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Encyclopedia > Mountaineering
An open crevasse.
An open crevasse.

Mountaineering is the sport, hobby or profession of walking, hiking, trekking and climbing up mountains. It is also sometimes known as alpinism, particularly in Europe. While it began as an all-out attempt to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains, it has branched into specializations addressing different aspects of mountains and may now be said to consist of three aspects: rock-craft, snow-craft and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice. All require great athletic and technical ability, and experience is also a very important part of the matter. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1524x2738, 3030 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mountaineering ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1524x2738, 3030 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mountaineering ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Many beautiful natural scenes are only accessible if one is willing to hike to get to them. ... Rock climbers on Valkyrie at The Roaches in Staffordshire, England. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... “Rock” redirects here. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... This article is about water ice. ...

Contents

Technique

Climbers descending a ridge.
Climbers descending a ridge.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Snow

While certain compacted snow conditions allow mountaineers to progress on foot, typically some form of mechanical device is required to travel efficiently over snow & ice. Crampons 10 - 12 point spikes which are attached to a mountaineers boots, are used on hard snow (neve) and ice to provide additional traction & allow very steep ascents and descents. There are many different varieties, ranging from lightweight aluminum models intended for walking on glaciers to aggressive steel models intended for vertical and overhanging ice and rock. Snowshoes can be used to walk through deep snow approaching the mountain or on lesser slopes up the mountain. Skis can be used almost everywhere snowshoes can and also in steeper, more alpine landscapes although it takes more practice to develop sufficiently strong skiing skills for difficult terrain. The practice of combining the techniques of alpine skiing and mountaineering to ascend and descend a mountain is a form of the sport by itself, called Ski Mountaineering. Ascending and descending a snow slope involves many different techniques of the feet and an ice axe which have been developed over the last hundred years, originating in Europe. The progression of footwork from the lowest angle slopes to the steepest terrain is first to splay the feet to a rising traverse, to kick stepping, to front pointing the crampons. The progression of the ice axe technique from the lowest angle slopes to the steepest terrain is to use the ice axe first as a walking stick, then a stake, then to use the front pick as a dagger below the shoulders or above, and finally to swing the pick into the slope over the head. This also involves different designs of ice axe depending on the terrain to be covered, and even whether a mountaineer uses one or two ice axes. Crampons on a ski boot Crampons are outdoor footwear that are made from spikes and are worn on boots to provide traction on snow and ice. ... For the town and ski resort in West Virginia, see Snowshoe, West Virginia. ... This article concerns the skis used in skiing. ... Ski mountaineering is a sport that combines the techniques of skiing (often ski touring) with those of mountaineering. ...


Glaciers

When traveling over glaciers, crevasses pose a grave danger. These giant cracks in the ice are not always visible as snow can be blown and freeze over the top to make a snowbridge. At times snowbridges can be as thin as a few inches. Climbers use a system of ropes to protect themselves from such hazards. Basic gear for glacier travel includes crampons and ice axes. Teams of two to five climbers tie into a rope equally spaced. If a climber begins to fall the other members of the team perform a self-arrest to stop the fall. The other members of the team enact a crevasse rescue to pull the fallen climber from the crevasse. This article is about the geological formation. ... Measuring snowpack in a crevasse on the Easton Glacier, North Cascades, USA A crevasse is a crack or fissure in a glacier or snow field. ... A crevasse with a snow bridge in the back For another meaning, see Avalanche snow bridge Snow bridge is an arc across a crevasse, a crack in rock, a creek, or some other opening in terrain. ... Crampons on a ski boot Crampons are outdoor footwear that are made from spikes and are worn on boots to provide traction on snow and ice. ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... Self arrest is a mountaineering related maneuver in which a climber that has fallen and is sliding down a snow or ice slope arrests, stops, the slide by himself without recourse to a rope or other belay system. ... Crevasse rescue is the process of retrieving a climber from a crevasse in a glacier. ...


Ice

Multiple methods are used to safely travel over ice. If the terrain is steep but not vertical, then protection in the form of pickets or ice screws can be driven into the snow or ice and attached to the rope by the lead climber. Each climber on the team must clip past the anchor, and the last climber picks up the picket. This allows for safety should the entire team be taken off their feet. This technique is known as Simul-climbing. To make climbing as safe as possible, most climbers use protection to prevent injury to themselves and others. ... The Picket is used as an anchor in Mountaineering. ...


If the terrain becomes vertical then standard ice climbing techniques are used. Ice climbing is the recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls, and frozen waterfalls. ...

Ice climbing
Ice climbing

Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1406 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1406 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Shelter

Climbers use a few different forms of shelter depending on the situation and conditions. Shelter is a very important aspect of safety for the climber as the weather in the mountains is very unpredictable. Tall mountains require many days of camping on the mountain.


