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Encyclopedia > Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora

Sumbawa topography where Tambora's caldera is visible at the northern peninsula.
Elevation 2,850 metres (9,350 ft)[1]
Location Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Coordinates 8°15′S 118°0′E / -8.25, 118Coordinates: 8°15′S 118°0′E / -8.25, 118
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1967[1]

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zones beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,000 ft),[2] making it one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago, and drained off a large magma chamber inside the mountain. It took centuries to refill the magma chamber, its volcanic activity reaching its peak in April 1815.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 787 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2440 × 1860 pixel, file size: 1. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ...


Tambora erupted in 1815 with a rating of seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the largest eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in AD 181.[4] The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km or 1,200 mi away). Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. The death toll was at least 71,000 people, of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption;[4] the often-cited figure of 92,000 people killed is believed to be an overestimate.[5] The eruption created global climate anomalies; 1816 became known as the Year Without a Summer because of the effect on North American and European weather. Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century.[4] April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Events Antonine Wall is overrun. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... This article is about the Java island. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During an excavation in 2004, a team of archaeologists discovered cultural remains buried by the 1815 eruption.[6] They were kept intact beneath the 3 m (10 ft) deep pyroclastic deposits. At the site, dubbed the Pompeii of the East, the artifacts were preserved in the positions they had occupied in 1815. The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Pyroclastic rocks are formed from lavas which are ejected into the air, as occur in pyroclastic flows or Plinian eruptions. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geographical setting

Mt. Tambora and its surroundings as seen from space
Mt. Tambora and its surroundings as seen from space

Mount Tambora is located on Sumbawa Island, part of the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is a segment of the Sunda Arc, a string of volcanic islands that form the southern chain of the Indonesian archipelago.[7] Tambora forms its own peninsula on Sumbawa, known as the Sanggar peninsula. At the north of the peninsula is the Flores Sea, and at the south is the 86 km (53.5 mi) long and 36 km (22 mi) wide Saleh Bay. At the mouth of Saleh Bay there is an islet called Mojo. ImageMetadata File history File links Tambora_volc. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Tambora_volc. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... A small island in the Adriatic Sea An island or isle is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... The Flores Sea covers 93,000 square miles (240,000 square kilometres) of water in the South Pacific. ...


Besides the seismologists and vulcanologists who monitor the mountain's activity, Mount Tambora is an area of scientific studies for archaeologists and biologists. The mountain also attracts tourists for hiking and wildlife activities.[8][9] The two nearest cities are Dompu and Bima. There are three concentrations of villages around the mountain slope. At the east is Sanggar village, to the northwest are Doro Peti and Pesanggrahan villages, and to the west is Calabai village. Seismology (from the Greek seismos(σεισμός) = earthquake and λόγος,logos = knowledge ) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related geological phenomena. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ...


There are two ascent routes to reach the caldera. The first route starts from Doro Mboha village at the southeast of the mountain. This route follows a paved road through a cashew plantation until it reaches 1,150 m (3,800 ft) above sea level. The end of this route is the southern part of the caldera at 1,950 m (6,400 ft), reachable by means of a hiking track.[10] This location is usually used as a base camp to monitor the volcanic activity, because it only takes one hour to reach the caldera. The second route starts from Pancasila village at the northwest of the mountain. Using the second route, the caldera is accessible only by foot.[10] Satellite image of Santorini. ... Binomial name L. The cashew (Anacardium occidentale; syn. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ...


Geological history

Formation

Tambora lies 340 km (211 mi) north of the Java Trench system and 180–190 km (112–118 mi) above the upper surface of the active north-dipping subduction zone. Sumbawa island is flanked to both the north and south by the oceanic crust.[11] The convergence rate is 7.8 cm/year (3 in/year).[12] The existence of Tambora is estimated to have begun around 57,000 years ago.[3] Its ascent has drained off a large magma chamber inside the mountain. The Mojo islet was formed as part of this geological process in which Saleh Bay, collapsing into the caldera of the drained magma chamber, first appeared as a sea basin, about 25,000 years ago.[3] The Java Trench, also called Sunda Trench, with a length of 2 600 km and a maximum depth of 7 725 meters at 10°19N, 109°58E, was long thought to be the deepest trench of the Indian Ocean, but is in fact second to the Diamantina Trench... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features. ...


