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Encyclopedia > Mount Ruapehu
Mount Ruapehu

Ruapehu from the Desert Road, 2005
Elevation 2,797 m (9,177 ft)
Location North Island, New Zealand
Prominence 2,797 m (9,177 ft)
Coordinates 39°17′S 175°34′ECoordinates: 39°17′S 175°34′E
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Taupo Volcanic Zone
Last eruption 25 September 2007
First ascent 1879 by G. Beetham & J. P. Maxwell
Easiest route Hike
Translation pit of noise or exploding pit (Māori)
Composite satellite image of Ruapehu
Composite satellite image of Ruapehu

Mount Ruapehu, or just Ruapehu, is an active stratovolcano at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand. It is 23 kilometres northeast of Ohakune and 40 kilometres southwest of the southern shore of Lake Taupo, within Tongariro National Park. The North Island's major skifields and only glaciers are on its slopes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2080x1544, 769 KB) Photo of Mount Ruapehu I took while driving the Desert Road, January 2005. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Thermally active area - Craters of the Moon, North Island, New Zealand. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... George Beetham, F.R.G.S., M.H.R., of Wellington and Wairarapa, made his first explorarion of Mount Ruapehu in March, 1878. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1800, 819 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mount Ruapehu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1800, 819 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mount Ruapehu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Thermally active area - Craters of the Moon, North Island, New Zealand. ... Ohakune is a town in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Tongariro National Park is the oldest national park in New Zealand, located in the central North Island. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ...


Ruapehu is one of the world's most active volcanoes[1] and the largest active volcano in New Zealand. It is the highest point in the North Island and includes three major peaks: Tahurangi (2,797 m), Te Heuheu (2,755 m) and Paretetaitonga (2,751 m). The deep, active crater is between the peaks and fills with a crater lake between major eruptions. Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... A crater lake that simply goes by the name Crater Lake, in Oregon, USA Heaven Lake (Chonji / Tianchi), North Korea / China Cuicocha, Ecuador Lake formed after 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA Mount Wenchi crater lake, Ethiopia Nemrut, Turkey Volcán Irazú, Costa Rica This page...

Contents

Volcanic activity

Ruapehu is largely composed of andesite and began erupting at least 250,000 years ago. In recorded history, major eruptions have been about 50 years apart,[1] in 1895, 1945 and 1995-1996. Minor eruptions are frequent, with at least 60 since 1945. Some of the minor eruptions in the 1970s generated small ash falls and lahars (mudflows) that damaged skifields.[2] A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ...


Between major eruptions, a warm acidic crater lake forms, fed by melting snow. Major eruptions may completely expel the lake water. Where a major eruption has deposited a tephra dam across the lake's outlet, the dam may collapse after the lake has refilled and risen above the level of its normal outlet, the outrush of water causing a large lahar. In 2000, the ERLAWS system was installed on the mountain to detect such a collapse and alert the relevant authorities. For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Fresh lahar channels scar Ruapehus eastern slopes, 27 March 2007. ...


1945 eruption and aftermath

The 1945 eruption emptied the crater lake and dammed the outlet with tephra. The crater slowly refilled with water, until on December 24, 1953 the tephra dam collapsed causing a lahar in the Whangaehu River. The lahar caused the Tangiwai disaster, with the loss of 151 lives, when the Tangiwai railway bridge across the Whangaehu River collapsed while the lahar was in full flood, just before an express train crossed it. It was already known that the river had partially undermined one of the bridge piers and the lahar finished the job, causing the bridge to collapse. Although warned of the collapsed bridge, the train driver was unable to stop the train in time and 6 of the carriages fell into the river. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Whangaehu River is a large river of the central North Island of New Zealand. ... The Tangiwai disaster on December 24, 1953 was the worst rail accident in New Zealand. ...

Ruapehu at dawn
Ruapehu at dawn

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 307 KB) Summary Ruapehu at dawn (29 January 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 307 KB) Summary Ruapehu at dawn (29 January 2005. ...

