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Encyclopedia > Mountain bike
A hardtail mountain bike.
A hardtail mountain bike.

A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle)) is a bicycle designed for mountain biking, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments. In contrast, road bicycles are not designed for such rugged terrain. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (907x600, 200 KB) Summary A hardtail mountain bike. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (907x600, 200 KB) Summary A hardtail mountain bike. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... “Footpath” redirects here. ... This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... A road bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads, as opposed to rough terrain. ...


Mountain bikes have wide, knobby tires for extra traction and shock absorption. In recent years, front wheel suspension has become the norm and full front and rear suspension is becoming increasingly common. Some mountain bikes are also fitted with bar ends on the handlebars, but with the increase in popularity of riser handlebars (as opposed to a flat straight handlebar) fewer riders use bar end extensions. The bikes normally have 26 in (559 mm) wheels, but since 2002 some models have been available with 29 in (622 mm) wheels, which is the same diameter most commonly used for road bikes (also known as 700c).[1] (The name given to a rim diameter in inches is different from the rim's actual size.) A full suspension Mountain Bike // Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. ... In cycling, bar ends are extensions at the end of straight handlebars, usually fitted onto mountain bikes. ... Drop handlebars on a racing bicycle allow the rider a variety of positions for aerodynamics and comfort. ...

Contents

Designs

Mountain bikes can be classified into four categories based on suspension:

  • Fully Rigid: A frame with a rigid fork and fixed rear, no suspension.
  • Hardtail: A frame with a front suspension fork and no rear suspension.
  • Soft Tail: A frame with small amount of rear suspension, activated by flex of the frame instead of pivots.
  • Dual or Full Suspension: A front suspension fork and rear suspension with a rear shock and linkage that allow the rear wheel to move on pivots.

The term hard-tail can have several meanings: A hard-tail electric guitar or archtop guitar is one without a tremolo arm or vibrato tailpiece; See tremolo arm. ... A full suspension Mountain Bike // Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. ... A full suspension Mountain Bike // Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. ...

Discipline oriented designs

There are several different styles of mountain biking, usually defined by the terrain, and therefore bikes employed. All of the bikes in this category fall into one of the above four categories and bikes of each of the above style can be found almost any of the following categories.