According to a geological survey, a high volcanic cone with a single central vent was formed before the 1815 eruption, which follows a stratovolcano shape.[13] The diameter at the base is 60 km (37 mi).[7] The central vent emitted lava frequently, which cascaded down a steep slope. A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ...


Since the 1815 eruption, the lowermost portion contains deposits of interlayered sequences of lava and pyroclastic materials. Approximately 40% of the layers are represented in the 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft) thick lava flows.[13] Thick scoria beds were produced by the fragmentation of lava flows. Within the upper section, the lava is interbedded with scoria, tuffs and pyroclastic flows and falls.[13] There are at least 20 parasitic cones.[12] Some of them have names: Tahe (877 m), Molo (602 m), Kadiendinae, Kubah (1648 m) and Doro Api Toi. Most of these parasitic cones have produced basaltic lavas. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pyroclastic rocks are formed from lavas which are ejected into the air, as occur in pyroclastic flows or Plinian eruptions. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Satellite cone (or parasitic cone) is a geographical feature found around a volcano. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Eruptive history

Using radiocarbon dating technique, it has been established that Mount Tambora had erupted three times before the 1815 eruption, but the magnitudes of these eruptions are unknown.[14] Their estimated dates are 3910 BC ± 200 years, 3050 BC and AD 740 ± 150 years. They were all explosive central vent eruptions with similar characteristics, except the lattermost eruption had no pyroclastic flows. Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ...


In 1812, Mount Tambora became highly active, with its eruptive peak in the catastrophic explosive event of April 1815.[14] The magnitude was seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale, with a total tephra ejecta volume of 1.6 × 1011 cubic metres.[14] It was an explosive central vent eruption with pyroclastic flows and a caldera collapse, causing tsunamis and extensive land and property damage. It had a long-term effect on global climate. This activity ceased on 15 July 1815.[14] Follow-up activity was recorded in August 1819 consisting of a small eruption (VEI 2) with flames and rumbling aftershocks, and was considered to be part of the 1815 eruption.[4] Around 1880 ± 30 years, Tambora went into eruption again, but only inside the caldera.[14] It created small lava flows and lava dome extrusions. This eruption (VEI 2) created the Doro Api Toi parasitic cone inside the caldera.[15] VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... Extrusive refers to a mode of igneous rock formation, in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface. ...


Mount Tambora is still active. Minor lava domes and flows have been extruded on the caldera floor during the 19th and 20th centuries.[1] The last eruption was recorded in 1967.[14] However, it was a very small, non-explosive eruption (VEI 0). Active volcanoes are volcanoes constantly erupting, including Pompeii and Krakatoa. ...


1815 eruption

Chronology of the eruption

The estimated volcanic ashfall regions during the 1815 eruption. The red areas show thickness of volcanic ashfall. The outermost region (1 cm thickness) reached Borneo and the Sulawesi islands.
The estimated volcanic ashfall regions during the 1815 eruption. The red areas show thickness of volcanic ashfall. The outermost region (1 cm thickness) reached Borneo and the Sulawesi islands.

Mount Tambora experienced several centuries of inactivity before 1815, known as dormancy, as the result of the gradual cooling of hydrous magma in a closed magma chamber.[7] Inside the chamber at depths between 1.5–4.5 km (5,000–15,000 ft), the exsolution of a high pressure magma fluid formed during cooling and crystallisation of the magma. Overpressure of the chamber of about 4–5 kbar was generated and the temperature ranged from 700 °C–850 °C (1,300–1,500 °F).[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x537, 719 KB) ↑ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x537, 719 KB) ↑ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ... A binary phase diagram displaying solid solutions over the full range of relative concentrations. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ...


