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Encyclopedia > Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius

Mt. Vesuvius as seen from the ruins of Pompeii, which was destroyed in the eruption of AD 79. The active cone is the high peak on the left side; the smaller one on the right is part of the Somma caldera wall.
Elevation 1,281 metres (4,203 ft)
Location Italy
Coordinates 40°49′N 14°26′E / 40.817, 14.433
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Campanian volcanic arc
Age of rock 25,000 yr before present to 1944
Last eruption 1944
Easiest route walk

Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio, Latin: Mons Vesuvius) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy. It is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years, although it is not currently erupting. The only other two such volcanoes in Italy (Etna and Stromboli) are located on islands. Vesuvius can mean: Mount Vesuvius, a volcano in Italy which famously destroyed the Roman city of Pompeii Battle of Vesuvius in Italy in 339 BC An asteroid, 13897 Vesuvius. ... Download high resolution version (900x612, 199 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 79. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Italy is one of the most volcanically active countries in mainland Europe, possessing the largest volcanoes on the continent, as well as the continents only active volcanoes. ... For other meanings of Etna, see Etna (disambiguation). ... Sciara del fuoco For other uses see Stromboli (disambiguation) Stromboli is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. ...


Vesuvius is on the coast of the Bay of Naples, about nine kilometres (six miles) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is conspicuous in the beautiful landscape presented by the Bay of Naples, when seen from the sea, with Naples in the foreground. Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. It has erupted many times since and is today regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people now living close to it and its tendency towards explosive eruptions. Gulf of Naples is located in Southern Italy. ... For other uses, see Naples (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ...


Mount Vesuvius was regarded by the Greeks and Romans as being sacred to the hero and demigod Heracles/Hercules, and the town of Herculaneum, built at its base, was named after him. Alcides redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origin of the name

Some of the theories about the origin of the name Vesuvius include:[citation needed]

  • Hercules was son of the god Zeus and Alcmene of Thebes. Zeus was also known as Huēs (Ὓης) in his aspect as the god of rains and dews. Hercules was thus alternatively known as Huēsou huios (Ὓησου υἱός), "Son of Hues." Transliterating the "ου" as "V" (as is normally done), and the other upsilons (with rough breathing) also by V (rather than the usual "HY") and changing to the Latin nominative ending "us", gives VESVVIVSVesuvius.
  • From the Oscan word fesf which means "smoke".
  • From the Proto-Indo-European root ves- = "hearth"

For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology Alcmene, or Alkmênê (might of the moon) was the mother of Heracles. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... Oscan, the language of the Osci, is in the Sabellic branch of the Italic language family, which is a branch of Indo-European and includes Umbrian, Latin and Faliscan. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... In common historic and modern usage, a hearth (Har-th) is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace or oven used for cooking and/or heating. ...

Physical appearance

View of the crater wall of Vesuvius, with Naples in the background

Vesuvius is a distinctive "humpbacked" mountain, consisting of a large cone (Gran Cono) partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier, and originally much higher[1] structure called Monte Somma. The Gran Cono was produced during the eruption of 79. For this reason, the volcano is also called Somma-Vesuvius or Somma-Vesuvio. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... For other uses, see Naples (disambiguation). ... Puu Ōō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on Kīlauea, Hawaii Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ...


The caldera started forming during an eruption around 17,000 (or 18,300[2]) years ago [3] [4] and was enlarged by later paroxysmal eruptions[5] ending in the one of 79. This structure has given its name to the term "somma volcano", which describes any volcano with a summit caldera surrounding a newer cone.[6] A somma volcano is a volcanic caldera that has been partially filled by a new central cone. ...


The height of the main cone has been constantly changed by eruptions but presently is 1,281 m (4,202 ft). Monte Somma is 1,149 m (3,770 ft) high, separated from the main cone by the valley of Atrio di Cavallo, which is some 3 miles (5 km) long. The slopes of the mountain are scarred by lava flows but are heavily vegetated, with scrub at higher altitudes and vineyards lower down. Vesuvius is still regarded as an active volcano, although its current activity produces little more than steam from vents at the bottom of the crater. Vesuvius is a stratovolcano at the convergent boundary where the African Plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. Its lava is composed of viscous andesite. Layers of lava, scoria, volcanic ash, and pumice make up the mountain. A common vineyard. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary (convergent fault boundary, convergent plate boundary, or active margin) is where two tectonic plates slide towards each other and usually collide forming either a subduction zone with its associated island arc or an orogenic belt and associated mountain range. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ...


Formation

View of Somma-Vesuvius, from a convent on the Sorrento Peninsula

Vesuvius was formed as a result of the collision of two tectonic plates, the African and the Eurasian. The former was pushed beneath the latter, deeper into the earth. The crust material became heated until it melted, forming magma, a type of liquid rock. Because magma is less dense than the solid rock around it, it was pushed upward. Finding a weak place at the Earth's surface it broke through, producing the volcano. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1952, 857 KB)FUCK U File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1952, 857 KB)FUCK U File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sorrentine Peninsula is located in Southern Italy. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ...


