Royal Dental College in Aarhus, Denmark) demonstrated that a chlorhexidine compound could prevent the build-up of dental plaque. The reason for chlorhexidine effectiveness is that it strongly adheres to surfaces in the mouth and thus remains present in effective concentrations for many hours[5].


Since then commercial interest in mouthwashes has been intense and several newer products claim effectiveness in reducing the build-up in dental plaque and the associated severity of gingivitis (inflammation of the gums), in addition to fighting bad breath. Many of these solutions aim to control the Volatile Sulfur Compound (VSC)-creating anaerobic bacteria that live in the mouth and excrete substances that lead to bad breath and unpleasant mouth taste[6][7].

Further information: History of Listerine

Various Listerine products Listerine is a brand name for antiseptic mouthwash invented by John Lister. ...

Usage

Common use involves rinsing the mouth with about 20ml (2/3 fl oz) of mouthwash two times a day after brushing. The wash is typically swished or gargled for about half a minute and then spat out. In some brands, the expectorate is stained, so that one can see the bacteria and debris[8][9]. However it is probably advisable to use mouthwash at least an hour after brushing with toothpaste, since the anionic compounds in the toothpaste can inactivate cationic agents present in the mouthrinse. Probably the most effective time to rinse and gargle with a mouthrinse is at bed time[10]. The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... Gargling is a common method of cleansing the throat, especially if one has a sore throat or upper-respiratory virus or infection. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ...


Composition

Active ingredients in commercial brands of mouthwash can include thymol, eucalyptol[11], hexetidine, methyl salicylate, menthol, chlorhexidine gluconate[12][9], benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride[13], methylparaben, hydrogen peroxide, domiphen bromide and sometimes fluoride[14], enzymes and calcium. Ingredients also include water, sweeteners such as sorbitol, Sucralose, sodium saccharine, and xylitol (which doubles as a bacterial inhibitor)[15]. An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in drug that is pharmaceutically active. ... Thymol is a phenol derivative of cymene, C10H13OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. ... Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound which is a colorless liquid. ... Hexetidine is an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent commonly used in both vetinary and human medicine. ... Methyl salicylate (chemical formula C6H4(HO)COOCH3; also known as salicylic acid methyl ester, oil of wintergreen, betula oil, methyl-2-hydroxybenzoate) is a natural product of many species of plants. ... Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... This article is about this particular compound. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... Sucralose is an artificial sweetener. ... Saccharin is the oldest artificial sweetener; it was discovered in 1879 by Ira Remsen and Constantine Fahlberg of Johns Hopkins University. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ...


Sometimes a significant amount of alcohol (up to around 20%) is added, as a carrier for the flavor, to provide "bite" and to contribute an antibacterial effect. Because of the alcohol content, it is possible to fail a breathalyzer test after rinsing; in addition, alcohol is a drying agent and may worsen chronic bad breath. As such, it is possible for alcoholics to abuse mouthwash[16]. Recently, some assumptions were made of a possible carcinogenic character of alcohol used in mouthrinses, but no clear evidence was found[17][18]. Commercial mouthwashes usually contain a preservative such as sodium benzoate to preserve freshness once the container has been opened. Many newer brands are alcohol-free and contain odor-elimination agents such as oxidizers, as well as odor-preventing agents such as zinc ion technology to keep future bad breath from developing[citation needed]. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Kevin is the best person in the world [Image:Breathalyzer. ... Sodium benzoate (E211), also called benzoate of soda, has chemical formula C6H5COONa. ...


A salt mouthwash is a home treatment for mouth infections and/or injuries, or post extraction, and is made by dissolving a teaspoon of salt in a cup of warm water. Plain (diluted) hydrogen peroxide is another common mouthwash[19]. Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ...


One thing to note is that many commercial mouthwashes are very acidic on the pH scale. If you have heartburn, acid reflux or acid indigestion, it is important to use a mouthwash with a neutral pH to avoid irritation.[20]. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, or GORD when -oesophageal, the BE form, is substituted) is injury to the esophagus that develops from chronic exposure of the esophagus to acid coming up from the stomach (reflux). ... Acid indigestion is a type of indigestion involving an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. ...