In 1812, the caldera began to rumble and generated a dark cloud.[2] On April 5 1815, a moderate-sized eruption occurred, followed by thunderous detonation sounds, heard in Makassar on Sulawesi (380 km or 236 mi), Batavia (now Jakarta) on Java (1,260 km or 783 mi), and Ternate on the Molucca Islands (1400 km or 870 mi). What was first thought to be sound of firing guns was heard on 10–11 April on Sumatra island (more than 2,600 km or 1,615 mi away).[16] On the morning of 6 April, volcanic ash began to fall in East Java with faint detonation sounds lasting until 10 April. is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Thunder is the sound of the shockwave caused when lightning instantly heats the air around it to up to 30 000 °C (54 000 °F). ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At about 7 p.m. on 10 April, the eruptions intensified.[2] Three columns of flame rose up and merged.[16] The whole mountain was turned into a flowing mass of "liquid fire".[16] Pumice stones of up to 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter started to rain down at approximately 8 p.m., followed by ash at around 9–10 p.m. Hot pyroclastic flows cascaded down the mountain to the sea on all sides of the peninsula, wiping out the village of Tambora. Loud explosions were heard until the next evening, 11 April. The ash veil had spread as far as West Java and South Sulawesi. A "nitrous" odor was noticeable in Batavia and heavy tephra-tinged rain fell, finally receding between 11 and 17 April.[2] is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ...

The first explosions were heard on this Island in the evening of the 5th of April, they were noticed in every quarter, and continued at intervals until the following day. The noise was, in the first instance, almost universally attributed to distant cannon; so much so, that a detachment of troops were marched from Djocjocarta, in the expectation that a neighbouring post was attacked, and along the coast boats were in two instances dispatched in quest of a supposed ship in distress. The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ...

Sir Thomas Raffles' memoir.[16] Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 - 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ...

The explosion is estimated to have been at scale seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.[17] It had roughly four times the energy of the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. An estimated 100 km³ (38.6 mi³) of pyroclastic trachyandesite was ejected, weighing approximately 1.4×1014 kg.[4] This has left a caldera measuring 6–7 km (4–5 mi) across and 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft) deep.[2] The density of fallen ash in Makassar was 636 kg/m².[18] Before the explosion, Mount Tambora was approximately 4,300 m (14,000 ft) high,[2] one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After the explosion, it now measures only 2,851 m (9,300 ft).[19] VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... This article is about the volcano. ... Trachyandesite is an extrusive igneous rock. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ...


The 1815 Tambora eruption is the largest observed eruption in recorded history (see Table I, for comparison).[2][4] The explosion was heard 2,600 km (1,600 mi) away, and ash fell at least 1,300 km (800 mi) away.[2] Pitch darkness was observed as far away as 600 km (370 mi) from the mountain summit for up to two days. Pyroclastic flows spread at least 20 km (12.5 mi) from the summit.


Aftermath

All vegetation on the island was destroyed. Uprooted trees, mixed with pumice ash, washed into the sea and formed rafts of up to 5 km (3 mi) across.[2] One pumice raft was found in the Indian Ocean, near Calcutta on 1 and 3 October 1815.[4] Clouds of thick ash still covered the summit on 23 April. Explosions ceased on 15 July, although smoke emissions were still observed as late as 23 August. Flames and rumbling aftershocks were reported in August 1819, four years after the event. , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

On my trip towards the western part of the island, I passed through nearly the whole of Dompo and a considerable part of Bima. The extreme misery to which the inhabitants have been reduced is shocking to behold. There were still on the road side the remains of several corpses, and the marks of where many others had been interred: the villages almost entirely deserted and the houses fallen down, the surviving inhabitants having dispersed in search of food.
...
Since the eruption, a violent diarrhoea has prevailed in Bima, Dompo, and Sang’ir, which has carried off a great number of people. It is supposed by the natives to have been caused by drinking water which has been impregnated with ashes; and horses have also died, in great numbers, from a similar complaint. In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...

—Lt. Philips, ordered by Sir Stamford Raffles to go to Sumbawa.[16] Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 - 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ...

A moderate-sized tsunami struck the shores of various islands in the Indonesian archipelago on 10 April, with a height of up to 4 m (13 ft) in Sanggar at around 10 p.m.[2] A tsunami of 1–2 m (3–6 ft) in height was reported in Besuki, East Java, before midnight, and one of 2 m (6 ft) in height in the Molucca Islands. For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...