The volcano is one of several which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Others include Campi Flegrei, a large caldera a few kilometres to the north west, Mount Epomeo 20 kilometers to the west on the island of Ischia, and several undersea volcanoes to the south. The arc forms the southern end of a larger chain of volcanoes produced by the subduction process described above, which extends northwest along the length of Italy as far as Monte Amiata in Southern Tuscany. Vesuvius is the only one to have erupted within recent history, although some of the others have erupted within the last few hundred years. Many are either extinct or have not erupted for tens of thousands of years. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Mount Epomeo (Italian: Monte Epomeo) is the highest mountain on the volcanic island of Ischia, in the Gulf of Naples, Italy. ... The island of Ischia near Naples, Italy. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... The Monte Amiata is a mountain in the Tuscan Antiapennines, in the provinces of Grosseto and Siena, Tuscany, central Italy. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ...


Eruptions

Aerial photo
Aerial photo

Vesuvius has erupted many times. The famous eruption in 79 was preceded by numerous others in prehistory, including at least 3 significantly larger ones, the best known being the Avellino eruption around 1800 BC which engulfed several Bronze Age settlements. Since 79, the volcano has also erupted repeatedly, in 172, 203, 222, possibly 303, 379, 472, 512, 536, 685, 787, around 860, around 900, 968, 991, 999, 1006, 1037, 1049, around 1073, 1139, 1150, and there may have been eruptions in 1270, 1347, and 1500.[5] The volcano erupted again in 1631, six times in the 18th century, eight times in the 19th century (notably in 1872), and in 1906, 1929, and 1944. There has been no eruption since 1944, and none of the post-79 eruptions were as large or destructive. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 831 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 831 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius (ital. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus rebuilds Byzantium. ... This article is about the year 222. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Events Relations between the Roman Emperor Anthemius and the general Ricimer deteriorate completely. ... Events Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Anastasius I ends a period of moderate ecclestical policy, and starts strongly favoring his own monophysitist beliefs. ... Events June 8 - St. ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... This article is about the year 787. ... Events First attack on Constantinople by Swedish Vikings (the Rus, see Varangians). ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... Events Births Emperor Kazan of Japan Ethelred II of England Romanus Argyrus, later Romanus III of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Events Aelfheah (St. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events Leo IX becomes pope. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The eruptions vary greatly in severity but are characterized by explosive outbursts of the kind dubbed Plinian after Pliny the Younger, the Roman naturalist who observed the 79 eruption, to which his uncle Pliny the Elder possibly fell victim. On occasion, the eruptions have been so large that the whole of southern Europe has been blanketed by ash; in 472 and 1631, Vesuvian ash fell on Constantinople (Istanbul), over 1,200 km away. A few times since 1944, landslides in the crater raised clouds of ash dust, which caused false alarms of an eruption. Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Before 79

The mountain started forming 25,000 years ago. Although the area has been subject to volcanic activity for at least 400,000 years, the lowest layer of eruption material from the Somma mountain lies on top of the 34,000 year-old Campanian Ignimbrite produced by the Campi Flegrei complex, and was the product of the Cordola plinian eruption 25,000 years ago.[7] For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ...


It was then built up by a series of lava flows, with some smaller explosive eruptions interspersed between them. However, the style of eruption changed around 19,000 years ago to a sequence of large explosive plinian eruptions, of which the 79 one was the last. The eruptions are named after the tephra deposits produced by them:[1][8]

  • The Basal Pumice (Pomici di Base) eruption, 18,300 years ago, VEI 6, was probably the most violent of these eruptions and saw the original formation of the Somma caldera. The eruption was followed by a period of much less violent, lava producing eruptions.
  • The Green Pumice (Pomici Verdoline) eruption, 16,000 years ago, VEI 5.
  • The Mercato eruption (also known as Pomici Gemelle or Ottaviano), 8,000 years ago, VEI 6, followed a smaller explosive eruption around 11,000 years ago (called the Lagno Amendolare eruption).
  • The Avellino eruption (Pomici di Avellino), 1660 BC ± 43 years, VEI 6, followed two smaller explosive eruptions around 5,000 years ago. The Avellino eruption vent was apparently 2 km west of the current crater, and the eruption destroyed several Bronze Age settlements. The remarkably well-preserved remains of one were discovered in May 2001 near Nola by Italian archaeologists, with huts, pots, livestock and even the footprints of animals and people, as well as skeletons. The residents had hastily abandoned the village, leaving it to be buried under pumice and ash in much the same way that Pompeii was later preserved.[9][10] The eruption was larger than the ones of 79 (VEI 5) and 1631 (VEI 4) with pyroclastic surge deposits distributed to the northwest of the vent, the surges travelling as far as 15 km from it, and lie up to 3 m deep in the area now occupied by Naples.[11]