References

  1. ^ Gunsolley JC. A meta-analysis of six-month studies of antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Dec;137(12):1649-57. PMID 17138709
  2. ^ Tal H, Rosenberg M. Estimation of dental plaque levels and gingival inflammation using a simple oral rinse technique. J Periodontol. 1990 Jun;61(6):339-42. PMID 2366142
  3. ^ Fischman SL. The history of oral hygiene products: how far have we come in 6000 years? Periodontol 2000. 1997 Oct;15:7-14. PMID 9643227.
  4. ^ Shifman A, Orenbuch S, Rosenberg M. Bad breath--a major disability according to the Talmud. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002 Oct;4(10):843-5. PMID 12389360.
  5. ^ Budtz-Jörgensen E, Löe H. Chlorhexidine as a denture disinfectant in the treatment of denture stomatitis. Scand J Dent Res. 1972:80:457-464.
  6. ^ Bosy A, Kulkarni GV, Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. Relationship of oral malodor to periodontitis: evidence of independence in discrete subpopulations. J Periodontol. 1994 Jan;65(1):37-46. PMID 8133414.
  7. ^ Loesche WJ, Kazor C. Microbiology and treatment of halitosis. Periodontol 2000. 2002;28:256-79. PMID 12013345.
  8. ^ Kozlovsky A, Goldberg S, Natour I, Rogatky-Gat A, Gelernter I, Rosenberg M. Efficacy of a 2-phase oil: water mouthrinse in controlling oral malodor, gingivitis, and plaque. J Periodontol. 1996 Jun;67(6):577-82. PMID 8794967.
  9. ^ a b Rosenberg M, Gelernter I, Barki M, Bar-Ness R. Day-long reduction of oral malodor by a two-phase oil:water mouthrinse as compared to chlorhexidine and placebo rinses. J Periodontol. 1992 Jan;63(1):39-43. PMID 1552460.
  10. ^ Rosenberg M. The science of bad breath. Sci Am. 2002 Apr;286(4):72-9. PMID 11905111.
  11. ^ Stoeken JE, Paraskevas S, van der Weijden GA. The long-term effect of a mouthrinse containing essential oils on dental plaque and gingivitis: a systematic review. J Periodontol. 2007 Jul;78(7):1218-28. PMID 17608576.
  12. ^ Ribeiro LG, Hashizume LN, Maltz M. The effect of different formulations of chlorhexidine in reducing levels of mutans streptococci in the oral cavity: A systematic review of the literature. J Dent. 2007 May;35(5):359-70. Epub 2007 Mar 27. PMID 17391828.
  13. ^ Goldberg S, Konis Y, Rosenberg M. Effect of Cetylpyridinium Chloride on Microbial Adhesion to Hexadecane and Polystyrene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1678-1682. PMID 16348211.
  14. ^ Levy SM. An update on fluorides and fluorosis. J Can Dent Assoc. 2003 May;69(5):286-91. PMID 12734021.
  15. ^ Giertsen E, Emberland H, Scheie AA. Effects of mouth rinses with xylitol and fluoride on dental plaque and saliva. Caries Res. 1999;33(1):23-31. PMID 9831777.
  16. ^ Alaska.com | Alaska's travel site
  17. ^ Cole P, Rodu B, Mathisen A. Alcohol-containing mouthwash and oropharyngeal cancer: a review of the epidemiology. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Aug;134(8):1079-87. PMID 12956348.
  18. ^ Carretero Peláez MA, Esparza Gómez GC, Figuero Ruiz E, Cerero Lapiedra R. Alcohol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. Critical analysis of literature. Med Oral. 2004 Mar-Apr;9(2):120-3, 116-20. PMID 14990877.
  19. ^ Hasturk H, Nunn M, Warbington M, Van Dyke TE. Efficacy of a fluoridated hydrogen peroxide-based mouthrinse for the treatment of gingivitis: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2004 Jan;75(1):57-65. PMID 15025217.
  20. ^ Fermin A. Carranza. CARRANZA'S CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY, 9th edition, 2002. page 195