Hut

The European alpine regions, in particular, have a network of mountain huts (called ‘refuges’ in France and ‘cabanes’ in Switzerland). Such huts exist at many different heights, including in the high mountains themselves – in extremely remote areas bivouac shelters may have been provided. The mountain huts are of varying size and quality but each is typically centred on a communal dining room and have dormitories equipped with mattresses, blankets or duvets, and pillows – guests are expected to bring and to use their own sleeping bag liner. The facilities are usually rudimentary but, given their locations, huts offer vital shelter, make routes more widely accessible (by allowing journeys to be broken and reducing the weight of equipment needing to be carried), and offer good value. In Europe, all huts are staffed during the summer (mid-June to mid-September) and some are staffed in the spring (mid-March to mid-May). Elsewhere, huts may also be open in the fall. Huts also may have a part that is always open, but unmanned, a so-called winter hut. When open and manned, the huts are generally run by full-time employees, but some are staffed on a voluntary basis by members of Alpine clubs (such as Club Alpine Suisse and Club Alpine France). The manager of the hut, termed a guardian or warden in Europe, will usually also sell refreshments and meals – both to those visiting only for the day and to those staying overnight. The offering is surprisingly wide – given that most supplies, often including fresh water, must be flown in by helicopter – and may include glucose-based snacks (such as Mars and Snickers bars) on which climbers and walkers wish to stock up, cakes and pastries made at the hut, a variety of hot and cold drinks (including beer and wine), and high carbohydrate dinners in the evenings. Not all huts do offer a catered service, though, and visitors may need to provide for themselves. Some huts offer facilities for both, enabling visitors wishing to keep costs down to bring their own food and cooking equipment and to cater using the facilities provided. Booking for overnight stays at huts is deemed obligatory, and in many cases is essential as some popular huts – even with over 100 bed spaces - may well be full during good weather and at weekends. Once made, the cancellation of a reservation should be advised to the hut as a matter of courtesy – and, indeed, potentially of safety, as many huts keep a record of where climbers and walkers state they planned to walk to next. Most huts are contactable by telephone and most take credit cards as a means of payment for the service they provide.


Bivy

A bivy or bivouac is simply getting a sleeping bag and Bivouac sack and laying down to sleep. Many times small half sheltered areas like cracks in rocks or simply a trench dug in the snow are used to provide a basic means of shelter as well. This technique is performed by most people only in cases of emergency, however in good weather this can be pleasant. Some climbers steadfastly committed to Alpine Style climbing plan on bivying in order to save the weight of a tent when snow conditions are not suitable for a snow cave. Climbers bivouac outside a hermitage in Europe In mountaineering, a bivouac, bivy, bivy sack, bivi bag or sometimes, in the UK, Emergency Sack, is an extremely lightweight alternative to traditional tent systems. ...


Tent

Tents are the most common form of shelter used on the mountain. A four season tent is recommended for any camp above timberline in the mountains. Some climbers do not use tents at high altitudes unless the snow conditions do not allow for snow caving, although digging a snow cave is a time consuming and work intensive endeavor. Sometimes walls of snow or rock can be built instead to shelter the tent from high winds and storms. One of the downsides to tenting is that high storm winds and snow loads can be unnerving and cause the tent to collapse, however modern mountaineering tents are usually tested for wind speeds up to 125 mph. Even so, constant flapping of the tent fabric can hinder sleep and raise doubts about the security of the shelter in windy conditions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Snow cave

Snow caves are another way for some climbers to shelter high on the mountain. Unlike tents snow caves are silent and actually warmer. A correctly made snow cave will hover around freezing, which relative to outside temperatures can be very warm. They require carrying a snow shovel, which some may consider to be extra equipment, to build easily. They can be dug from a deep snowdrift, out of a slope, or anywhere there is at least four feet of snow. Another shelter that works well is a quinzee, which is excavated from a pile of snow that has been work hardened or sintered (typically by stomping). Igloos are used by some climbers, but are deceptively difficult to build and require specific snow conditions. Igloo An igloo (Inuktitut iglu / ᐃᒡᓗ, house), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ... Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ...


Hazards

The craft of climbing has been developed to avoid three main types of danger: the danger of things falling on the climber (objective danger), the danger of the climber falling and inclement weather. The things that may fall include rocks, ice, snow, other climbers or their gear; the mountaineer may fall from rocks, ice or snow, or into a crevasse. In all, there are eight chief dangers: falling rocks, falling ice, snow-avalanches, falls,the climber falling, falls from ice slopes, falls down snow slopes, falls into crevasses and dangers from weather. To select and follow a route using one's skills and experience to mitigate these dangers is to exercise the climber's craft.


Falling rocks

Rocky mountains tend to be hazardous.

Every rock mountain is slowly disintegrating due to erosion, the process being especially rapid above the snow-line. Rock faces are constantly swept by falling stones, which are generally possible to dodge. Falling rocks tend to form furrows in a mountain face, and these furrows (couloirs) have to be ascended with caution, their sides often being safe when the middle is stoneswept. Rocks fall more frequently on some days than on others, according to the recent weather. Ice formed during the night may temporarily bind rocks to the face but warmth of the day or direct sun exposure may easily dislodge these rocks. Local experience is a valuable help on determining typical rockfall on such routes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ...


The direction of the dip of rock strata often determines the degree of danger on a particular face; the character of the rock must also be considered. Where stones fall frequently debris will be found below, whilst on snow slopes falling stones cut furrows visible from a great distance. In planning an ascent of a new peak mountaineers must look for such traces. When falling stones get mixed in considerable quantity with slushy snow or water a mud avalanche is formed (common in the Himalaya). It is vital to avoid camping in their possible line of fall. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ...