The volcano then entered a stage of more frequent, but less violent, eruptions until the most recent plinian eruption which destroyed Pompeii. VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... The Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius (ital. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... A footprint is an impression left by a foot or shoe, for example an indentation in soft ground or snow, or a mark left by mud etc from the sole of the foot. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The last of these may have been in 217 BC.[5] There were earthquakes in Italy during that year and the sun was reported as being dimmed by a haze or dry fog. Plutarch wrote of the sky being on fire near Naples and Silius Italicus mentioned in his epic poem Punica [12] that Vesuvius had thundered and produced flames worthy of Mount Etna in that year, although both authors were writing around 250 years later. Greenland ice core samples of around that period show relatively high acidity, which is assumed to have been caused by atmospheric hydrogen sulfide.[13] Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Silius Italicus, in full Titus Catius Silius Italicus (AD 25 or 26 - 101), was a Latin epic poet. ... “Etna” redirects here. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


The mountain was then quiet for hundreds of years and was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards, except at the top which was craggy. Within a large circle of nearly perpendicular cliffs was a flat space large enough for the encampment of the army of the rebel gladiator Spartacus in 73 BC. This area was doubtless a crater. The mountain may have had only one summit at that time, judging by a wall painting, "Bacchus and Vesuvius", found in a Pompeiian house, the House of the Centenary (Casa del Centenario). For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A common vineyard. ... This article is about the historical figure. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ...


Several surviving works written over the 200 years preceding the 79 eruption describe the mountain as having had a volcanic nature, although Pliny the Elder did not depict the mountain in this way in his Naturalis Historia[14]: Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...

  • The Greek historian Strabo (ca 63 BC-AD 24) described the mountain in Book V, Chapter 4 of his Geographica[15] as having a predominantly flat, barren summit covered with sooty, ash-coloured rocks and suggested that it might once have had "craters of fire". He also perceptively suggested that the fertility of the surrounding slopes may be due to volcanic activity, as at Mount Etna.
  • In Book II of De Architectura,[16] the architect Vitruvius (ca 80-70 BC -?) reported that fires had once existed abundantly below the mountain and that it had spouted fire onto the surrounding fields. He went on to describe Pompeiian Pumice as having been burnt from another species of stone.
  • Diodorus Siculus (ca 90 BC — ca 30 BC), another Greek writer, wrote in Book IV of his Bibliotheca Historica that the Campanian plain was called fiery (Phlegrean) because of the mountain, Vesuvius, which had spouted flame like Etna and showed signs of the fire that had burnt in ancient history.[8]

By 79 the area was, as now, densely populated with villages, towns and small cities like Pompeii, and its slopes were covered in vineyards and farms. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Roman war against Numidia and Mauretania ends. ... The Geographika is an extensive work by Strabo, spanning 17 volumes, and can be regarded as an encyclopedia of the geographical knowledge of his time; except for parts of Book 7, it has come down to us complete. ... “Etna” redirects here. ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the fourth time. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...


Eruption of 79

Computer-generated imagery of the eruption of Vesuvius in BBC/Discovery Channel's co-production Pompeii.
Computer-generated imagery of the eruption of Vesuvius in BBC/Discovery Channel's co-production Pompeii.

By the 1st century, Pompeii was only one of a number of towns located around the base of Mount Vesuvius. The area had a substantial population which grew prosperous from the region's renowned agricultural fertility. Many of Pompeii's neighboring communities, most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during the 79 eruption, which is thought to have lasted about 19 hours, in which time the volcano released about 1 cubic mile (4 cubic kilometres) of ash and rock over a wide area to the south and south-east of the crater, with about 3 m (10 ft) of tephra falling on Pompeii. The white ash produced by this eruption is mainly of leucite and phonolite. From the Discovery Channels Pompeii: The Last Day, courtesy of Crew Creative, Ltd. ... From the Discovery Channels Pompeii: The Last Day, courtesy of Crew Creative, Ltd. ... Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... Pompeii: The Last Day is a dramatized documentary by the BBC that tells of the eruption of the Vesuvius in the year 79 AD. This eruption covered the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in ash and lava, killing all those trapped between the vulcano and the sea. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Leucite or amphigene is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium metasilicate KAl(SiO3)2. ... Phonolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ...


Foreshocks

Outbreak of the Vesuvius. Painting by Norwegian painter I.C. Dahl (1826)
Outbreak of the Vesuvius. Painting by Norwegian painter I.C. Dahl (1826)

The 79 eruption was preceded by a powerful earthquake seventeen years beforehand on 5 February 62[17], which caused widespread destruction around the Bay of Naples, and particularly to Pompeii. Some of the damage had still not been repaired when the volcano erupted. [18] However, this may have been a tectonic event rather than one associated with the re-awakening of the volcano.[19] Image File history File links Dahl-Vesuvius. ... Image File history File links Dahl-Vesuvius. ... I.C. Dahl, Outbreak of the Vesuvius (1826), Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main. ... This article is about the year 79. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... ...