Cross country mountain bike.
Cross country mountain bike.
  • Cross Country (XC) mountain bikes usually have only a small amount of front and/or rear suspension (usually 65-110 mm) and are relatively light, which is achieved via the use of lightweight materials and construction in both frame and components. As a consequence, XC bikes are often less durable than other types of mountain bikes when used outside of their intended purpose.[citation needed] On full-suspension XC bikes, both front and rear, is typically provided by pneumatic (air) shocks or smaller coil/oil shocks and forks, which saves weight. Some full-suspension XC bikes may weigh as little as 21 pounds. Other XC bikes have only front suspension, and are normally referred to as hardtails. A few XC bike models have no suspension and use a rigid front fork, saving weight but relying more on rider skill to negotiate rough terrain. XC or general riding is the most popular form of mountain biking, focused on climbing and quick turning abilities rather than on the aggressive descent capabilities of freeride or single-purpose downhill mountain bikes. XC bikes reflect this in their lighter weights and steeper geometries. However, due to their lighter frames and suspension, most XC bikes are poor choices for heavy-impact activities such as jumps and high-speed traverse of large obstacles such as rocks and deep washouts.
  • Enduro/All-Mountain (AM) bikes are generally considerably heavier than XC bikes, typically weighing between 30 and 35 pounds (14 to 16 kg). These bikes tend to feature greater suspension travel, frequently as much as 6 inches (150 mm) of front and rear travel, often adjustable on newer mid and high end bikes. They are designed to be able to ascend mild-to-moderate inclines and descend steep declines, though their relatively heavy overall weight limits their utility in all-day rides involving steep climbs.
A Specialized BigHit II entry level DH/Freeride mountain bike with 180 mm (7 inches) of travel in the front forks and 190mm (7.5 inches) in the rear shock.
A Specialized BigHit II entry level DH/Freeride mountain bike with 180 mm (7 inches) of travel in the front forks and 190mm (7.5 inches) in the rear shock.
  • Freeride (FR) mountain bikes are similar to All-Mountain bikes, but with less emphasis on weight and more on strength. Freeride bikes tend to have up ample suspension, typically have at least 6 inches (150 mm) of travel. The components are built from stronger, consequently heavier, materials. They can be ridden uphill, but are inefficient and their moderately slack head tube angles make them difficult to maneuver while angled up a hill or traveling at a low speed. They are effective on technical downhill trails. Frame angles are typically steeper than those found in downhill bikes. This enhances maneuverability over and around small objects. Freeride bikes typically range in weight from 30 to 45 pounds. Freeride trails are built using natural terrain features to create stunts such as dropoffs, also known as "hucks", narrow ladder bridges called "skinnies", as well as large ramps built to launch the rider into the air. The most durable freeride bikes are often too heavy and have too much suspension to be ridden uphill as comfortably as other less-sturdy models, although newer, more expensive bikes come with suspension specifically designed to make them easier to ride uphill. It is, however, quite common for freeriders to frequent lift accessed riding terrain, offered at ski resorts during the off season, or simply walk their bikes uphill, rather than riding them.
  • Downhill (DH) races are time trials events where riders ride courses separately, racing the clock. They can have technical sections like rockgardens as well jumps and drops. Downhill Bikes typically have 7 or more inches (178 mm) of suspension travel. They are built strong while light. In the past few years, lighter downhill bikes have been getting below the 40lbs mark. Due to their typically large or high gears, long, plush travel and slack geometry angles, Downhill bikes are ideal only for riding down dedicated downhill trails and race courses. Downhill bikes have the most sag of Mountain Bikes to get ample traction to go fast over bumpy trails. Head Angles are often as slack as 64 degrees. At the ski resorts that have mountain biking in the off season, riders can get lots of runs in because of chair lifts. Shuttling up to the top of trails very common as most trails, away from ski resorts do not have lift access. When there is no car or truck access to shuttle, riders usually push and/or ride bikes to the top of the trails. Due to the high speed nature of downhill riding most bikes only have one chain ring in the front, a large bash guard and a chain guide, though many racers are now using chain guides without bash guards to drop weight.
  • Trials bikes are set up very specifically for the purpose of bicycle trials. Two varieties of trials bike exist, those with 26" wheels (referred to as 'stock') and those with 20" wheels (referred to as 'mod' - because historically they were modified BMX bikes). They typically have no suspension at all, though some still make use of some form of it. Competition rules require stock bikes to have multiple gears for competition, but most riders never use their shifters. Competition rules do not require mod bikes to have any gears. Many non-competitive riders run single-speed, choosing a fairly low-speed, high-torque gear. Most modern trials bikes have no seat at all, as the rider spends all of his time out of the saddle. These bikes are significantly lighter than almost all other mountain bikes, ranging from 15 to 25 pounds. This makes manoeuvring the bike much easier.
A simple dirt-bike.
A simple dirt-bike.
  • Dirt Jumping, Urban and Street mountain bikes lie somewhere in between a trials bike, a BMX bike and a freeride bike. They are typically very strong bikes, with 4 inches (100 mm) of front suspension, and rarely any rear suspension (3 to 4 inches, 76 to 100 mm, if any), with as many as nine gears or as few as one. Tires on these bikes are usually fast-rolling, slick or semi-slicks. Dirt Jumpers usually sport a geometry of 24-26" tires, as well as a bashring (a type of bashguard) replacing the largest ring on the crankset. Dirt jumpers usually have low seatposts and oversized handlebars. Some dirt jumpers also have a detangler installed which allows the rider to spin the handle bars without tangling the brake cables.
  • Single-speed (SS) mountain bikes have one set gear ratio. The gear ratio chosen depends on the terrain being ridden, the strength and skill of the rider, and the size of the bike (a bike with 29" wheels often requires a different gearing than a bike with standard 26" wheels). Often single-speeds are fully rigid, steel-framed bikes. These are typically ridden by very fit individuals on mild to moderate cross country terrain.
  • Mountain Cross or "4-cross racing" (4X) is a relatively new style of riding where four bikers race downhill on a prepared, BMX like, track, simply trying to get down first. These bikes are generally either full suspension with 3 to 4 inches (76-100 mm) of travel, or hardtails, and have, typically, quite strong frames. They run a chainguide on front and gears on the back. They have slack head angles, short chainstays and low bottom brackets to aid in cornering and acceleration.
  • Dual Slalom (DS) is similar to mountain cross, but instead of four bikers competing together, there are just two. Courses usually have a lane for each rider, though some combine to a single lane in places or even for much of the course. The courses are in general more technical with smaller jumps compared to Mountain Cross courses and have gates. Dual Slalom races originally took place on grass slopes with gates and minimal jumps. The same bikes used in Mountain Cross are used.
  • North Shore mountain biking originated in the steep, wet, rocky, rooty terrain of Vancouver, Canada's north shore, thus it was coined "north shore" riding. Because of the almost, if not completely impassable terrain, riders began building bridges over muddy areas, rocks, stumps and deadfall. These bridges evolved into complex, often extremely challenging, man-made stunts. Because stunts are often narrow and may require the rider to move very slowly regardless of width, north shore riding requires immense balance and bike handling skills. North shore bikes are much like freeride bikes in their geometry and downhill bikes in their component makeup. Because north shore stunts have evolved to not only include simple and complex bridges but also large drops and high speed descents through a series of stunts north shore bikes commonly have as much travel as downhill and freeride bikes, however with much more nimble and maneuverable frame designs, and often lighter-weight.
  • Circle Dirt Track Racing In this class of racing any kind of bikes are used, most commonly a hard tail mountain bike with front suspension. There are many different mods available. Such as reducing bike weight, increasing brake power, trying different cambers (so that when the bike leans the tire is more level with the track thus creating more grip), and trying different gear ratios. Although small and uncommon circle dirt track racing is enjoyed by racing fans.