1995-96 eruptions

Spectacular eruptions occurred during 1995 and 1996. Ruapehu had been showing signs of increased activity since late November 1994, with elevated crater lake temperatures and a series of eruptions that increased in intensity over about nine months. Several lahar were observed, both in the Whangaehu River and other areas of the mountain, between September 18 and September 25, 1995, indicating the crater lake was being emptied by the eruptions. The Department of Conservation immediately issued hazard warnings and advised people to keep off the mountain, thus ending the ski season. The eruption cloud disrupted air travel, occasionally closing airports and the central North Island airspace. Episodic eruptions continued until the end of November 1995. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Department of Conservation (In Māori, Te Papa Atawhai), commonly known by its acronym, DOC, is the state sector organisation of New Zealand which deals with the conservation of New Zealand’s natural and historic heritage. ...

Major volcanoes of New Zealand

Within hours of a major eruption during the night being reported on September 25, 1995, news media were trying to get live video of the eruption and amateur photographers had published eruption images on the World Wide Web. A webcamera, dubbed the world's first "VolcanoCam", was set up. Since then Ruapehu has been monitored by at least one and sometimes several volcanocams. Download high resolution version (377x722, 18 KB) Major Volcanoes of New Zealand http://vulcan. ... Download high resolution version (377x722, 18 KB) Major Volcanoes of New Zealand http://vulcan. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The World Wide Web and WWW redirect here. ... A web camera (or webcam) is a real time camera whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video calling application. ...

Crater lake; Tahurangi, the highest peak (top right); 1996 tephra dam (bluish dark area at lake edge directly below Tahurangi); photo 2005
Crater lake; Tahurangi, the highest peak (top right); 1996 tephra dam (bluish dark area at lake edge directly below Tahurangi); photo 2005

Another, smaller, eruption phase began on the morning of June 17, 1996. The mountain was closed to visitors and the skifields were closed for the season, this time before they even opened. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 223 KB) Summary Crater Lake at top of Ruapehu (29 January 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (993x660, 223 KB) Summary Crater Lake at top of Ruapehu (29 January 2005. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


After the 1996 eruption it was recognised that a catastrophic lahar could again occur when the crater lake burst the volcanic ash dam blocking the lake outlet. This is the same mechanism that caused the 1953 lahar. The lake gradually filled with snowmelt and had reached the level of the hard rock rim by January 2005. The lahar finally occurred on the 18 March 2007 (see below).


2006 eruption

Ruapehu erupted at 10.30pm on 4 October 2006. The small eruption created a volcanic earthquake of magnitude 2.8, sending a water plume 200 m into the air and 6-m waves crashing into the wall of the crater.[3][4] is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Fresh lahar channels scar Ruapehu's eastern slopes, 27 March 2007.
Fresh lahar channels scar Ruapehu's eastern slopes, 27 March 2007.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1629 × 1377 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1629 × 1377 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

2007 lahar

On 18 March 2007, the tephra dam which had been holding back the crater lake burst, sending a lahar down the mountain. An estimated 1.4 million cubic metres of mud, rock, and water thunderered down the Whangaehu river. The Department of Conservation had received warning signals from the lahar warning system (ERLAWS) at around 10:30 that morning and closed all major roads in the area (trapping thousands of motorists) and shut down the main rail system for the North Island. Luckily the river banks held and no spill overs occurred. No serious damage was done and no one was injured. One family was trapped for around 24 hours after the lahar swept away the access route to their home.[1] is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ... Fresh lahar channels scar Ruapehus eastern slopes, 27 March 2007. ...


2007 eruption

At about 8:20pm on 25 September 2007 a hydrothermal eruption occurred without warning.[2][3] A 22 year old primary school teacher had a leg crushed by a rock during the eruption and a rescue operation was mounted to rescue him from the Dome Shelter near the crater. The rock crashed into the Dome Shelter, landed on him and was too heavy for his companion to lift off. Two lahars that travelled down the mountain activated warning signals from the lahar warning system and prompted some ski lodges on the mountain to be evacuated and the closure of roads in the area. The eruption was accompanied by a 7 minute long earthquake, 2.9 on the Richter Scale. is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ...