Another smaller earthquake took place in 64; it was recorded by Suetonius in his biography of Nero[20], in De Vita Caesarum, and by Tacitus in Book XV of Annales[21] because it took place whilst Nero was in Naples performing for the first time in a public theatre. Suetonius recorded that the emperor continued singing through the earthquake until he had finished his song, whilst Tacitus wrote that the theatre collapsed shortly after being evacuated. July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


The Romans grew used to minor earth tremors in the region; the writer Pliny the Younger writing that they "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania". In early August of 79, springs and wells dried up [22]. Small earthquakes started taking place on 20 August, 79 [18] becoming more frequent over the next four days, but the warnings were not recognised (it is worth noting the Romans had no word for volcano, and only a hazy concept of other similar mountains like Mount Etna, home of Vulcan), and on the afternoon of 24 August, a catastrophic eruption of the volcano started. The eruption devastated the region, burying Pompeii and other settlements. By coincidence it was the day after Vulcanalia, the festival of the Roman god of fire. [23][24][25][26][27][28] A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of Etna, see Etna (disambiguation). ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ...


Nature of the eruption

The eruption of Vesuvius on 24 and 25 August, 79, unfolded in two phases, [29] a Plinian eruption that lasted eighteen to twenty hours and produced a rain of pumice southward of the cone that built up to depths of 2.8 meters at Pompeii, followed by a pyroclastic flow or nuée ardente in the second, Peléan phase that reached as far as Misenum but was concentrated to the west and northwest. Two pyroclastic flows engulfed Pompeii, burning and asphyxiating the stragglers who had remained behind. Oplontis and Herculaneum received the brunt of the flows and were buried in fine ash and pyroclastic deposits.[30][31][32][33][34] Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... Pelean eruptions are a type of volcanic eruptions. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... Oplontis was a town near Pompeii, Italy. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ...


The Two Plinys

Pliny the Younger

The only surviving reliable eyewitness account of the event was recorded by Pliny the Younger, who was about 16 at the time of the eruption, in two letters to the historian Tacitus[35]. Observing it from Misenum (across the bay, approximately 35 km from the volcano) whilst his uncle sailed closer, he saw an extraordinarily dense and rapidly-rising cloud appearing above the mountain: Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ...

I cannot give you a more exact description of its appearance than by comparing to a pine tree; for it shot up to a great height in the form of a tall trunk, which spread out at the top as though into branches. ... Occasionally it was brighter, occasionally darker and spotted, as it was either more or less filled with earth and cinders. (Sixth Book of Letters, Letter 16.)

This was the eruption column, now estimated to have been more than 32 km (20 miles) tall. Binomial name Pinus pinea L. The Stone Pine (Pinus pinea; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native of southern Europe, primarily the Iberian Peninsula. ... Eruption column over Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines An eruption column consists of hot volcanic ash emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption. ...


After some time he described the cloud rushing down the flanks of the mountain and covering everything around it, including the surrounding sea. This is known today as a pyroclastic flow, which is a cloud of superheated gas, ash, and rock that erupts from a volcano. Geologists have used the magnetic characteristics of over 200 volcanic rocks and pieces of debris (e.g. roof tiles) found in Pompeii to estimate the temperature of this pyroclastic flow. (When molten rock solidifies, magnetic minerals in the rock record the direction of Earth's magnetic field. If the material is heated above a certain temperature, known as the Curie temperature, the rock's magnetic field may be modified or completely reset.) Most of the materials analyzed experienced temperatures between 240 °C and 340 °C (with a few areas showing lower temperatures of only 180 °C). This suggests that the ash cloud had a temperature of 850 °C when emerging from the mouth of Vesuvius and had cooled to below 350 °C by the time it reached the city. It is theorized that turbulence may have mixed cool air into the ash cloud. (Cioni, et al., 2004). This is now called the Plinian stage of the eruption, named after both the younger and elder Plinys. Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... The Curie point is a term in physics and materials science, named after Pierre Curie (1859-1906), and refers to a characteristic property of a ferromagnetic material. ...


Pliny stated that several earth tremors were felt at the time of the eruption and were followed by a very violent shaking of the ground. He also noted that ash was falling in very thick sheets and the village he was in had to be evacuated, and then that the sun was blocked out by the eruption and the daylight hours were left in darkness. Also, the sea was sucked away and forced back by an "earthquake", a phenomenon now called a tsunami. For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


Pliny the Elder

Pliny’s uncle Pliny the Elder was in command of the Roman fleet at Misenum, and had meanwhile decided to take several ships to investigate the phenomenon at close hand. The fleet also attempted a rescue mission for those at the foot of the volcano when, as the ship was preparing to leave the area, a messenger arrived from a friend of Pliny’s living on the coast near the foot of the volcano imploring him to rescue her. He set off across the bay but encountered thick showers of hot cinders, lumps of pumice and pieces of rock which, altering the shoreline and water depths, blocked his approach to the shore and prevented him from landing there. The prevailing southerly wind also stopped him landing there, but he continued south under it to Stabiae (about 4.5 km from Pompeii) where he landed and took shelter with Pomponianus, a friend. Pomponianus had already loaded a ship with possessions and was preparing to leave, but the wind was against him. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The city of Stabiae was at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, and therefore was one of the communities damaged by its eruption in 79 AD. Some few people got away from the initial lava, and told others of the coming erruption, but succumbed to the ash as it started to...