Falling ice

The places where ice may fall can always be determined beforehand. It falls in the broken parts of glaciers (seracs) and from overhanging cornices formed on the crests of narrow ridges. Large icicles are often formed on steep rock faces, and these fall frequently in fine weather following cold and stormy days. They have to be avoided like falling stones. Seracs are slow in formation, and slow in arriving (by glacier motion) at a condition of unstable equilibrium. They generally fall in or just after the hottest part of the day, and their debris seldom goes far. A skillful and experienced ice-man will usually devise a safe route through a most intricate ice-fall, but such places should be avoided in the afternoon of a hot day. Hanging glaciers (i.e. glaciers perched on steep slopes) often discharge themselves over steep rock-faces, the snout breaking off at intervals. They can always be detected by their debris below. Their track should be avoided. Seracs in firn at 10000 on the Winthrop Glacier of Mount Rainier in Washington, USA A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac, a crumbly white cheese) is a steep ridge or pillar of ice formed between two crevasses of a glacier. ...


Falls from rocks

The skill of a rock climber is shown by one's choice of handhold and foothold, and his adhesion to those one has chosen. Much depends on a correct estimate of the firmness of the rock where weight is to be thrown upon it. Many loose rocks are quite firm enough to bear a person's weight, but experience is needed to know which can be trusted, and skill is required in transferring the weight to them without jerking. On rotten rocks the rope must be handled with special care, lest it should start loose stones on to the heads of those below. Similar care must be given to handholds and footholds, for the same reason. When a horizontal traverse has to be made across very difficult rocks, a dangerous situation may arise unless at both ends of the traverse there be firm positions. Mutual assistance on hard rocks takes all manner of forms: two, or even three, people climbing on one another's shoulders, or using an ice axe propped up by others for a foothold. The great principle is that of co-operation, all the members of the party climbing with reference to the others, and not as independent units; each when moving must know what the climber in front and the one behind are doing. After bad weather steep rocks are often found covered with a veneer of ice (verglas), which may even render them inaccessible. Crampons are useful on such occasions. Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ... Crampons on a ski boot Crampons are outdoor footwear that are made from spikes and are worn on boots to provide traction on snow and ice. ...


Avalanches

Main article: Avalanche

The avalanche is the most underestimated danger in the mountains. People generally think that they will be able to recognize the hazards and survive being caught. The truth is a somewhat different story. Every year, 120 - 150 people die in small avalanches in the Alps alone. The vast majority are reasonably experienced male skiers aged 20-35 but also include ski instructors and guides.[citation needed] There is always a lot of pressure to risk a snow crossing. Turning back takes a lot of extra time and effort, supreme leadership, and most importantly there seldom is an avalanche to prove the right decision was made. Making the decision to turn around is especially hard if others are crossing the slope, but any next person could become the trigger. The toe of an avalanche in Alaskas Kenai Fjords. ... The toe of an avalanche in Alaskas Kenai Fjords. ...


There are many types of avalanche, but two types are of the most concern:

  1. The slab avalanche: This type of avalanche occurs when a plate of snow breaks loose and starts sliding down; these are the largest and most dangerous.
    1. Hard slab avalanche - formed by hard-packed snow in a cohesive slab. The slab will not break up easily as it slides down the hill, resulting in large blocks tumbling down the mountain.
    2. Soft slab avalanche - formed again by a cohesive layer of snow bonded together, the slab tends to break up more easily.
  2. The loose snow avalanche: This type of avalanche is triggered by a small amount of moving snow that accumulates into a big slide. Also known as a "wet slide or point release" avalanche. This type of avalanche is deceptively dangerous as it can still knock a climber or skier off their feet and bury them, or sweep them over a cliff into a terrain trap.

Dangerous slides are most likely to occur on the same slopes preferred by many skiers: long and wide open, few trees or large rocks, 30 to 45 degrees of angle, large load of fresh snow, soon after a big storm, on a slope 'lee to the storm'. Solar radiation can trigger slides as well. These will typically be a point release or wet slough type of avalanche. The added weight of the wet slide can trigger a slab avalanche. Ninety percent of reported victims are caught in avalanches triggered by themselves or others in their group.


When going off-piste or traveling in alpine terrain, parties have a moral responsibility to always carry:

  1. avalanche beacon
  2. probe
  3. shovel (retrieving victims with a shovel instead of your hands is five times faster)

and to have had avalanche training! Paradoxically, expert skiers who have avalanche training make up a large percentage of avalanche fatalities; perhaps because they are the ones more likely to ski in areas prone to avalanches, and certainly because most people do not practice enough with their equipment to be truly fast and efficient rescuers. Avalanche transceivers are a class of radio transceivers specialized to the purpose of finding people or equipment buried under snow. ...


Even with proper rescue equipment and training, there is a one-in-five chance of dying if caught in a significant avalanche, and only a 50/50 chance of being found alive if buried more than a few minutes. The best solution is to learn how to avoid risky conditions.