External links

Periodontology is the branch of dentistry concerned with the health of the tooth supporting structures, ie. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ... The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist to expose a greater height of tooth structure in order to properly restore the tooth prosthetically. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ... The free gingival margin is the interface between the sulcular epithelium and the epithelium of the oral cavity. ... The gingiva (sing. ... The gingival fibers are the connective tissue fibers that attach a tooth to the gingival tissue. ... The gingiva (sing. ... The junctional epithelium is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus. ... The mucogingival junction is the interface between the more apically located alveolar mucosa and the more coronally located attached gingiva of the gingiva. ... // Headline text The periodontal ligaments are considered part of the periodontium, as they are supporting tissue of a tooth. ... The sulcular epithelium is that epithelium which lines the gingival sulcus. ... Photograph of the upper left quandrant, showing teeth #4-8, with a DO amalgam on #5. ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral commensal found also in severe infections in the oral cavity, mainly the periodontium. ... Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the Bacteroides genus and is a non-motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic pathogenic bacterium. ... Treponema denticola is a motile and highly proteolytic bacterium. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Calculus (dark yellow colour) can be seen on almost all teeth near the gums In dentistry, calculus or tartar refers to hardened plaque on the teeth, formed by the presence of saliva, debris, and minerals. ... Edentulism is is the condition of being completely toothless. ... == Fremitus: Medical Term and Christian Outreach== Medical Term and a Christian Outreach Fremitus is a palpable vibration on the human body. ... Gingival enlargement, the currently accepted terminology for an increase in the size of the gingiva, is a common feature of gingival disease. ... A drawing depicting the relationship of a tooth to the surrounding gingival tissue. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Occlusal trauma is a dental term that refers to the damage incurred when teeth are left in traumatic occlusion without proper treatment. ... A drawing depicting the relationship of a tooth to the surrounding gingival tissue. ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Receding gums (gingival recession) refers to a loss of gum tissue resulting in an exposure in the roots of the teeth. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Bleeding on probing is a term used by dentists when referring to bleeding that is induced by gentle manipulation of the tissue at the depth of the gingival sulcus, or interface between the gingiva and a tooth. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Dental hygienist flossing a patients teeth Dental floss is either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (teflon or polyethylene) ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Triclosan (chemically 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent wide spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent. ... A periodontal probe is an instrument in dentistry commonly used in the dental armamentarium. ... Periodontal scalers have sharp tips to access tight embrasure spaces between teeth and are triangular in cross-section. ... Debridement is a medical term referring to the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. ... The objective of scaling and root planing, otherwise known as conventional periodontal therapy, is to remove or eliminate the etiologic agents which cause inflammation: dental plaque, its products and calculus,[1] thus helping to establish a periodontium that is free of disease. ... A bone graft is a surgical procedure where bone is taken from a donor site and placed elsewhere within the patient. ... Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist to expose a greater height of tooth structure in order to properly restore the tooth prosthetically. ... A gum graft is a generic name for multiple periodontal procedures that all aim to cover an area of severe gum recession with grafted gum tissue. ... A gingivectomy is a periodontal surgical procedure which includes the removal of gingival tissue in order to achieve a more esthetic appearance and/or functional contour. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... A gum graft is a generic name for multiple periodontal procedures that all aim to cover an area of severe gum recession with grafted gum tissue. ... A gum graft is a generic name for multiple periodontal procedures that all aim to cover an area of severe gum recession with grafted gum tissue. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eliminator Anti-bacterial Mouthwash (234 words)
Eliminator mouthwash is alcohol free and based on stabilised Anthium Dioxide.
It is effective in helping control tooth decay and gum disease by its uncommon ability to oxidise and dissolve food films that cling to the teeth and build-up on gums, improving dental health.
Again, if you can reduce the food source for the plaque build-up and the bacteria, the attributing gum disease can be significantly reduced or eliminated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m