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Encyclopedia > Mountain range

A mountain range is a chain of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geology; they may be a mix of different orogeny, for example volcanoes, uplifted mountains or fold mountains and may, therefore, be of different rock. The Andes is the world's longest mountain range. The Himalaya contains the world's highest mountains. Mountain ranges are exotic options originally marketed by Société Générale in 1998. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Very tight folds. ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ...

Contents

Tectonic plate movement

A range of mountains (often elongated) may be caused by tectonic plate interactions. For example, the Himalaya in Asia are the result of the Indian plate hitting the Eurasian plate, causing a 'crumple zone' near the line of impact. Sometimes, one tectonic plate can become pushed beneath another. The top plate scrapes off the material which builds up to form mountains, this happens over millions of years. Volcanoes can arise for this reason. An example is Vesuvius. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49′N 14°26′ E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ...


Volcanic action

Singular mountains are often the result of volcanic processes but, in some instances such as the Hawaiian Islands, these processes can result in a chain of mountains that might be considered a mountain range. This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Erosion

Uplifted regions or volcanic caps can undergo erosion, resulting in a range of mountains. An example is the English Lake District. Mountain streams carry eroded debris downhill and deposit it in alluvial plains or in deltas. This forms the classical geological chain of events, leading to one type of sedimentary rock formation: erosion, transportation, deposition and compaction. Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... An alluvial plain is a relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sediment. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Climate

The position of mountains influences climate, such as rainfall. When wind moves over the sea, the warm moist air rises and cools to form orographic rainfall, while cool dry air moves over the ridge to the leeward side.


Their location also affects temperature. If the sun is shining from the east, then the eastern side of the mountain will receive sunlight and warmth, while the other side will be shaded and cooled, so certain ecosystems maintain different biological clocks depending on the location of a mountain.


Ecology

Mountain ranges can support different terrestrial biomes, at varying altitudes: at the bottom, they may have grassland, then a coniferous forest or boreal forest, then tundra at the top. A biome is a major class of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often reffered to as ecosystems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Taiga (SAMPA /[email protected]/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...


See also


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Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geology; they may be a mix of different orogeny, for example volcanoes, uplifted mountains or fold mountains and may, therefore, be of different rock.
Singular mountains are often the result of volcanic processes but, in some instances such as the Hawaiian Islands, these processes can result in a chain of mountains that might be considered a mountain range.
Mountain ranges can support different terrestrial biomes, at varying altitudes: at the bottom, they may have grassland, then a coniferous forest or boreal forest, then tundra at the top.
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