Ice slopes

Mountaineers descending mixed rock, snow and ice slope in winter High Tatras.
Mountaineers descending mixed rock, snow and ice slope in winter High Tatras.

For travel on slopes consisting of ice or hard snow, crampons are a standard part of a mountaineer's equipment. While step-cutting can sometimes be used on snow slopes of moderate angle, this can be a slow and tiring process, which does not provide the higher security of crampons. However, in soft snow or powder, crampons are easily hampered by balling of snow which reduce their effectiveness. In either case, an ice axe not only assists with balance but provides the climber with the possibility of self-arrest in case of a slip or fall. On a true ice slope however, an ice axe is rarely able to effect a self-arrest. As an additional safety precaution on steep ice slopes, the climbing rope is attached to ice screws buried into the ice. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1751 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mountaineering ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1751 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mountaineering ... Mountain huts such as this one half way up Lomnický Å¡tít are a common sight in the High Tatras. ... Crampons on a ski boot Crampons are outdoor footwear that are made from spikes and are worn on boots to provide traction on snow and ice. ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ...


True ice slopes are rare in Europe, though common in mountains located in the tropics, where newly-fallen snow quickly thaws on the surface and becomes sodden below, so that the next night's frost turns the whole mass into a sheet of semi-solid ice. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Snow slopes

Part of the Haute Route on French, Swiss border; two alpinists can be seen following the trail in the snow.
Part of the Haute Route on French, Swiss border; two alpinists can be seen following the trail in the snow.

Snow slopes are very common, and usually easy to ascend. At the foot of a snow or ice slope is generally a big crevasse, called a bergschrund, where the final slope of the mountain rises from a snow-field or glacier. Such bergschrunds are generally too wide to be stepped across, and must be crossed by a snow bridge, which needs careful testing and a painstaking use of the rope. A steep snow slope in bad condition may be dangerous, as the whole body of snow may start as an avalanche. Such slopes are less dangerous if ascended directly than obliquely, for an oblique or horizontal track cuts them across and facilitates movement of the mass. New snow lying on ice is especially dangerous. Experience is needed for deciding on the advisability of advancing over snow in doubtful condition. Snow on rocks is usually rotten unless it is thick; snow on snow is likely to be sound. A day or two of fine weather will usually bring new snow into sound condition. Snow cannot lie at a very steep angle, though it often deceives the eye as to its slope. Snow slopes seldom exceed 40°. Ice slopes may be much steeper. Snow slopes in early morning are usually hard and safe, but the same in the afternoon are quite soft and possibly dangerous; hence the advantage of an early start. Photo by Seabhcan. ... Photo by Seabhcan. ... Part of the Haute Route; two alpinists can be seen following the trail in the snow. ... Bergschrund at the Schnapfenspitze, Austria A Bergschrund (also called rimaye) is a crevasse positioned at the rear of a corrie next to the steep back wall. ... A crevasse with a snow bridge in the back For another meaning, see Avalanche snow bridge Snow bridge is an arc across a crevasse, a crack in rock, a creek, or some other opening in terrain. ...


Crevasses

Crevasses are the slits or deep chasms formed in the substance of a glacier as it passes over an uneven bed. They may be open or hidden. In the lower part of a glacier the crevasses are open. Above the snow-line they are frequently hidden by arched-over accumulations of winter snow. The detection of hidden crevasses requires care and experience. After a fresh fall of snow they can only be detected by sounding with the pole of the ice axe, or by looking to right and left where the open extension of a partially hidden crevasse may be obvious. The safeguard against accident is the rope, and no one should ever cross a snow-covered glacier unless roped to one, or even better to two companions. Anyone venturing onto crevasses should be trained in crevasse rescue. Measuring snowpack in a crevasse on the Easton Glacier, North Cascades, USA A crevasse is a crack or fissure in a glacier or snow field. ... Crevasse rescue is the process of retrieving a climber from a crevasse in a glacier. ...


Weather

The primary dangers caused by bad weather centre around the changes it causes in snow and rock conditions, making movement suddenly much more arduous and hazardous than under normal circumstances.

Poor visibility in blizzard conditions.
Poor visibility in blizzard conditions.

Whiteouts make it difficult to retrace a route while rain may prevent taking the easiest line only determined as such under dry conditions. In a storm the mountaineer who uses a compass for guidance has a great advantage over a merely empirical observer. In large snow-fields it is, of course, easier to go wrong than on rocks, but intelligence and experience are the best guides in safely navigating objective hazards. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Poor visibility on Mt Keen due to snow and spindrift. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Poor visibility on Mt Keen due to snow and spindrift. ... Whiteout is a weather condition in which visibility is reduced by snow and diffuse lighting from overcast clouds. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ...


Summer thunderstorms may produce intense lightning. If a climber happens to be standing on or near the summit, they risk being struck. There are many cases where people have been struck by lightning while climbing mountains. In most mountainous regions, local storms develop by late morning and early afternoon. Many climbers will get an "alpine start"; that is before or by first light so as to be on the way down when storms are intensifying in activity and lightning and other weather hazards are a distinct threat to safety. A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ... Lightning over Oradea in Romania For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ...


