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Encyclopedia > Mount Kenya
Mount Kenya

Elevation 5,199 metres (17,058 ft)
Location Kenya
Prominence 3,825 m (12,546 ft) Ranked 32nd
Coordinates 0°9′S 37°18′E / -0.15, 37.3Coordinates: 0°9′S 37°18′E / -0.15, 37.3
Topo map private, Mt Kenya by Wielochowski and Savage
Type Stratovolcano (extinct)
Last eruption 2.6-3.1 Ma
First ascent 1899 by Halford Mackinder
Easiest route rock climb
Listing Seven Second Summits
Mount Kenya lies in the Kenyan highlands, 150 km (95 miles) north-northeast of Nairobi and just northeast of Nyeri. Mount Kenya lies in the Kenyan highlands, 150 km (95 miles) north-northeast of Nairobi and just northeast of Nyeri.
Mount Kenya lies in the Kenyan highlands, 150 km (95 miles) north-northeast of Nairobi and just northeast of Nyeri.[1]
Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. The central peaks formed the volcanic plug and have since been exposed through glacial erosion.
Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano.[2] The central peaks formed the volcanic plug and have since been exposed through glacial erosion.[3]

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya, and the second-highest in Africa (after Mount Kilimanjaro). The highest peaks of the mountain are Batian (5,199 m - 17,058 ft), Nelion (5,188 m - 17,022 ft) and Lenana (4,985 m - 16,355 ft). Mount Kenya is located in central Kenya, just south of the equator, around 150 km (95 miles) north-northeast of Nairobi. The area around the mountain is protected in the Mount Kenya National Park, which is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. The National Park is around 620 km² (240 square miles), and receives up to 15,000 visitors every year[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... This is a list of peaks by prominence; that is, a list of mountains on Earth ordered by their topographic prominence. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer and geopolitician. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... List of mountain ranges List of mountains of the Alps List of mountain types List of mountains List of mountains by elevation List of highest mountains List of tallest mountains by country List of peaks by prominence List of mountains in Albania List of mountains in Argentina List of mountains... The Seven Second Summits are the second highest mountains of each of the seven continents. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (707 × 844 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lizenz: Public Domain, Bestätigung siehe hier und Wikipedia:Karten File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (604x720, 115 KB) Kenya relief map with town names for Nairobi, Mombasa, Naivasha, Nakuru, Nyeri, Gilgil, Kisumu, Kakamega, Eldoret, Embu, etc. ... Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... Nyeri is a town and a district in Kenya about 120km north of the capital Nairobi. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Kenya Gallery of mountains ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Kenya Gallery of mountains ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... Volcanic plug near Rhumsiki, Far North Province, Cameroon A volcanic plug, also called a volcanic neck or lava neck, is a volcanic landform created when lava hardens within a vent on an active volcano. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Kilimanjaro (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... Mount Kenya National Park, established in 1949, protects the region surrounding Mt. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

History

The mountain is an extinct (dead) volcano standing alone, which last erupted between 2.6 and 3.1 million years ago. Its slopes include several different biomes; the lowest parts are dry upland forest, changing to montane forest of juniper and podocarpus at about 2,000 m (6,500 ft), with a belt of bamboo at 2,500 m (about 8,000 ft) that changes to an upper forest of smaller trees covered with moss and "goat's beard" lichen. Above a distinct timberline at about 3,500 m (11,500 ft), there is an afroalpine zone, with its characteristic giant rosette plants. Twelve small (and rapidly shrinking) glaciers may be found scattered among the complex of peaks, of which Batian and Nelion are the highest. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A biome is a major class of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often reffered to as ecosystems. ... Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park (US) showing recession since 1850 of 1. ... This article is about the geological formation. ...