bishop of Hong Kong File links The following pages link to this file: Lorenzo Bianchi ... bishop of Hong Kong File links The following pages link to this file: Lorenzo Bianchi ... A Cross-Country Rider on Singletrack During a Race Cross-country (XC) cycling is the most common discipline of mountain biking. ... Gasfilled Shock absorber. ... Duguid Jumping at a professional Freeride contest in Seattle, Washington. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A Bashguard is a device used on bicyles to protect components, usually the drivetrain, from damage in the case of a strike with an object, whether intentional or in a crash. ... Bicycle trial rider Bike trials is a form of mountain biking derived from motorcycle trials. ... Dirt jumping is one of the names given to the practice of riding bikes over shaped mounds of dirt or soil and getting airborne. ... A Bashguard is a device used on bicyles to protect components, usually the drivetrain, from damage in the case of a strike with an object, whether intentional or in a crash. ... A Shimano Deore right crankset, showing crank arm, spider, three chainrings and chainring guard The crankset, or chainset, is the component of a bicycle drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the riders legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain, which in turn drives the rear wheel. ... The seatpost (silver) connects the saddle to the frame (red) A bicycle seatpost or seatpin is an adjustable tube that extends upwards from the bicycle frame to the saddle. ... A detangler The detangler is an invention for the Freestyle BMX bicycle allowing the handlebars to turn a complete 360° rotation without the brake cables getting tangled up. ... Single-speed mountain bike A single-speed bicycle is a type of bicycle with a single gear ratio. ... // The North Shore suburbs of Vancouver, British Columbia are a world-renowned mecca for mountain biking. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...

History

A cross country mountain bike race.
A cross country mountain bike race.

Riding bicycles off-road goes back to the beginning of cycling itself. Road racing cyclists have long used cyclo-cross as a means of keeping fit during the winter, eventually becoming a sport in its own right with the first world championship in 1950. The French Velo Cross Club Parisien (VCCP) comprised about twenty-one young cyclists from the outskirts of Paris, who between 1951 and 1956 developed a sport that was remarkably akin to present-day mountain biking. [1] The Roughstuff Fellowship was established in 1955 by off-road cyclists in the UK [2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x610, 314 KB) Summary Taken by Andy Armstrong at the Dusk til Dawn event in Thetford Forest, UK Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Mountain bike ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x610, 314 KB) Summary Taken by Andy Armstrong at the Dusk til Dawn event in Thetford Forest, UK Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Mountain bike ... A cyclo-cross racer carrying his bicycle up a steep slope after overcoming a barrier at the bottom (not shown). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