Altitude

Rapid ascent can lead to altitude sickness. The best treatment is to descend immediately. The climber's motto at high altitude is "climb high, sleep low", referring to the regimen of climbing higher to acclimatize but returning to lower elevation to sleep. In the South American Andes, the chewing of coca leaves has been traditionally used to treat altitude sickness symptoms. Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS) or altitude illness is a pathological condition that is caused by acute exposure to high altitudes. ... Binomial name Lam. ...


Common symptoms of altitude sickness include severe headache, sleep problems, nausea, lack of appetite, lethargy and body ache. Mountain sickness may progress to HACE (High Altitude Cerebral Edema) and HAPE (High Altitude Pulmonary Edema), both of which can be fatal within 24 hours. High altitude cerebral edema (or HACE) is a severe (frequently fatal) form of altitude sickness. ... High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy mountaineers at altitudes above 2500m. ...


In high mountains, atmospheric pressure is lower and this means that less oxygen is available to breathe. This is the underlying cause of altitude sickness. Everyone needs to acclimatize, even exceptional mountaineers that have been to high altitude before. Generally speaking, mountaineers start using bottled oxygen when they climb above 7,000 m. Exceptional mountaineers have climbed 8000-metre peaks (including Everest) without oxygen, almost always with a carefully planned program of acclimatization. Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... “Everest” redirects here. ...


In 2005, researcher and mountaineer John Semple established that above-average ozone concentrations on the Tibetan plateau may pose an additional risk to climbers.[1] Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


Locations

Mountaineering has become a popular sport throughout the world. In Europe the sport largely originated in the Alps, and is still immensely popular there. Other notable mountain ranges frequented by climbers include the Caucasus, the Pyrenees and the Tatra mountains. In North America climbers frequent the Rockies and Sierra Nevada of California, the Cascades of Washington and the high peaks of Alaska. There has been a long tradition of climbers going on expeditions to the Greater Ranges, a term generally used for the Andes and the high peaks of Asia including the Himalaya, Pamirs and Tien Shan. In the past this was often on exploratory trips or to make first ascents. With the advent of cheaper long-haul air travel mountaineering holidays in the Greater Ranges are now undertaken much more frequently and ascents of even Everest and Vinson Massif (the highest mountain in Antarctica) are offered as a "package holiday". Other popular mountaineering areas of more local interest include the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the Japanese Alps the Scottish Highlands and the mountains of Scandinavia, especially Norway. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Tatras Panorama of Tatras The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry in both Slovak and Polish), constitute a mountain range which forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... The Greater Ranges comprise the high mountain ranges of Asia: the Himalaya, the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush and Hindu Raj, the Pamir, the Tien Shan, and various smaller mountain ranges of China, especially in Tibet. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Everest entry redirects here. ... Vinson Massif is the highest mountain of Antarctica, located about 1,200 km (750 mi) from the South Pole. ... The Southern Alps is a mountain range which runs along the western side of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Shirouma peaks (Hida Mountains) Tateyama peaks (Hida Mountains) Lake Hakuba The Kiso Mountains between Nagoya and Naoetsu The Japanese Alps is a mountain range in Japan that bisects the main island of Honshu. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