The missionary Johann Ludwig Krapf was the first European to report a sighting of Mount Kenya, in 1849. The first recorded ascent of Mount Kenya was made by Halford John Mackinder, C. Ollier and J. Brocherel on 13 September 1899. The highest point (Batian) is a technical climb; the classic Diamond Couloir climbing route is a Grade IV of about 20 pitches, up to YDS 5.9 in difficulty. Nelion was first climbed by Eric Shipton in 1929, and Shipton and Bill Tilman completed the traverse of the ridge between the two highest peaks. Point Lenana, at 4,985 m (16,355 ft), can be reached by a hiking trail. Mount Kenya is best climbed in January or February on the south side and August or September on the north side. Johann Ludwig Krapf (born January 11, 1810 in Tübingen-Derendingen; died November 26, 1881 in Korntal-Münchingen) was a German missionary in East Africa, an explorer, linguist, and traveler. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer and geopolitician. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ... This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering. ... The Yosemite Decimal System is a numerical system for rating the difficulty of walks, hikes, and climbs, primarily used for mountaineering in the United States. ... Eric Shipton (1907 - 1977) was a Himalayan mountaineering legend. ... Bill Tilman Major Harold William Bill Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar (14 February 1898–1977) was a mountaineer and explorer, famous for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages. ...


Mount Kenya is home to one of the Global Atmosphere Watch's atmospheric monitoring stations. Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ...


On July 21, 2003, a South African registered aircraft, carrying 12 passengers and two crew, crashed into Mount Kenya at Point Lenana: nobody survived.[5][6] This was not the first aircraft lost on the mountain; there is also the wreckage of at least one helicopter that crashed before 1972.[7] is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Exploration

European discovery

Johann Ludwig Krapf was the first European to see Mount Kenya in 1849. His reports of snow on the equator were riduculed by the scientific community.

Mount Kenya was the second of the three highest peaks in Africa to be discovered by Europeans. It was first seen by Dr Johann Ludwig Krapf, a German missionary, from Kitui,[8] a town 160 km (100 miles)[1] away from the mountain. The discovery was made on 3 December 1849,[9] a year after the discovery of Kilimanjaro. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Johann Ludwig Krapf (born January 11, 1810 in Tübingen-Derendingen; died November 26, 1881 in Korntal-Münchingen) was a German missionary in East Africa, an explorer, linguist, and traveler. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Kitui is a rural town in Kenya, 130 kilometres East of Nairobi and 75 kilometres East of Machakos. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Dr Krapf was told by the Embu tribe that lived around the mountain that they did not ascend high on the mountain because of the intense cold and the white matter that rolled down the mountains with a loud noise. This led him to imply that glaciers existed on the mountain.[8] The Kikuyu confirmed these happenings. Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Count Samuel Teleki was the first European to set foot on Mount Kenya. His expedition reached 4,350 m (14,270 ft).

Dr Krapf also noted that the rivers flowing from Mt Kenya, and other mountains in the area, were continuously flowing. This is very different to the usual rivers of the area, which fill in the wet season and dry up completely after the rains have finished. As the streams flow even in the driest seasons he concluded that there must be a source of water up on the mountain, in the form of glaciers.[8] He believed the mountain to be the source of the White Nile.[10] Samuel Teleki (copied fromhttp://de. ... Samuel Teleki (copied fromhttp://de. ... Categories: Stub | 1845 births | 1916 deaths | Explorers ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ...


In 1851 Krapf returned to Kitui. He travelled 40 miles closer to the mountain, but did not see it again. In 1877 Hildebrandt was in the Kitui area and heard stories about the mountain, but also did not see it. Since there were no confirmations to back up Krapf's claim people began to be suspicious.[11]


Evenutally, in 1883, Joseph Thomson passed close by the west side of the mountain and confirmed Krapf's claim. He diverted his expedition and reached 2743 m (9,000 ft) up the slopes of the mountain but had to retreat because of trouble with local tribes.[12] However, the first true exploration of the mountain was achieved in 1887 by Count Samuel Teleki and Ludwig von Höhnel. He managed to reach 4350 m (14,270 ft) on the south western slopes.[13] On this expedition they believed they had found the crater of a volcano. Joseph Thomson (February 14, 1858 - August 2, 1895) was a Scottish geologist and explorer who played an important part in the Scramble for Africa. ... Categories: Stub | 1845 births | 1916 deaths | Explorers ... Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel Lieutenant Ludwig Ritter von Höhnel (6 August 1857 – 23 March 1942) was a Austrian naval officer and explorer. ...