2008 Warnings

On the 2nd of May 2008 a level 1 warning was issued after GNS scientists who were monitoring the lake, found irregular signs of volcanic activity. This included increased chemical changes, gases and temperature. The warning was used to let visitors know the potential of an explosion was higher than usual and could happen at any time. This could also be a follow-up to last years 2007 eruption.[5] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ski fields

Ruapehu has two commercial skifields, Whakapapa on the northern side and Turoa on the southern slope. They are the two largest ski fields in New Zealand, with Whakapapa the larger. The private Tukino field is on the east of the mountain. The season is generally from July to October but depends on snow and weather conditions. Both skifields are accessible by car and chairlifts, with beginners' to advanced skiing slopes. Limited accommodation and refreshments are available at Top o' the Bruce (the car park at the top of Bruce Road) and at the entry to Whakapapa, and elsewhere on the mountain. Alpine huts are provided for trampers and climbers. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Turoa is a skifield on Mount Ruapehu in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Tukino is a skifield on the eastern side of Mount Ruapehu in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Hunter Mountain chairlift A chairlift in Bad Hofgastein, Austria A chairlift (technically, an elevated passenger ropeway), is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and usually over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ...


Weather

Ruapehu in summer
Ruapehu in summer
Ruapehu in January 2002
Ruapehu in January 2002

Weather conditions can be changeable over the day, and mountain visitors are advised to be prepared and carry basic survival equipment. Although severe weather is unusual and generally forecast, it has claimed several lives over the years, including a party of soldiers undergoing winter survival training in 1990. During the same storm a Japanese tourist was trapped in a snow cave for several days after he made the shelter when the weather unexpectedly closed in on him. On July 5, 2003 about 350 skiers and 70 skifield staff were trapped on the mountain overnight at Top o'the Bruce when a sudden snow storm blew up and within a few minutes made the access road too dangerous to descend. They spent the night in relative comfort and all descended safely the next morning. Such rapidly changing conditions are typical of the weather on New Zealand mountains. Mount Ruapehu seen from the Desert Road. ... Mount Ruapehu seen from the Desert Road. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x537, 47 KB) Mount Ruapehu im Tongariro-Nationalpark Fotograf: Mirko Thiessen (Baldhur) Ort: Neuseeland, Nordinsel, Januar 1992 from German Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Ruapehu ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x537, 47 KB) Mount Ruapehu im Tongariro-Nationalpark Fotograf: Mirko Thiessen (Baldhur) Ort: Neuseeland, Nordinsel, Januar 1992 from German Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Ruapehu ... This article is about the year. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The following is a list of the highest mountains in New Zealand, and also of some other notable mountains and hills, ordered by height. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b New Zealand Department of Conservation. Crater Lake. Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  2. ^ New Zealand Department of Conservation. Central North Island Volcanoes. Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  3. ^ Ruapehu Volcanic warning update. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  4. ^ Feek, Belinda. "High-risk warning on Ruapehu remains", Wanganui Chronicle, 7 October 2006. 
  5. ^ Mt Ruapehu shows signs of erupting - DOC. The New Zealand Herald (2 May 2008).

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wanganui Chronicle is New Zealands oldest newspaper based in Wanganui, New Zealand. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the officer of arms, see New Zealand Herald Extraordinary. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

GNS Science (Māori: Te Pū Ao) is a New Zealand Crown Research Institute. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Image of Ruapehu, New Zealand (822 words)
Ruapehu, the tallest mountain on the North Island, is a massive andesite stratovolcano.
Current status of Ruapehu is reported on the IGNS homepage.
Cronin, S.J., and Neall, V.E., A late Quaternary stratigraphic framework for the northeastern Ruapehu and eastern Tongariro ring plains, New Zealand: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v.
GNS:Volcanoes (6093 words)
Ruapehu volcano is the southernmost of the large active volcanoes of the North Island.
Ruapehu is located at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), a spreading segment of the Earth’s crust and the source of spectacularly explosive eruptions over the last 2 million years.
Ruapehu’s third major ash eruption of this episode began in the early morning of 17 June 1996 when a strong southerly wind carried the ash in a narrow plume northwards across Rotorua.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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