The eruption column reached the stratosphere, an altitude of more than 43 km (140,000 ft).[4] The coarser ash particles fell 1 to 2 weeks after the eruptions, but the finer ash particles stayed in the atmosphere from a few months up to a few years at an altitude of 10–30 km (33,000–100,000 ft).[2] Longitudinal winds spread these fine particles around the globe, creating optical phenomena. Prolonged and brilliantly colored sunsets and twilights were frequently seen in London, England between 28 June and 2 July 1815 and 3 September and 7 October 1815.[2] The glow of the twilight sky typically appeared orange or red near the horizon and purple or pink above. Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


The estimated number of deaths varies depending on the source. Zollinger (1855) puts the number of direct deaths at 10,000, probably caused by pyroclastic flows. On Sumbawa island, there were 38,000 deaths due to starvation, and another 10,000 deaths occurred due to disease and hunger on Lombok island.[20] Petroeschevsky (1949) estimated about 48,000 and 44,000 people were killed on Sumbawa and Lombok, respectively.[21] Several authors use Petroeschevsky's figures, such as Stothers (1984), who cites 88,000 deaths in total.[2] However, Tanguy et al. (1998) claimed Petroeschevsky's figures to be unfounded and based on untraceable references.[5] Tanguy revised the number solely based on two credible sources, i.e., Zollinger, who himself spent several months on Sumbawa after the eruption, and Raffles's notes.[16] Tanguy pointed out that there may have been additional victims on Bali and East Java because of famine and disease. Their estimate was 11,000 deaths from direct volcanic effects and 49,000 by post-eruption famine and epidemic diseases.[5] Oppenheimer (2003) stated a modified number of at least 71,000 deaths in total, as seen in Table I below.[4] Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 - 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...

Table I. Comparison of selected volcanic eruptions
Eruptions Year Column
height (km)
 VEI  N. hemisphere
summer anomaly (°C)
Fatalities
Mount Vesuvius 79 30 5  ? >2000
Taupo 186 51 7  ?
Baekdu 969 25 6–7  ?  ?
Kuwae 1452  ? 6 −0.5  ?
Huaynaputina 1600 46 6 −0.8 ≈1400
Tambora 1815 43 7 −0.5 > 71,000
Krakatau 1883 25 6 −0.3 36,600
Santamaría 1902 34 6 no anomaly 7,000–13,000
Katmai 1912 32 6 −0.4 2
Mt. St. Helens 1980 19 5 no anomaly 57
El Chichón 1982 32 4–5  ? > 2,000
Nevado del Ruiz 1985 27 3 no anomaly 23,000
Pinatubo 1991 34 6 −0.5 1202
Source: Oppenheimer (2003),[4] and Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program for VEI.[22]

VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Baekdu Mountain, also known as Changbai Mountain in Chinese, is a volcanic mountain on the border between China and North Korea, located at . At 2,744 m, it is the highest mountain of the Changbai Mountains to the north and Baekdudaegan to the south. ... Huaynaputina (New Volcano) is a stratovolcano located in a volcanic upland in southern Peru, 4850 m (15,912 ft). ... An early 19th century image of Krakatoa. ... Volcán Santamaría is a large active volcano in the Western Highlands of Guatemala, close to the city of Quetzaltenango. ... This article is about Katmai, the volcano. ... Mount St. ... El Chichón is an active volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico. ... Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz 2006 Nevado del Ruiz is an Andean stratovolcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. ... Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Bataan, and Pampanga. ...

Global effects

See also: Year Without a Summer
Sulfate concentration in ice core from Central Greenland, dated by counting oxygen isotope seasonal variations. There is an unknown eruption around 1810s. Source: Dai (1991).
Sulfate concentration in ice core from Central Greenland, dated by counting oxygen isotope seasonal variations. There is an unknown eruption around 1810s. Source: Dai (1991).[23]

The 1815 eruption released sulfur into the stratosphere, causing a global climate anomaly. Different methods have estimated the ejected sulfur mass during the eruption: the petrological method; an optical depth measurement based on anatomical observations; and the polar ice core sulfate concentration method, using cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The figures vary depending on the method, ranging from 10 Tg S to 120 Tg S.[4] Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. ... Image File history File links Greenland_sulfate. ... Image File history File links Greenland_sulfate. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Oxygen (O) Standard atomic mass: 15. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ...


