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Encyclopedia > Mountain pass

In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. On the route through the range, it is locally the highest point on the route. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have always presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in both trade and war. The most general definition of mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands. ... Travel is the transport of people on a trip or journey. ... Look up Trade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Trade centers on the exchange of goods and/or services. ... War is conflict, between relatively large groups of people, which involves physical force inflicted by the use of weapons. ...

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The Great St Bernard Pass, still snowy even in June, has long been a major route through the Alps.

Topographically, a pass has the general form of a saddle between two mountains (the elevation as a function of two position coordinates is mathematically a saddle point). They are often found just above the source of a river, constituting a sort of "bridge" over to the headwaters of a different river. Passes may be very short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or valleys of many kilometers, whose highest point is only identifiable by surveying. Photo of Great St Bernard Pass, taken June 1996 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of Great St Bernard Pass, taken June 1996 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 700px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hospice at the Great St Bernard, with ancient road in foreground. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria in the east, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany, through to France in the west. ... Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the lay of the land, or the physiogeographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Saddle point in the graph of z=x²-y² In mathematics, a saddle point is a point of a function of two variables which is a stationary point but not a local extremum. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A river is a large natural waterway. ... In mathematics, the slope (or gradient, especially where three or more dimensions are discussed) of a straight line (within a Cartesian coordinate system) is a measure for the steepness of said line. ... Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ... Surveying is concerned with the application of mathematics and physics in obtaining accurate measurements for the determination of the position of points on the Earths surface. ...


Roads have been long been built through passes, and more recently railways. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath, so as allow faster traffic flow year-round. A road is a strip of land, smoothed or otherwise prepared to allow easier travel, connecting two or more destinations. ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ...


The top of a pass is frequently the only flat ground in the area, a high vantage point, so it is often a preferred site for buildings. For countries whose borders are delimited by a mountain range, the pass is typically part of the border, and the facilities likely include a border control or customs station, and possibly a military post as well. For passes with roads, it is also customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level. Border control is a term that describes how a country polices its borders. ... Customs is the plural of custom, a common practice among a group of people, see Norm (sociology) Customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... Elevation has several related meanings: Geography The elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or possibly some other fixed point). ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ...


There are thousands of named passes around the world; some are familiar names, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass in the Alps, the Khyber Pass between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and the Khunjerab Pass (15,520 feet) between Pakistan and China. Hospice at the Great St Bernard, with ancient road in foreground. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria in the east, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany, through to France in the west. ... The Khyber Pass (also called the Khaiber Pass in old documents) is the most important pass connecting Pakistan with Afghanistan. ... Khunjerab Pass (sometimes Khunerjab Pass) is a high pass on the northern border of Pakistan with China. ...


The word "gap" is more commonly used in the southern Appalachians, while "notch" is more common in New England. The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Modern New England, the six northeastern-most states of the United States, indicated by red The New England region of the United States is located in the northeastern corner of the country. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine (1406 words)
The Mountain Pass Mine lies at the summit of Mountain Pass near the center of the Ivanpah Mining District.
The Mountain Pass Mine lies within a northwest trending block of Precambrian basement bounded on three sides by faults and on the fourth by alluvium of the Ivanpah Valley.
The South fault to the south­southwest of Mountain Pass is a northwest striking high angle normal fault of debatable age.
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Pass reports have concluded for the season, changes in condition will be reported as they occur.
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