In 1892 Teleki and von Höhnel returned to the eastern side, but were unable to get through the forest.[14]


Finally, in 1893, an expedition managed to ascend Mount Kenya as far as the glaciers. This expedition was travelling from the coast to the Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley, and was led by Dr John W Gregory, a British geologist. They managed to ascend the mountain to around 4730 m (15,520 ft), and spent several hours on the Lewis Glacier with their guide. On his return to Britain, Gregory published papers and a narrative account of his achievements.[15] Lake Baringo is, after Lake Turkana, the most northern of the Great Rift Valley lakes of Kenya, with a surface area of about 130 sq km. ... John Walter Gregory (27 January 1864 - 2 June 1932) was a British geologist. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


George Kolb, a German physician, made expeditions in 1894 and 1896 and was the first to reach the moorlands on the east side of the mountain. However, far more exploration was achieved after 1899 when the railway was completed as far as the site of Nairobi. Access to the mountain was far easier from here than from Mombasa on the coast. The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ...


Mackinder's expedition

On 28 July 1899,[16] Sir Halford John Mackinder set out from the site of Nairobi on an expedition to Mt Kenya. The members of the expedition consisted of 6 Europeans, 66 Swahilis, 2 tall Maasai guides and 96 Kikuyu (Gĩkũyũ). The Europeans were Campbell B Hausberg, second in command and photographer, Douglas Saunders, botanist, C F Camburn, taxidermist, Cesar Ollier, guide, and Josef Brocherel, guide and porter.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (723x747, 38 KB)Halford John Mackinder. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (723x747, 38 KB)Halford John Mackinder. ... Categories: People stubs | 1861 births | 1947 deaths | British MPs | English geographers | Geopoliticians ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania, and north Mozambique. ... Languages Maa (É”l Maa) Religions Monotheism Christianity The Maasai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A photographer at the Calgary Folk Music Festival Paparazzi at the Tribeca Film Festival A photographer is a person who takes a photograph using a camera. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A mounted snow leopard. ... Austrian mountain guides Anselm Klotz (left) and Josef Frey (right), 19th century This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Halford Mackinder, Cesar Ollier and Josef Brocherel made the first ascent of Batian on the 13th of September 1899. The photo shows Mackinder and Ollier.
Halford Mackinder, Cesar Ollier and Josef Brocherel made the first ascent of Batian on the 13th of September 1899. The photo shows Mackinder and Ollier.

The expedition made it as far as the mountain, but encountered many difficulties on the way. The country they passed through was full of plague and famine. Many Kikuyu porters tried to desert with women from the villages, others stole from the villages which made the chiefs very hostile towards the expedition. When they reached the base camp on 18 August,[16] they couldn't find any food, had two of their party killed by the local people, and eventually had to send Saunders to Naivasha to get help from Captain Gorges, the Government Officer there.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: People stubs | 1861 births | 1947 deaths | British MPs | Geographers | Geopoliticians ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... In climbing, a base camp may be set up to provide the starting point for a multiple day or week assault on climbing a mountain. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The town of Naivasha is northwest of Nairobi (lower center), toward the Uganda border (click map to enlarge). ...


Mackinder pushed on up the mountain, and established a camp at 3142 m (10,310 ft)[16] in the Höhnel Valley. He made his first attempt on the summit on 30 August with Ollier and Brocherel up the south east face, but they had to retreat when they were within 100 m (yds) of the summit of Nelion due to nightfall. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ...


On 5 September, Hausberg, Ollier and Brocherel made a circuit of the main peaks looking for an easier route to the summit. They could not find one. On 11 September Ollier and Brocherel made an ascent of the Darwin Glacier, but were forced to retreat due to a blizzard.[16] is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Blizzard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When Saunders returned from Naivasha with the relief party, Mackinder had another attempt at the summit with Ollier and Brocherel. They traversed the Lewis Glacier and climbed the south east face of Nelion. They spent the night near the gendarme, and traversed the snowfield at the head of the Darwin Glacier at dawn before cutting steps up the Diamond Glacier. They reached the summit of Batian at noon on 13th September, and descended by the same route.[16] Gendarme (pronounced ) can mean: Gendarme (historical): a horseman, usually of noble birth, belonging to the cavalry of the French army in the late-Medieval to Early Modern periods of European history A military police officer belonging a gendarmerie. ... A snow field (also called a snowfield) is an extensive terrain covered by a smooth surface of snow. ...