In the spring and summer of 1816, a persistent dry fog was observed in the northeastern U.S. The fog reddened and dimmed the sunlight, such that sunspots were visible to the naked eye. Neither wind nor rainfall dispersed the "fog". It was identified as a stratospheric sulfate aerosol veil.[4] In summer 1816, countries in the Northern Hemisphere suffered extreme weather conditions, dubbed the Year Without a Summer. Average global temperatures decreased about 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1.3 °F),[2] enough to cause significant agricultural problems around the globe. On 4 June 1816, frosts were reported in Connecticut, and by the following day, most of New England was gripped by the cold front. On 6 June 1816, snow fell in Albany, New York, and Dennysville, Maine.[4] Such conditions occurred for at least three months and ruined most agricultural crops in North America. Canada experienced extreme cold during that summer. Snow 30 cm (12 in) deep accumulated near Quebec City from 6 to 10 June 1816. Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Dennysville is a town located in Washington County, Maine. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date...


1816 was the second coldest year in the northern hemisphere since AD 1400, after 1601 following the 1600 Huaynaputina eruption in Peru.[17] The 1810s are the coldest decade on record, a result of Tambora's 1815 eruption and other suspected eruptions somewhere between 1809 and 1810 (see sulfate concentration figure from ice core data). The surface temperature anomalies during the summer of 1816, 1817 and 1818 were −0.51, −0.44 and −0.29 °C, respectively.[17] As well as a cooler summer, parts of Europe experienced a stormier winter. Huaynaputina (New Volcano) is a stratovolcano located in a volcanic upland in southern Peru, 4850 m (15,912 ft). ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ...


This pattern of climate anomaly has been blamed for the severity of typhus epidemic in southeast Europe and the eastern Mediterranean between 1816 and 1819.[4] Much livestock died in New England during the winter of 1816–1817. Cool temperatures and heavy rains resulted in failed harvests in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Families in Wales traveled long distances as refugees, begging for food. Famine was prevalent in north and southwest Ireland, following the failure of wheat, oat and potato harvests. The crisis was severe in Germany, where food prices rose sharply. Due to the unknown cause of the problems, demonstrations in front of grain markets and bakeries, followed by riots, arson and looting, took place in many European cities. It was the worst famine of the 19th century.[4] For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... This article is about the country. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ...


Archaeological evidence

In summer 2004, a team from the University of Rhode Island, the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and the Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology, led by Haraldur Sigurdsson, began an archaeological dig in Tambora.[6] Over six weeks, the team unearthed the first evidence of a lost culture that had been obliterated by the Tambora eruption. The site is located about 25 km (15.5 mi) west of the caldera, deep in the jungle, 5 km (3 mi) from the shore. The team had to cut through a deposit of volcanic pumice and ash 3 m (10 ft) thick. The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in Kingston, Rhode Island, and three other campuses located throughout the state. ... The University of North Carolina Wilmington is a public university located in Wilmington, North Carolina. ... Haraldur Sigurdsson was born May 31, 1939 and grew up in Iceland where he developed an interest in volcanoes and their activity. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Tambora is a lost village and culture on Sumbawa Island buried by ash and pyroclastic flows from the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. ...


The team used a ground-penetrating radar to locate a small buried house. They excavated the house, where they found the remains of two adults, as well as bronze bowls, ceramic pots, iron tools and other artifacts. The design and decoration of the artifacts have similarities with artifacts from Vietnam and Cambodia.[6] Tests conducted using a carbonization technique revealed they were composed of charcoal formed by the heat of the magma. All the people, the house and their culture are preserved as they were in 1815. Sigurdsson dubbed it the Pompeii of the East.[24][25] Based on the artifacts found, which were mainly bronze objects, the team concluded that the people were not poor. Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses[26], sappan wood for producing red dye[27], and sandalwood used for incense and medications.[6] The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally. A ground-penetrating radar data image, generated as part of the search for the head of Yagan within a grave site in Everton Cemetery in 1997. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... Binomial name Caesalpinia sappan Sappanwood or Sapanwood (Caesalpinia sappan, Japanese: Soboku) is a sort of redwood found in tropical Southeast Asia. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ...