However the mountain bike has its origins in the modified heavy cruiser bicycles used for freewheeling down mountain trails in Marin County, California, U.S.A. in the mid-late 1970s. At the time, there was no such thing as a mountain bike. The earliest ancestors of modern mountain bikes were based around frames from cruiser bicycles such as those made by Schwinn. The Schwinn Excelsior was the frame of choice due to its geometry. Riders used balloon tired cruisers and later modified them with gears and motocross style handlebars. They were called Klunkers. The term would also be used as a verb since mountain biking was not yet in use. They would race down mountain fireroads causing the hub brake to burn the grease inside, requiring the riders to repack the bearings. These were called "Repack Races" and triggered the first innovations in mountain bike technology as well as the initial interest of the public. The sport originated in the U.S. state of California, on Marin county's famous mountain, Mount Tamalpais. [3] A cruiser bicycle is a bicycle designed for riding on roads and paths in comfort and style over performance. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Schwinn Bicycle Company was founded in Chicago in 1895 by Ignaz Schwinn, and grew to become the dominant manufacturer of American bicycles through most of the 20th century. ... Motocross often takes place in wet weather, leading to muddy scenes such as this and hence the term Scrambling. Photo from New Zealand. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Mount Tamalpais (IPA: ; MWCD , known locally as Mount Tam) is a peak in Marin County, California, USA, often considered symbolic of Marin County. ...


It was not until the late 1970s and early 1980s that road bicycle companies started to manufacture mountain bicycles using high-tech lightweight materials. Joe Breeze is normally credited with introducing the first purpose-built mountain bike in 1978. Tom Ritchey then went on to make frames for a company called MountainBikes which was a partnership between Gary Fisher, Charlie Kelley and Tom Ritchey. Tom Ritchey with his skills in frame building also built the original bikes. The company's 3 partners ran into rough times and finally fell apart at the 1983 trade show[citation needed]. The designs were basically road bicycle frames (with heavier tubing and different geometry) with a wider frame and fork to allow for a wider tire. The handlebars were also different in that they were a straight, transverse-mounted handlebar, rather than the dropped, curved handlebars that are typically installed on road racing bicycles. Also, some of the parts on early production mountain bicycles were taken from the BMX bicycle. The first mass-produced mountain bikes were produced by Specialized in 1983 and were copies of Tom Ritchey's frames, but they were not fillet-brazed, and were made in Japan. They were configured with 15 gears. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... A road bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads, as opposed to rough terrain. ... Joe Breeze was an early pioneer in the development of modern mountain bicycles. ... Gary Christopher Fisher (born 1950) is the best inventors of the mountain bike. ... Charlie Kelley was an early pioneer in the development of modern mountain bicycles. ... Tom Ritchey is a master bicycle frame builder, designer, welder and founder of Ritchey Design. ... A BMX race. ... Specialized Bicycles is a major manufacturer of bicycles and bicycle equipment, based in Morgan Hill, California. ... Derailleur gears are a variable ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ...


Modern bikes

Until recently, mountain bicycles had road bicycle style frames and geometry. Mountain biking has since become more mainstream with riding styles becoming more aggressive. Newer frames are better-designed, lighter, and stronger, with a geometry that allows for much more spirited riding over obstacles like logs, rocks, wooden bridges, and man-made ramps.


Newer mountain bikes have either 21, 24, or 27 speeds, with 3 gears in the front and 7, 8, or 9 gears at the rear wheel. 30 speed mountain bikes are currently unworkable, as a slimmer 10-speed chain is not strong enough.


Geometry

The critical angles in bicycle geometry are the head angle (the angle of the head tube), and the seat tube angle (the angle of the seat tube). These angles are measured from the horizontal, and drastically affect the rider position and performance characteristics of the bicycle. In general, steeper angles (closer to 90 degrees from the horizontal) are more efficient for pedaling up hills and make for sharper handling. Slacker angles (leaning farther from the vertical) are preferred for high speeds and downhill stability. Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Bike wheelbase, head angle, fork offset, and trail Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements (lengths and angles) that define a particular bike configuration. ... Bike wheelbase, head angle, fork offset, and trail Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements (lengths and angles) that define a particular bike configuration. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ...