History

  • Though it is unknown whether his intention was to reach a summit, Ötzi ascended at least 3,000 m in the Alps about 5,300 years ago. His remains were found at that altitude, preserved in a glacier.
  • The first recorded mountain ascent in the Common Era is Roman Emperor Hadrian's ascent of Etna (3,350 m) to see the sun rise in 121.
  • Peter III of Aragon climbed Canigou in the Pyrenees in the last quarter of the 13th century.
  • The first ascent of the Popocatépetl (5,426 m in Mexico) was reported in 1289 by members of a local tribe (Tecanuapas)
  • Jean Buridan climbed Mont Ventoux around 1316.[2]
  • The Italian poet Petrarch wrote that on April 26, 1336 he, together with his brother and two servants, climbed to the top of Mont Ventoux (1,909 m). His account of the trip was composed later as a letter to his friend Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro.[3]
  • The Rochemelon (3,538 m) in the Italian Alps was climbed in 1358.
  • In the late 1400s and early 1500s ascents were made of numerous high peaks in the Andes, for religious purposes by the citizens of the Inca Empire and their subjects. They constructed platforms, houses and altars on many summits and carried out sacrifices, including human sacrifices. The highest peak they are known for certain to have climbed is Llullaillaco (6,739 m). They may also have ascended the highest peak in the Andes, Aconcagua (6,962 m) as a sacrifice victim has been found at over 5,000 m on this peak.[citation needed]
  • In 1492 the ascent of Mont Aiguille was made by order of Charles VIII of France. The Humanists of the 16th century adopted a new attitude towards mountains, but the disturbed state of Europe nipped in the bud the nascent mountaineering of the Zurich school.
  • Leonardo da Vinci climbed to a snow-field in the neighborhood of the Val Sesia and made scientific observations.
  • In 1642 Darby Field made the first recorded ascent of Mount Washington, then known as Agiocochook, in New Hampshire.
  • Konrad Gesner and Josias Simler of Zurich visited and described mountains, and made regular ascents. The use of ice axe and rope were locally invented at this time. No mountain expeditions of note are recorded in the 17th century.
  • Richard Pococke and William Windham's historic visit to Chamonix was made in 1741, and set the trend for visiting glaciers.
  • In 1744 the Titus was climbed, the first true ascent of a snow-mountain.
  • The first attempt to ascend Mont Blanc was made in 1775 by a party of natives. In 1786 Dr Michel Paccard and Jacques Balmat gained the summit for the first time. Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, the initiator of the first ascent followed next year.
  • The Norwegian mountain climber, Jens Esmark was the first person to ascend Snøhetta in 1798, part of the Dovrefjell range in Southern Norway. The same year he lead the first expedition to Bitihorn, a small mountain in the southernmost outskirts of Jotunheimen, Norway. In 1810 he was the first person to ascend Mount Gaustatoppen in Telemark, Norway.
  • The Grossglockner was climbed in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, and the Breithorn in 1813. Thereafter, tourists showed a tendency to climb, and the body of Alpine guides began to come into existence as a consequence.
  • Citlaltépetl (5720 m in Mexico) was first climbed in 1848 by F. Maynard & G. Reynolds.
  • Systematic mountaineering, as a sport, is usually dated from Sir Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854. The first ascent of Monte Rosa was made in 1855.
  • The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857, and was soon imitated in most European countries. Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 marked the close of the main period of Alpine conquest – the Golden age of alpinism – during which the craft of climbing was invented and 'perfected', the body of professional guides formed and their traditions fixed.
  • Passing to other ranges, the exploration of the Pyrenees was concurrent with that of the Alps. The Caucasus followed, mainly owing to the initiative of D. W. Freshfield; it was first visited by exploring climbers in 1868, and most of its great peaks were climbed by 1888.
  • The Edelweiss Club Salzburg was founded in Salzburg in 1881, and had 3 members make the First Ascent on 2 Eight-thousanders, Broad Peak (1957) and Dhaulagiri (1960).
  • Trained climbers turned their attention to the mountains of North America in 1888, when the Rev. W. S. Green made an expedition to the Selkirk Mountains. From that time exploration has gone on apace, and many English and American climbing parties have surveyed most of the highest peaks; Pikes Peak (14,115 ft.) having been climbed by Mr. E. James and party in 1820, and Mt. Saint Elias (18,008 ft.) by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party in 1897. The exploration of the highest Andes was begun in 1879-1880, when Whymper climbed Chimborazo and explored the mountains of Ecuador. The Cordillera between Chile and Argentina was visited by Dr. Gussfeldt in 1883, who ascended Maipo (17,270 ft.) and attempted Aconcagua (22,841 ft.). That peak was first climbed by the Fitzgerald expedition in 1897.
  • The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898. Chilean and Argentine expeditions revealed the structure of the southern Cordillera in the years 1885-1898. Conway visited the mountains of Tierra del Fuego.
  • New Zealand's Southern Alps were first visited in 1882 by the Rev. W. S. Green, and shortly afterwards a New Zealand Alpine Club was founded, and by their activities the exploration of the range was pushed forward. In 1895, Major Edward Arthur Fitzgerald, made an important journey in this range. Tom Fyfe and party climbed Aoraki/Mount Cook on Christmas Day 1894, denying Fitzgerald the first ascent. Fitzgerald was en route from Britain with Swiss guide Matthias Zurbriggen to claim the peak. So piqued at being beaten to the top of Mount Cook, he refused to climb it and concentrated on other peaks in the area. Later in the trip Zubriggen soloed Mount Cook up a ridge that now bears his name.
  • The first mountains of the arctic region explored were those of Spitsbergen by Sir W. M. Conway's expeditions in 1896 and 1897.
  • Of the high African peaks, Kilimanjaro was climbed in 1889 by Dr. Hans Meyer, Mt. Kenya in 1899 by Halford John Mackinder[4], and a peak of Ruwenzori by H. J. Moore in 1900.
  • The Asiatic mountains were initially surveyed on orders of the British Empire. In 1892 Sir William Martin Conway explored the Karakoram Himalaya, and climbed a peak of 23,000 ft. In 1895 Albert F. Mummery died while attempting Nanga Parbat, while in 1899 D. W. Freshfield took an expedition to the snowy regions of Sikkim. In 1899, 1903, 1906 and 1908 Mrs Fannie Bullock Workman made ascents in the Himalayas, including one of the Nun Kun peaks (23,300 ft.). A number of Gurkha sepoys were trained as expert mountaineers by Major the Hon. C. G. Bruce, and a good deal of exploration was accomplished by them.
  • The Rucksack Club was founded in Manchester, England in 1902.
  • The American Alpine Club was founded in 1902.
  • In 1902, the Eckenstein-Crowley Expedition, lead by mountaineer Oscar Eckenstein and occultist Aleister Crowley, was the first to attempt to scale Chogo Ri (now known as K2 in the west). They reached 22,000 feet before turning back due to weather and other mishaps.
  • In 1905, Aleister Crowley led the first expedition to Kanchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world. Four members of that party were killed in an avalanche. Some claims say they reached around 21,300 feet before turning back, however Crowley's autobiography claims they reached about 25,000 feet.
  • The 1950s saw the first ascents of all the eight-thousanders but two, starting with Annapurna in 1950 by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal. The world's highest mountain (above mean sea level), Mount Everest (8,848 m) was first climbed on May 29, 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay from the south side in Nepal. Just a few months later, Hermann Buhl made the first ascent of Nanga Parbat (8,125 m), a remarkable solo climb, the only eight-thousander to be solo'd on the first ascent. K2 (8,611 m), the second highest peak in the world was first scaled in 1954. In 1964, the final eight-thousander to be climbed was Shishapangma (8,013 m), the lowest of all the 8,000 metre peaks.