The archaeological findings suggest that there was a culture on Sumbawa that was wiped out by the 1815 eruption. The title Lost Kingdom of Tambora was coined by media.[28][29] With this discovery, Sigurdsson intends to return to Tambora in 2007 to search for the rest of the villages, and hopefully to find a palace.[6]


Ecosystem

A scientific team led by a Swiss botanist, Heinrich Zollinger, arrived on Sumbawa in 1847.[30] Zollinger's mission was to study the eruption scene and its effects on the local ecosystem. He was the first person to climb to the summit after the eruption. It was still covered by smoke. As Zollinger climbed up, his feet sank several times through a thin surface crust into a warm layer of powder-like sulfur. Some vegetation had re-established itself and a few trees were observed on the lower slope. A Casuarina forest was noted at 2,200–2,550 m (7,200–8,400 ft).[31] Several Imperata cylindrica grasslands were also found. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Selected species Casuarina cunninghamiana Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina glauca Casuarina is a genus of shrubs and trees in the Family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia and islands of the Pacific. ... Binomial name Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ...


Rehabitation of the mountain began in 1907. A coffee plantation was started in the 1930s on the northwestern slope of the mountain, in the village of Pekat.[32] A dense rain forest, dominated by the pioneering tree, Duabanga moluccana, had grown at an altitude of 1,000–2,800 m (3,300–9,000 ft).[32] It covers an area up to 80,000 hectares (800 km²). The rain forest was explored by a Dutch team, led by Koster and de Voogd in 1933.[32] From their accounts, they started their journey in a "fairly barren, dry and hot country", and then they entered "a mighty jungle" with "huge, majestic forest giants". At 1,100 m (3,600 ft), they entered a montane forest. Above 1,800 m (6,000 ft), they found Dodonaea viscosa dominated by Casuarina trees. On the summit, they found sparse Anaphalis viscida and Wahlenbergia. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Mount McKinley in Alaska has one of the largest visible base-to-summit elevation differences anywhere A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Binomial name Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. ... A Pearly everlasting is any of a variety of flowering plant species in the genus Anaphalis. ... Species See text Wahlenbergia is a large genus of flowering plants from the family Campanulaceae. ...


In 1896, 56 species of birds were found, including the Crested White-eye.[33] Twelve further species were found in 1981. Several other zoological surveys followed, and found other bird species on the mountain, resulting in over 90 bird species discovered on Mount Tambora. Yellow-crested Cockatoos, Zoothera thrushes, Hill Mynas, Green Junglefowl and Rainbow Lorikeets are hunted for the cagebird trade by the local people. Orange-footed Scrubfowl are hunted for food. This bird exploitation has resulted in a decline in the bird population. The Yellow-crested Cockatoo is nearing extinction on Sumbawa island.[33] Binomial name Hartert, 1896 The Crested White-eye (Lophozosterops dohertyi) is a species of bird in the Zosteropidae family. ... Binomial name Cacatua sulphurea Gmelin, 1788 The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea also known as Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo is a medium-sized, up to 35cm long, cockatoo with an all-white feathers, bluish bare orbital skin, grey feet, black bill and yellow crest. ... Species Many, see text The Asian thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Zoothera of the thrush family Turdidae. ... Binomial name Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 The Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa, is a member of the starling family. ... Binomial name Gallus varius Shaw, 1798 The Green Junglefowl, Gallus varius also known as Javan Junglefowl, Forktail or Green Javanese Junglefowl is a medium-sized, up to 75cm long, bird in the pheasants family Phasianidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Swainsons Lorikeet () The Rainbow Lorikeet, Trichoglossus haematodus is a species of Australasian parrot found in Australia, eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. ... Binomial name Megapodius reinwardt Dumont, 1823 The Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Megapodius reinwardt is a small megapode of the family Megapodiidae. ...


Since 1972, a commercial logging company has been operating in the area, which poses a large threat to the rain forest. The logging company holds a timber-cutting concession for an area of 20,000 hectares (200 km²), or 25% of the total area.[32] Another part of the rain forest is used as a hunting ground. In between the hunting ground and the logging area, there is a designated wildlife reserve where deer, water buffalos, wild pigs, bats, flying foxes, and various species of reptiles and birds can be found.[32] Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a timber harvest. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... A flying fox can be: One of several species of megabat. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Monitoring