Pliny and his party saw flames coming from several parts of the mountain (probably pyroclastic flows and surges, which would later destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum). After staying overnight, the party decided to evacuate in spite of the rain of tephra because of the continuing violent conditions threatening to collapse the building. Pliny, Pomponianus and their companions made their way back towards the beach with pillows tied to their heads to protect them from rockfall. By this time, there was so much ash in the air that the party could barely see through the murk and needed torches and lanterns to find their way. They made it to the beach but found the waters too violently disturbed from the continuous earthquakes for them to escape safely by sea. Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ...


Pliny the Elder collapsed and died, and in the first letter to Tacitus his nephew suggested that this was due to the inhalation of poisonous, sulphuric gases. However, Stabiae was 16 km from the vent (roughly where the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia is situated) and his companions were apparently unaffected by the fumes, and so it is more likely that the corpulent[36] Pliny died from some other cause, such as a stroke or heart attack.[37] His body was found with no apparent injuries on 26 August, after the plume had dispersed sufficiently for daylight to return. Location of Castellammare di Stabia in the Gulf of Naples. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Casualties from the eruption

The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum.
The skeleton called the "Ring Lady" unearthed in Herculaneum.

Along with Pliny the Elder, the only other noble casualties of the eruption to be known by name were Agrippa (a son of the Jewish princess Drusilla and the procurator Antonius Felix) and his wife.[38] Image File history File links Ring_Lady. ... Image File history File links Ring_Lady. ... For other uses, see Princess (disambiguation). ... // For others of this name see Drusilla (name). ... Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix in Greek: ο Φηλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the ancient Rome procurator of Iudaea Province 52-60, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus. ...


Estimates of the population of Pompeii range from 10,000[39] to 25,000,[28] whilst Herculaneum is thought to have had a population of about 5,000[40]. It is not known how many people the eruption killed, although around 1,150 remains of bodies — or casts made of their impressions in the ash deposits — have been recovered in and around Pompeii.[41] The remains of about 350 bodies have been found at Herculaneum (300 in arched vaults discovered in 1980).[42] However these figures must represent a great underestimation of the total number of deaths over the region affected by the eruption. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Thirty-eight percent of the victims at Pompeii were found in the ash fall deposits, the majority inside buildings. These are thought to have been killed mainly by roof collapses, with the smaller number of victims found outside of buildings probably being killed by falling roof slates or by larger rocks thrown out by the volcano. This differs from modern experience, since over the last four hundred years only around 4% of victims have been killed by ash falls during explosive eruptions. The remaining 62% of remains found at Pompeii were in the pyroclastic surge deposits,[41] and thus were probably killed by them — probably from a combination of suffocation through ash inhalation and blast and debris thrown around. In contrast to the victims found at Herculaneum, examination of cloth, frescoes and skeletons show that it is unlikely that high temperatures were a significant cause.


Herculaneum, which was much closer to the crater, was saved from tephra falls by the wind direction, but was buried under 23 m (75 ft) of material deposited by pyroclastic surges. It is likely that most, or all, of the victims in this town were killed by the surges, particularly given evidence of high temperatures found on the skeletons of the victims found in the arched vaults, and the existence of carbonised wood in many of the buildings.


Pompeii and Herculaneum were never rebuilt, although surviving townspeople and probably looters did undertake extensive salvage work after the destructions. The eruption changed the course of the Sarno River and raised the sea beach, so that Pompeii was now neither on the river nor adjacent to the coast. Sarno is a river in Italy. ...


The towns' locations were eventually forgotten until their accidental rediscovery in the 18th century. Vesuvius itself underwent major changes — its slopes were denuded of vegetation and its summit had changed considerably due to the force of the eruption.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Date of the eruption

The eruption of AD 79 was documented by contemporary historians and is universally accepted as having started on August 24th. However the archeological excavations of Pompeii suggest that the town was buried a couple of months later.[52][53] For example, people buried in the ash appear to be wearing warmer clothing than the light summer clothes that would be expected in August. The fresh fruit and vegetables in the shops are typical of October, and conversely the summer fruit that would have been typical of August was already being sold in dried, or conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed over, and this would have happened around the end of October. The coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the Ash include a commemorative coin that should have been minted at the end of September. So far there is no definitive theory as to why there should be such an apparent discrepancy.