Ötzi the Iceman (also spelled Oetzi and known also as Frozen Fritz) is the modern nickname of a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC, found in 1991 in a glacier of the Ötztaler Alps, near the border between Austria and Italy. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... “Etna” redirects here. ... 121 is a traditional clan of RA3 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Canigou (Catalan Canigó) is a mountain in southern France. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Popocatépetl (commonly referred to as El Popo or Don Goyo) (IPA: ) is an active volcano and the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba (5,610m). ... http://www. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse. ... From the c. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse. ... The Italian poet Petrarch wrote a well-known letter about his Ascent of Mont Ventoux on April 26, 1336, which he published as one of his Epistolae familiares (IV, 1). ... Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro (c. ... Rochemelon (or Roche Melon), Rocciamelone in Italian, is a mountain on the France-Italy border, 50 km (30 mi) west of Turin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Jacquerie. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... Llullaillaco is a stratovolcano at the border of Argentina (province of Salta) and Chile. ... Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas. ... Mont Aiguille is a mountain in the French Alps, located 58 km (36 mi) south of Grenoble. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Darby Field (1610 - 1649) was the first European to climb Mount Washington (New Hampshire) in the year 1642. ... The Summit Mount Washington is the highest peak in the American Northeast at 6,288 ft. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Conrad von Gesner (Konrad von Gesner, Conrad Gessner, Conradus Gesnerus) (26 March 1516-13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist. ... Josias Simmler (Josias Simler, Simlerus) (1530-1576) was a Swiss theologian and classicist, author of the first book relating solely to the Alps. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... Richard Pococke (1704-1765) was an English prelate and anthropologist. ... William Windham, Senior, FRS (1717 – 30 October 1761) was an English landowner, a member of an ancient Norfolk family. ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Titus Mountain or The Titus as it is colloquially referred to, is a mountain near Malone, New York, with a base elevation of 150 feet and summit elevation of 1350 feet. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... Michel Gabriel Paccard (° 1757 - † 1827 at Chamonix) was a French doctor. ... Jacques Balmat Jacques Balmat, called le Mont Blanc (1762, Chamonix valley - 1834, Sixt valley) was a French mountain guide. ... Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (February 17, 1740 - January 22, 1799) was a Swiss physicist and Alpine traveller. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Snøhetta is an international architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design company based in Oslo, Norway. ... Dovrefjell is a mountain range in central Norway that forms a natural barrier between the southern regions of Norway and the area around Trondheim. ... Bitihorn seen from above and northeast. ... View from Knutshøi towards central Jotunheimen Jotunheimen is a mountain range in southern Norway covering an area of roughly 3,500 km². It is part of the long Scandinavian Mountains range. ... Gaustatoppen is the highest mountain in the county Telemark in Norway. ... For other uses, see Telemark (disambiguation). ... Großglockner (German for Big Bell), with a height of 3798 m above sea level is Austrias highest mountain. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Ortler (3905m), highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, main peak of the Ortler Group, a mountain range in South Tyrol and Trentino, Italy. ... The Jungfrau (German: virgin) is the highest peak of a mountain massif of the same name, located in the Bernese Oberland region of the Swiss Alps, overlooking Grindelwald. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Oberland region of the Swiss Alps. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Breithorn is a mountain in the Alps, considered the easiest 4,000 m peak to climb in the Alps. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltépetl (from Nahuatl citlalli = star, and tepetl = mountain), is the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America. ... Sir Alfred Wills was the third President of the Alpine Club from 1864-1866. ... The Wetterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss Alps close to the village of Grindelwald. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Monte Rosa, seen from the Gornergrat above Zermatt A typical view of Monte Rosa from the Padan plain Monte Rosa is a mountain massif located in the Italian regions Piedmont and Aosta Valley and in the canton of Valais (Wallis) of Switzerland. ... The Alpine Club was founded in Great Britain in 1857 and was probably the worlds first mountaineering club. ... Edward Whymper, 1881 Edward Whymper (April 27, 1840–September 16, 1911), was a British climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. ... The Matterhorn (German) or Cervino (Italian), (French: Mont Cervin or Le Cervin) is perhaps the most familiar mountain in the European Alps. ... The Golden age of alpinism was the period between Alfred Willss ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whympers ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major Alpine peaks saw their first ascents. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Douglas William Freshfield (London, April 27, 1845 - Forest Row, February 9, 1934) was a British climber, author of The Exploration of the Caucasus published in London by E. Arnold publishing company in 1896. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Broad Peak (originally named K3) is the 12th highest mountain on Earth and 4th highest in Pakistan. ... Dhaulagiri (धौलागिरी) is the seventh highest mountain in the world. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Selkirk Mountains are a mountain range originating in Idaho and Washington, and extending into SE British Columbia. ... This article is about the mountain in Colorado. ... Mount Saint Elias is the second highest mountain in both the United States and Canada, being situated on the Alaska and Yukon border. ... Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco (1873-1933), better known as Duke of the Abruzzi was an italian mountaineer and explorer who made the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias (Alaska-Yukon) in 1897. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The inactive stratovolcano Chimborazo is Ecuadors highest summit. ... The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western backbone of both North America and South America. ... Dr Paul Güssfeldt (14 October 1840 – 18 January 1920) was a German geologist, mountaineer and explorer. ... Maipo is a stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile. ... Cerro Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Americas. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Sir William Martin Conway (April 12, 1856 - April 19, 1937), English art critic and mountaineer, was the son of Reverend William Conway, afterwards canon of Westminster. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... The Southern Alps is a mountain range which runs along the western side of the South Island of New Zealand. ... “Mount Cook” redirects here. ... Matthias Zurbriggen (1856 in Saas Fee, Switzerland - 1917 in Geneva) was one of the great nineteenth century Alpinists and mountain guides. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ... Kilimanjaro is a mountain in northeastern Tanzania. ... Hans Meyer: Hans Meyer (geologist) (1858-1929), German geologist, Afrikareisender und Bergsteiger, see also German article Hans Meyer (philosopher) (1884-1966), philosopher, educator Hannes Meyer (Hans Emil Meyer) (1889-1954), German Bauhaus-architect, see also German article Hans Meyer (Fußball) (*1942), German Fußballtrainer, see also German article Hans... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer and geopolitician. ... The Ruwenzori Range is a small mountain range of central Africa, often referred to as Mt. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Sir William Martin Conway (April 12, 1856 - April 19, 1937), English art critic and mountaineer, was the son of Reverend William Conway, afterwards canon of Westminster. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Albert F. Mummery (1855-1895), was a highly respected British mountaineer. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... The Nun Kun mountain massif comprises a pair of Himalayan peaks Nun (7,135 m), the highest mountain in Kashmir, India, and Kun (7,035 m) are located in the Suru valley. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... The Rucksack Club was founded in Manchester in 1902 and has a current membership of well over 400 men and women. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The American Alpine Club was founded in 1902 and is the leading national organization in the United States devoted to mountaineering, climbing, and the multitude of issues facing climbers. ... Oscar Eckenstein (9th September 1859 - 1921) was an Anglo-German rock-climber and mountaineer. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्ण) is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a 55-km-long massif whose highest point, Annapurna I, stands at 8,091 m (26,538 ft), making it the 10th-highest summit in the world and one of the 14 eight-thousanders. It is located... Maurice Herzog (born 15 January 1919 in Lyon) is a French climber and politician. ... Louis Lachenal (17 July 1921–25 November 1955), a French climber born in Annecy, was one of the first to climb a summit of more than 8,000 metres. ... “Everest” redirects here. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ... Hermann Buhl (September 21, 1924 – June 27, 1957) is considered one of the best post-war Austrian climbers and one of the best climbers of all time. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Shishapangma is the fourteenth highest mountain in the world and the lowest of the eight-thousanders. ...