Indonesia's population has been increasing rapidly since the 1815 eruption. As of 2006, the population of Indonesia has reached 222 million people,[34] of which 130 million are concentrated on Java and Bali islands.[35] A volcanic eruption as large as the Tambora 1815 eruption would cause catastrophic devastation with more fatalities. Therefore, volcanic activity in Indonesia is continuously monitored, including that of Mount Tambora. This article is about the Java island. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


Seismic activity in Indonesia is monitored by the Directorate of Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia. The monitoring post for Mount Tambora is located at Doro Peti village.[36] They focus on seismic and tectonic activities by using a seismograph. Since the 1880 eruption, there has been no significant increase in seismic activity.[37] However, monitoring is continuously performed inside the caldera, especially around the parasite cone Doro Api Toi. Seismology (from the Greek seismos(σεισμός) = earthquake and λόγος,logos = knowledge ) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ...


The directorate has defined a hazard mitigation map for Mount Tambora. Two zones are declared: the dangerous zone and the cautious zone.[36] The dangerous zone is an area that will be directly affected by an eruption: pyroclastic flow, lava flow and other pyroclastic falls. This area, including the caldera and its surroundings, covers up to 58.7 km² (14,500 acres). Habitation of the dangerous zone is prohibited. The cautious zone includes areas that might be indirectly affected by an eruption: lahar flows and other pumice stones. The size of the cautious area is 185 km² (45,700 acres), and includes Pasanggrahan, Doro Peti, Rao, Labuan Kenanga, Gubu Ponda, Kawindana Toi and Hoddo villages. A river, called Guwu, at the southern and northwest part of the mountain is also included in the cautious zone.[36] Mitigation consists of the activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ...