Later eruptions

An eruption of Vesuvius seen from Portici, by Joseph Wright (ca. 1774-6)
The March 1944 eruption of Vesuvius, by Jack Reinhardt, B24 tailgunner in the USAAF during WWII
The March 1944 eruption of Vesuvius, by Jack Reinhardt, B24 tailgunner in the USAAF during WWII

Since the eruption of 79, Vesuvius has erupted around three dozen times. It erupted again in 203, during the lifetime of the historian Cassius Dio. In 472, it ejected such a volume of ash that ashfalls were reported as far away as Constantinople. The eruptions of 512 were so severe that those inhabiting the slopes of Vesuvius were granted exemption from taxes by Theodoric the Great, the Gothic king of Italy. Further eruptions were recorded in 787, 968, 991, 999, 1007 and 1036 with the first recorded lava flows. The volcano became quiescent at the end of the 13th century and in the following years it again became covered with gardens and vineyards as of old. Even the inside of the crater was filled with shrubbery. An eruption of Vesuvius seen from Portici, by Joseph Wright (ca. ... An eruption of Vesuvius seen from Portici, by Joseph Wright (ca. ... An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump (1768). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (781 × 1178 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Mt Vesuvius Erupting in March 1944. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (781 × 1178 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Mt Vesuvius Erupting in March 1944. ... This article is about the year 79. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus rebuilds Byzantium. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Events Relations between the Roman Emperor Anthemius and the general Ricimer deteriorate completely. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Events Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Anastasius I ends a period of moderate ecclestical policy, and starts strongly favoring his own monophysitist beliefs. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... This article is about the year 787. ... Events Births Emperor Kazan of Japan Ethelred II of England Romanus Argyrus, later Romanus III of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Aethelred buys two years of peace with the Danes for 36,000 pounds of silver. ... Emperor Go-Suzaku ascends the throne of Japan. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Vesuvius entered a new and particularly destructive phase in December 1631, when a major eruption buried many villages under lava flows, killing around 3,000 people. Torrents of boiling water were also ejected, adding to the devastation. Activity thereafter became almost continuous, with relatively severe eruptions occurring in 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, 1906, 1926, 1929, and 1944. The eruption of 1906 was particularly destructive, killing over 100 people and ejecting the most lava ever recorded from a Vesuvian eruption. Its last major eruption as of 2007 came in March 1944, destroying the villages of San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano, and part of San Giorgio a Cremano, as well as all 88 planes in a U.S. B-25 bomber group [54], as World War II continued to rage in Italy. // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Sebastiano al Vesuvio is a small village located on the western slopes of Mount Vesuvius. ... Country Italy Region Campania Province Province of Naples (NA) Mayor Elevation m Area 3. ... Ottaviano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 20 km east of Naples. ... San Giorgio a Cremano is a small city in Italy, near Naples, with 62. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... B-25 Mitchell, England, 2001 B_25 Mitchell was a twin_engined, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation in the United States and used during World War II. By the time production of the plane ended, roughly 10,000 had been built, including PBJ_1 Navy Patrol Bomber and an F-10... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The volcano has been quiescent ever since. Over the past few centuries, the quiet stages have varied from 18 months to 7½ years, making the current lull in activity the longest in nearly 500 years. While Vesuvius is not thought likely to erupt in the immediate future, the danger posed by future eruptions is seen as very high in the light of the volcano's tendency towards sudden extremely violent explosions and the very dense human population on and around the mountain.


The future

The 1822 eruption was one of five explosive subplinian eruptions which have taken place since the 1631 eruption. The eruption column rose to about 14 km.

Large plinian eruptions which emit magma in quantities of about 1 km³ or more, the most recent of which overwhelmed Pompeii, have happened after periods of inactivity of a few thousand years. Subplinian eruptions producing about 0.1 km³, such as those of 472 and 1631, have been more frequent with a few hundred years between them. Following the 1631 eruption until 1944 every few years saw a comparatively small eruption which emitted 0.001-0.01 km³ of magma. It seems that for Vesuvius the amount of magma expelled in an eruption increases very roughly linearly with the interval since the previous one, and at a rate of around 0.001 km³ for each year. This gives an extremely approximate figure of 0.06 km³ for an eruption after 60 years of inactivity.[55] The Eruption of Vesuvius as seen from Naples, October 1822 from V. Day & Son, in G. Poullet Scrope, Masson, 1864 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Eruption of Vesuvius as seen from Naples, October 1822 from V. Day & Son, in G. Poullet Scrope, Masson, 1864 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ...


Magma sitting in an underground chamber for many years will start to see higher melting point constituents such as olivine crystallising out. The effect is to increase the concentration of dissolved gases (mostly steam and carbon dioxide) in the remaining liquid magma, making the subsequent eruption more violent.[13] As gas-rich magma approaches the surface during an eruption, the huge drop in pressure caused by the reduction in weight of the overlying rock (which drops to zero at the surface) causes the gases to come out of solution, the volume of gas increasing explosively from nothing to perhaps many times that of the accompanying magma. Additionally, the removal of the lower melting point material will raise the concentration of felsic components such as silicates potentially making the magma more viscous, adding to the explosive nature of the eruption. A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Eruption can refer to: Volcanic eruption The eruption of teeth through the gum Eruption (band) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Felsic is a term used in geology to refer to silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silica, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ...