Further reading

  • Sherry B. Ortner, Life & Death on Mt. Everest: Sherpas & Himalayan Mountaineer, Princeton University Press 1999

See also

This list of climbers includes both mountaineers and rock climbers, since many (though not all) climbers engage in both types of activities. ... Ski mountaineering is a sport that combines the techniques of skiing (often ski touring) with those of mountaineering. ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ... This is a list articles related to climbing and mountaineering. ... Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment, although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in other wilderness environments. ... Peak bagging (also hill bagging, mountain bagging, or among enthusiasts, just bagging) is a popular activity for hillwalkers and mountaineers in which they attempt to reach the summit of each peak in a region above some height, or having a particular feature. ... The highest unclimbed mountain in a particular region or in the world is often a matter of controversy. ... Payerhütte in the Ortler Alps, Italy An Alpine hut is a building located in the mountains intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers and climbers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Outdoor education (also known as adventure education) usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. ... The climbing system is a general term for the techniques and equipment used by roped climbers to protect themselves against injury or death if they fall. ... Rope access is a form of work positioning, initially developed from techniques used in climbing and caving, which applies practical ropework to allow workers to access difficult to reach locations without the use of scaffolding or cranes. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Mountainous plateau creates ozone 'halo' around Tibet
  2. ^ Lynn Thorndike, Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan., 1943), pp. 69-74.
  3. ^ The Ascent of Mount Ventoux http://www.idehist.uu.se/distans/ilmh/Ren/ren-pet-ventoux.htm http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/petrarch-ventoux.html http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/read_letters.html?s=pet17.html
  4. ^ Mackinder, Halford John (May 1900). "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa" (in English). The Geographical Journal 15 (5): 453-476. doi:10.2307/1774261. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 

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