See also

Major volcanoes in Indonesia This is a list of volcanoes in Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Tambora. Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2006-10-07.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Stothers, Richard B. (1984). "The Great Tambora Eruption in 1815 and Its Aftermath". Science 224 (4654): 1191–1198. doi:10.1126/science.224.4654.1191. 
  3. ^ a b c Degens, E.T.; Buch, B (1989). "Sedimentological events in Saleh Bay, off Mount Tambora". Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 24 (4): 399–404. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(89)90117-8 . 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. 
  5. ^ a b c Tanguy, J.-C.; Scarth, A., Ribière, C., Tjetjep, W. S. (1998). "Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database". Bulletin of Volcanology 60 (2): 137–144. doi:10.1007/s004450050222. 
  6. ^ a b c d e University of Rhode Island (2006-02-27). "URI volcanologist discovers lost kingdom of Tambora". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-06.
  7. ^ a b c d Foden, J. (1986). "The petrology of Tambora volcano, Indonesia: A model for the 1815 eruption". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 27 (1–2): 1–41. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(86)90079-X . 
  8. ^ "Hobi Mendaki Gunung - Menyambangi Kawah Raksasa Gunung Tambora", Sinar Harapan, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-11-14. (Indonesian) 
  9. ^ West and East Nusa Tenggara Local Governments. "Potential Tourism as Factor of Economic Development in the Districts of Bima and Dompu". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  10. ^ a b Aswanir Nasution. Tambora, Nusa Tenggara Barat (in Indonesian). Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  11. ^ Foden, J; Varne, R. (1980). "The petrology and tectonic setting of Quaternary—Recent volcanic centres of Lombok and Sumbawa, Sunda arc". Chemical Geology 30 (3): 201–206. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(80)90106-0 . 
  12. ^ a b Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. (1983). "Plinian and co-ignimbrite tephra fall from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano". Bulletin of Volcanology 51 (4): 243–270. doi:10.1007/BF01073515. 
  13. ^ a b c Geology of Tambora Volcano. Vulcanological Survey of Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Tambora - Eruptive History. Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  15. ^ Tambora Historic Eruptions and Recent Activities. Vulcanological Survey of Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Raffles, S. 1830: Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, F.R.S. &c., particularly in the government of Java 1811–1816, and of Bencoolen and its dependencies 1817–1824: with details of the commerce and resources of the eastern archipelago, and selections from his correspondence. London: John Murray, cited by Oppenheimer (2003).
  17. ^ a b c Briffa, K.R.; Jones, P.D., Schweingruber, F.H. and Osborn T.J. (1998). "Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over 600 years". Nature 393: 450–455. doi:10.1038/30943. 
  18. ^ Stothers, Richard B. (2004). "Density of fallen ash after the eruption of Tambora in 1815". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 134: 343–345. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.03.010. 
  19. ^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd., p. 60. ISBN 962-593-076-0. 
  20. ^ Zollinger (1855): Besteigung des Vulkans Tamboro auf der Insel Sumbawa und Schiderung der Eruption desselben im Jahren 1815, Wintherthur: Zurcher and Fürber, Wurster and Co., cited by Oppenheimer (2003).
  21. ^ Petroeschevsky (1949): A contribution to the knowledge of the Gunung Tambora (Sumbawa). Tijdschrift van het K. Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Amsterdam Series 2 66, 688–703, cited by Oppenheimer (2003).
  22. ^ Large Holocene Eruptions. Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  23. ^ Dai, J.; Mosley-Thompson and L.G. Thompson (1991). "Ice core evidence for an explosive tropical volcanic eruption six years preceding Tambora". Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 96: 17,361–17,366. 
  24. ^ "'Pompeii of the East' discovered", BBC News, 28 February 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  25. ^ "Indonesian Volcano Site Reveals ‘Pompeii of the East’ (Update1)", Bloomberg Asia, 28 February 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  26. ^ Jong Boers, B.D. de (2007), ‘The ‘Arab’ of the Indonesian Archipelago: The Famed Horse Breeds of Sumbawa’ in: Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart (eds), Breeds of Empire: The ‘invention’ of the horse in Southern Africa and Maritime Southeast Asia, 1500-1950. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, pp 51-64.
  27. ^ Jong Boers, B.D. de (1997), ‘Sustainability and time perspective in natural resource management: The exploitation of sappan trees in the forests of Sumbawa, Indonesia (1500-1875)’, in: Peter Boomgaard, Freek Colombijn en David Henley (eds), Paper landscapes; Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, pp. 260-281.
  28. ^ "‘Lost Kingdom’ Discovered on Volcanic Island in Indonesia", National Geographic, 27 February 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  29. ^ "'Lost kingdom' springs from the ashes", International Herald Tribune, 1 March 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  30. ^ Heinrich Zollinger. Zollinger Family History Research. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  31. ^ Zollinger (1855) cited by Trainor (2002).
  32. ^ a b c d e de Jong Boers, B. (1995). "Mount Tambora in 1815: A Volcanic Eruption in Indonesia and its Aftermath". Indonesia 60: 37–59. 
  33. ^ a b Trainor, C.R. (2002). "Birds of Gunung Tambora, Sumbawa, Indonesia: effects of altitude, the 1815 catalysmic volcanic eruption and trade". Forktail 18: 49–61. 
  34. ^ Indonesian Central Statistics Bureau (1 September 2006). "Tingkat Kemiskinan di Indonesia Tahun 2005–2006" (in Indonesian). Press release. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  35. ^ Calder, Joshua (3 May 2006). Most Populous Islands. World Island Information. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  36. ^ a b c Tambora Hazard Mitigation (in Indonesian). Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  37. ^ Tambora Geophysics (in Indonesian). Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.

The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The University of Rhode Island, commonly abbreviated as URI, is the principal public research university in the State of Rhode Island, with its main campus in Kingston, Rhode Island, and three other campuses located throughout the state. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Stamford Raffles. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • C.R. Harrington (ed.). The Year without a summer? : world climate in 1816, Ottawa : Canadian Museum of Nature, 1992. ISBN 0-660-13063-7
  • Henry and Elizabeth Stommel. Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, the Year without a Summer, Newport RI. 1983. ISBN 0-915160-71-4

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mount Tambora
Indonesia Portal
  • Indonesia Volcanoes and Volcanics. Cascades Volcano Observatory. USGS.
  • Tambora, Sumbawa, Indonesia. Volcano World. Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University.
  • Tambora. Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
News in Science - 'Pompeii of the East' found in Indonesia - 01/03/2006 (462 words)
The village was buried in 3 metres of volcanic debris.
The eruption of Mount Tambora on Sumbawa island blew 200 times more magma and pulverised rock into the air than Mount St Helen's in the US state of Washington in 1980, according to Sigurdsson.
Tambora's blast also sent sulfur dioxide 43 kilometres into the air, creating a chemical chain reaction in the atmosphere that caused a year of global cooling that made 1816 "the year without a summer".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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