Suspension

A full suspension Mountain Bike
A full suspension Mountain Bike
Main article: Bicycle suspension

In the past mountain bikes had a rigid frame and fork. In the early 1990s, the first mountain bikes with suspension forks were introduced. This made riding on rough terrain easier and less physically stressful. The first suspension forks had about 1½ to 2 inches (38 to 50 mm) of suspension travel. Forks are now available with 6 inches (150mm) of travel or more (see above under "Design.") Bikes with front suspension and rigid, non-suspended rear wheels, or hardtails became popular nearly overnight. The classic hardtail design is still favored by 65% of mountain bikers, mainly because of cost and maintenance concerns; and reduction in the efficiency to transfer power from the pedals to the rear wheel. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1017x869, 261 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1017x869, 261 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A full suspension Mountain Bike // Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. ...


Many new mountain bikes have a "full suspension" design, meaning that both front suspension forks and some form of rear suspension are used, as opposed to front suspension only ("hard tail"). The advantages of dual suspension are increased comfort on rough terrain, and improved handling over obstacles. Disadvantages of rear suspension are increased weight, increased price, and with some designs, decreased pedaling efficiency. At first, early rear suspension designs were overly heavy, and susceptible either to pedaling-induced bobbing or lockout at certain points of the suspension arc or travel. One of the most popular rear suspension designs to solve these issues has been the 'Horst Link' which first appeared with the AMP series of bikes, and was later adopted by Specialized and many other mountain bike manufacturers.


Disc brakes

A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub
A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub

Most mountain bikes now feature disc brakes. These offer improved stopping power over rim brakes under adverse conditions, because they are located at the center of the wheel (on the wheel hub) and therefore remain drier and cleaner than wheel rims, which are more readily soiled or damaged. While the traditional V-brake style braking system provided ample braking for fully rigid bikes and the earlier, less sophisticated suspension fork-equipped bicycles, as suspension has evolved bicycle speeds have increased. Disc brakes offer the capacity for sustained heavy braking with fewer problems of brake fade than are encountered with rim brakes, allowing greater safety margins with less rider fatigue, greater modulation and therefore control. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x702, 66 KB) Source: Ralf Roletschek (aka Marcela) Description: Scheibenbremse Magura history: de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x702, 66 KB) Source: Ralf Roletschek (aka Marcela) Description: Scheibenbremse Magura history: de. ... Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down, or brake a bicycle. ...


The disadvantage of disc brakes is their increased cost and often greater weight. Hydraulic disc brakes, which work by moving brake fluid through a hose or line to squeeze the pads together, require much more technical maintenance but enjoy much longer service intervals than their mechanical counterparts. Mechanical disc brakes, which are simpler and somewhat less expensive, work in a similar fashion to rim brakes by pulling one pad towards the disc with a cable.


The braking power of a disc brake also depends on the size of the rotor. For example, an 8-inch rotor has more stopping power than an 6 inch rotor of the same design (about 33% more). This is because the brake caliper can apply more torque with the same amount of force because the larger disc provides a longer moment arm. For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with torque. ...


Wheel and tire design

Most mountain bikes use 26 in (559 mm) bicycle wheels, though some models offer 24 or 29 in (520 or 622 mm) wheels. Bicycle wheel sizes are not precise measurements, a 29 inch mountain bike wheel actually has a 622 mm (24.48 inch) bead seat diameter (the term, bead seat diameter (BSD), is used in the ETRTO tire and rim sizing system). 622 mm wheels are standard on road bikes and are commonly known as 700c. In some countries, mainly in Continental Europe, 700c (622 mm) wheels are commonly called 28 inch wheels.[1] “Wheelset” redirects here. ... The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation (ETRTO) exists to specify and harmonise sizes of pneumatic tyres and their associated rims across the European Union. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


24 inch wheels are used for dirt jumping bikes and sometimes on freeride bikes, rear wheel only, as this makes the bike more maneuverable. 29 inch wheels were once used for only Cross Country purposes, but are now becoming more commonplace in other disciplines of mountain biking.


Wheels come in a variety of widths, ranging from standard rims suitable for use with tires in the 26 in x 1.90 in to 2.10 in (559 x 48 to 53 mm) size, to 2.35 and 3.00 in (60 and 76 mm) widths popular with freeride and downhill bicycles.