The emergency plan for an eruption therefore assumes that the worst case will be an eruption of similar size and type to the 1631 VEI 4[56] one. In this scenario the slopes of the mountain, extending out to about 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) from the vent, may be exposed to pyroclastic flows sweeping down them, whilst much of the surrounding area could suffer from tephra falls. Because of prevailing winds, towns to the south and east of the volcano are most at risk from this, and it is assumed that tephra accumulation exceeding 100 kg/m² – at which point people are at risk from collapsing roofs — may extend out as far as Avellino to the east or Salerno to the south east. Towards Naples, to the north west, this tephra fall hazard is assumed to extend barely past the slopes of the volcano.[55] The specific areas actually affected by the ash cloud will depend upon the particular circumstances surrounding the eruption. [57] VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of wind over a particular point on the earths surface. ... Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ...

The area around the volcano is now densely populated.
The area around the volcano is now densely populated.

The plan assumes between two weeks and 20 days [58][59] notice of an eruption and foresees the emergency evacuation of 600,000 people, almost entirely comprising all those living in the zona rossa ("red zone"), i.e. at greatest risk from pyroclastic flows. The evacuation, by trains, ferries, cars, and buses is planned to take about seven days, and the evacuees will mostly be sent to other parts of the country rather than to safe areas in the local Campania region, and may have to stay away for several months. However the dilemma that would face those implementing the plan is when to start this massive evacuation, since if it is left too late then many people could be killed, whilst if it is started too early then the precursors of the eruption may turn out to have been a false alarm. In 1984, 40,000 people were evacuated from the Campi Flegrei area, another volcanic complex near Naples, but no eruption occurred. [59] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 56 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 56 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the phony report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as fire engines) to a place where they are not needed. ... This article is about the year. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ...


Ongoing efforts are being made to reduce the population living in the red zone, by demolishing illegally constructed buildings, establishing a national park around the upper flanks of the volcano to prevent the erection of further buildings[59] and by offering financial incentives to people for moving away. The underlying goal is to reduce the time needed to evacuate the area, over the next 20 or 30 years, to two or three days.[60] Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An...


The volcano is closely monitored by the Osservatorio Vesuvio in Naples with extensive networks of seismic and gravimetric stations, a combination of a GPS-based geodetic array and satellite-based synthetic aperture radar[61] to measure ground movement, and by local surveys and chemical analyses of gases emitted from fumaroles. All of this is intended to track magma rising underneath the volcano. So far, no magma has been detected within 10 km of the surface, and so the volcano was, in 2001, at worst only in the very early stages of preparing for an eruption.[55] This status has apparently not changed much to date. [62][63] The Vesuvius Observatory is the surveillance centre for monitoring the three volcanoes which threaten the Campanian region of Italy, Mount Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... The surface of Venus, as imaged by the Magellan probe using SAR Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which sophisticated post-processing of radar data is used to produce a very narrow effective beam. ... Geophysical survey refers to the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... “Solfatara” redirects here. ...

Inside the crater of Vesuvius.
Inside the crater of Vesuvius.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 407 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Radomil 01. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 407 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Radomil 01. ...

Vesuvius today

The area around Vesuvius was officially declared a national park on 5 June 1995[64]. The summit of Vesuvius is open to visitors and there is a small network of paths around the mountain that are maintained by the park authorities on weekends. A view in the park. ...


There is access by road to within 200 metres of the summit (measured vertically), but thereafter access is on foot only. There is a spiral walkway around the mountain from the road to the crater.