Manufacturers produce a wide variety of tread patterns to suit different needs. Among the styles are: slick street tires, street tires with a center ridge and outer tread, fully knobby, front-specific, rear-specific, and snow studded. Some tires can be specifically designed for use in certain weather (wet or dry) and terrain (hard, soft, muddy, etc) conditions. Other tire designs attempt to be all-around applicable. Within the same intended application, more expensive tires tend to be lighter and have less rolling resistance. Sticky Rubber tires are now available for use on freeride and downhill bikes. While these tires wear down more quickly, they provide greater traction in all conditions, especially during cornering. Tires and rims are available in either tubed or tubeless designs, with tubeless tires recently (2004) gaining favor for their pinch flat resistance. Tubeless tires can also be run at lower air pressures to improve traction and increasing rolling resistance. Popular tire manufacturers include Wilderness Trail Bikes, Schwalbe, Maxxis, Nokian, Michelin, Continental, Tioga, Kenda, Hutchinson and Panaracer. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // WTB (Wilderness Trail Bikes) is a rider owned company based in Marin County, California. ...


Protective equipment

Inherent in the sport of mountain biking is the risk of injury. Many companies now produce protective gear, often referred to as "armor," to protect against injury from crashes, mostly aimed at downhill, freeride and dirtjump riders. Armor ranges from simple knee and elbow pads to full body padding. Some companies market full body armor suits or jackets that allow the rider to remove some of the padding and/or plastic plates that protect the rider's arms. Most upper body protectors also include a spine protector that comprises plastic plates joined together, with foam padding underneath. Full face helmets, often resembling motocross helmets (but usually considerably lighter and with more ventilation) are required by some bike parks, although advanced riders often wear these helmets by choice, in order to better protect their heads. Backpack hydration systems such as Camelbaks are also considered to be armor by many riders for their valuable protective effects[citation needed]. An example of a civilian Camelbak pack. ...


Latest trends

Some of the latest trends in mountain bikes include the all mountain bike, the 29er and the singlespeed. The "all mountain bike" is characterized by 4-6 inches (100-150mm) of travel, the ability to descend and handle very rough conditions and still pedal efficiently for climbing. 29er bikes are those using 700c sized rims (as do most road bikes), but wider and suited for tires of two inches (50mm) width or more; the increased diameter wheel is able to roll over obstacles better and offers a greater tire contact patch. The single-speed is considered a return to simplicity with no drivetrain components or shifters, but thus requires a stronger rider. For the type of skiff, see 29er. ... A bicycle built with just the one gear. ... Contact patch is the name applied to the area of a vehicles tire that is in contact with the road surface. ...


Following the growing trend in 29 inch bikes (29ers as stated above), there have been other trends in the mountain biking community involving tire size. One of the more prevalent is the new, somewhat esoteric and exotic 650B (27.5 inch) wheelsize, based on the obscure wheel size for touring road bikes.


Another interesting trend in mountain bikes is outfitting dirt jump or urban bikes with rigid forks. These bikes normally use 4-5" travel suspension forks. The resulting product is used for the same purposes as the original bike. A commonly cited reason for making the change to a rigid fork is the enhancement of the rider's ability to transmit force to the ground, which is important for performing tricks.


Rapid popularity increase has led to the development of mountain bike oriented resorts, similar to or in the same complex as a ski resort. There parks include chairlifts which are adapted to bikes, a number of trails of varying difficulty, and bicycle rental. St. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mountain biking

The first professional UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships took place in Durango (USA) in 1990. ... Mountain unicycling (MUni) is a form of offroad cycling which uses unicycles. ... A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... NORBA or the National Off-Road Bicycle Association is the organizing body for the NORBA National Mountain Bike Series. ... This page lists bicycle manufacturers and brands past and present. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

  • California STR
  • MTB Dirt, South Queensland Australia
  • The original Southern California Mountain Biking Community
  • Mountain Bike Hall of Fame
  • Ridemonkey mtb community
  • Pinned MTB - 100% Gravity Racing
  • UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships "Val di Sole 2008", ITALY
  • Rydezilla - MTB Rides, Trails, Riders, Pics, Forums and Blogs
  • bike radar-MTBing news,trails,riders,pics,forums,blogs,downloads,products and much more.

References

  1. ^ a b Tire Sizing Systems

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