References

  1. ^ a b Summary of the eruptive history of Mt. Vesuvius. Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  2. ^ The Pomici Di Base Eruption. Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  3. ^ Vesuvius, Italy, Volcano World
  4. ^ The world's top volcanoes, Scentia
  5. ^ a b c Vesuvius. Global Volcanism. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  6. ^ Definition of somma volcano. Volcano Live. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  7. ^ (April 2005) "Vesuvius’ next eruption". Geotimes. Retrieved on 2006-12-08. 
  8. ^ a b Somma-Vesuvius. Department of Physics, University of Rome. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  9. ^ An ancient Bronze Age village (3500 bp) destroyed by the pumice eruption in Avellino (Nola-Campania). Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  10. ^ Vesuvius' Next Eruption May Put Metro Naples at Risk - Lesson from Katrina is need to focus on "maximum probable hazard". State University of New York. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  11. ^ Pomici di Avellino eruption. Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  12. ^ Stothers, R.B. (2002). "The case for an eruption of Vesuvius in 217 BC (abstract)". Ancient Hist. Bull. 16: 182-185. 
  13. ^ a b de Boer, Jelle Zeilinga & Sanders, Donald Theodore (2002). Volcanoes in Human History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05081-3. 
  14. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) (translation)
  15. ^ Strabo: Geography Book V Chapter 4 (translation)
  16. ^ Marcus Vitruvius Pollio: de Architectura, Book II (translation)
  17. ^ Patterns of Reconstruction at Pompeii
  18. ^ a b Visiting Pompeii - AD 79 - Vesuvius explodes. Current Archeology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  19. ^ "Three Decades of Seismic Activity at Mt. Vesuvius: 1972–2000". 
  20. ^ The Life of Nero, Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars
  21. ^ The Annals by Publius Cornelius Tacitus - Book 15
  22. ^ Pompeii at the State University of Minnesot's E-museum
  23. ^ Area Vesuvio (in Italian) Retrieved on 18 August 2007
  24. ^ Account of 1785 eruption by Hester Thrale
  25. ^ Stromboli Online - Vesuvius & Campi Flegrei
  26. ^ Visiting Pompeii Retrieved on 18 August 2007
  27. ^ Wall painting of Vesuvius found in Pompeii
  28. ^ a b The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD. Eyewitness to History. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  29. ^ Haraldur Sigurdsson, Stanford Cashdollar and Stephen R. J. Sparks, "The eruption The Eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79: Reconstruction from Historical and Volcanological Evidence" American Journal of Archaeology '86.1 (January 1982), pp. 39-51.
  30. ^ 52 Minute MP3 Audio Discussion on the Theological significance of AD79
  31. ^ ERUPT Project - Vesuvius
  32. ^ Herculaneum: Destruction and Re-discovery
  33. ^ Live Mount Vesuvius Webcams: from Casalnuovo, from Sorrento
  34. ^ Official Vesuvius National Park website (in Italian) Retrieved on 18 August 2007
  35. ^ The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD, Translation of Pliny's letters. Original.
  36. ^ Jules Janick, Purdue University (2002). Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman Agricultural Writers. History of Horticulture. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  37. ^ Derivation of the name "Plinian". The Volcano Information Center. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  38. ^ Mentioned in Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, xx.7.2, and in a lost section of the work.
  39. ^ Doug Criner. Engineering of Pompeii. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  40. ^ Vesuvius, Italy. Volcano World. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  41. ^ a b Lisetta Giacomelli, Annamaria Perrotta, Roberto Scandone, Claudio Scarpati (September 2003). "The eruption of Vesuvius of 79 AD and its impact on human environment in Pompei". Episodes 26. Retrieved on 2006-12-08. 
  42. ^ Pompeii, Stories from an eruption. The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  43. ^ Vesuvius National Park brochure (Adobe PDF)
  44. ^ Vesuvius National Park
  45. ^ Disaster preparedness page for the US Naval Support Actitivy Naples
  46. ^ Guardian Newspaper article "Italy ready to pay to clear slopes of volcano"
  47. ^ Tango Diva article - "Mount Vesuvius, the sleeping giant"
  48. ^ Explore Italian Volcanoes, at Dipartimento di Fisica "E. Amaldi" Universita' Roma Tre, Italy
  49. ^ Image of Vesuvius at Volcano World
  50. ^ Top volcanoes worldwide (i.e. Famous and recent eruptions)
  51. ^ BBC article discussing potential danger to modern inhabitants.
  52. ^ Grete Stefani (October 2006). "La vera data dell'eruzione". Archeo (260): 10-14.  (in Italian)
  53. ^ Gabi Laske. The A.D. 79 Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius. Lecture notes for UCSD-ERTH15: "Natural Disasters". Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  54. ^ Aviation and the effects of Volcano Ash, Federal Aviation Authority
  55. ^ a b c Kilburn, Chris & McGuire, Bill (2001). Italian Volcanoes. Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-04-1. 
  56. ^ Activity of Vesuvio between 1631 and 1799. Explore Italian Volcanoes. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  57. ^ Emergency plan (Italian). Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  58. ^ In the shadow of the volcano, UK Guardian newspaper, 16 October 2003
  59. ^ a b c Italians trying to prevent a modern Pompeii. USA Today (21 October 2003). Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  60. ^ "Early Warning of Volcanic eruptions and Earthquakes in the neapolitan area, Campania Region, South Italy" (pdf). Second International Conference on Early Warning, Bonn, Germany, 16-18 October 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-26. 
  61. ^ ESA press release on satellite monitoring of Vesuvius. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  62. ^ Monitoring of Mount Vesuvius. Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  63. ^ Present level of alert on Vesuvius. Osservatorio Vesuviano, Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  64. ^ Vesuvius portal website

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Unique Facts About Europe: Mount Vesuvius (1481 words)
Vesuvius is situated on the coast of the Bay of Naples, about nine kilometers (six miles) to the east of the city and a short distance inland from the shore.
Mount Vesuvius was regarded by the Greeks and Romans as being sacred to the hero and demigod Hercules/Heracles, and the town of Herculaneum, built at its base, was named after him.
Vesuvius has erupted repeatedly in recorded history, most famously in 79 and subsequently in 472, 512, in 1631, six times in the 18th century, eight times in the 19th century (notably in 1872), and in 1906, 1929, and 1944.
Mount Vesuvius (3237 words)
Mount Vesuvius as seen from Pompeii, which was destroyed in the eruption of AD The active cone is the high peak on the left side; the smaller one on the right is part of the Somma caldera wall
Mount Vesuvius was regarded by the Greeks and Romans as being sacred to the hero and demigod
Depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1822.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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