1900-1930

Shipton and Russell made the first ascent of Pt John up the south-east gully in 1929
Shipton and Russell made the first ascent of Pt John up the south-east gully in 1929

After the first ascent of Mt Kenya there were fewer expeditions there for a while. The majority of the exploration until after the First World War was by settlers in Kenya, who were not on scientific expeditions. A Church of Scotland mission was set up in Chogoria, and several Scottish missionaries ascended to the peaks, including Rev Dr J W Arthur, G Dennis and A R Barlow. There were other ascents, but none succeeded in summitting Batian or Nelion.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chogoria is a town located in Mwimbi Division of Meru South District in the Eastern Province of Kenya. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Dr John Arthur in later life John William Arthur, OBE, MD (born Glasgow, 1881, died Edinburgh, 1952) was a medical missionary and Church of Scotland minister who served in British East Africa (Kenya) from 1907 to 1937. ...


New approach routes were cleared through the forest, which made access to the peaks area far easier. In 1920 Arthur and Sir Fowell Buxton tried to cut a route in from the south, and other routes came in from Nanyuki in the north, but the most commonly used was the route from the Chogoria mission in the east, built by Ernest Carr. Carr is also credited with building Urumandi and Top Huts.[15] Nanyuki is a market town in central Kenya, lying north west of Mount Kenya. ...


On 6 January 1929 the first ascent of Nelion was made by Percy Wyn-Harris and Eric Shipton. They climbed the Normal Route, then descended to the Gate of Mists before ascending Batian. On the 8 January they reascended, this time with G A Sommerfelt, and in December Shipton made another ascent with R E G Russell. They also made the first ascent of Point John. During this year the Mountain Club of East Africa was formed.[15] is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Percy Wyn-Harris (born 1903, died 1979) was an English mountaineer and yachtsman and was Colonial governor of The Gambia between 1949 and 1958. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the end of July 1930, Shipton and Bill Tilman made the first traverse of the peaks. They ascended by the West Ridge of Batian, traversed the Gate of Mists to Nelion, and descended the Normal Route. During this trip, Shipton and Tilman made first ascents of several other peaks, including Point Peter, Point Dutton, Midget Peak, Point Pigott and either Terere or Sendeyo.[17]


1931 to present day

In the early 1930s there were several visits to the moorlands around Mt Kenya, with fewer as far as the peaks. Raymond Hook and Humphrey Slade ascended to map the mountain, and stocked several of the streams with trout. By 1938 there had been several more ascents of Nelion. In February Miss C Carol and Mtu Muthara became the first woman and African respectively to ascend Nelion, in an expedition with Noel Symington, author of The Night Climbers of Cambridge, and on 5 March Miss Una Cameron became the first woman to ascent Batian. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Whipplesnaith is a pseudonym used by the author(s) of The Night Climbers of Cambridge. ... The Night Climbers of Cambridge is a book written under the pseudonym Whipplesnaith about nocturnal climbing on the Colleges and town buildings of Cambridge in the 1930s. ... This article is about the day. ...


During the Second World War there was another drop in ascents of the mountain. Perhaps the most notable of this period is that of three Italian Prisoners of War, who were being held in Nanyuki, and escaped to climb the mountain before returning to the camp and "escaping" back in. No Picnic on Mount Kenya tells the story of the prisoners' exploit.[18] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In 1949 the Mountain Club of Kenya split from the Mountain Club of East Africa, and the area above 3,400 m (11,150 ft) was designated a National Park.[15] A road was built from Naro Moru to the moorlands allowing easier access. Nano Moru is a small market town in central Kenya, lying on the Naro Moru River, between Nyeri and Nanyuki. ...


Many new routes were climbed on Batian and Nelion in the next three decades, and in October 1959 the Mountain Club of Kenya produced their first guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro.[17] In the early 1970s the Mount Kenya National Park Mountain Rescue Team was formed, and by the end of the 1970s all major routes on the peaks had been climbed.[17] Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment, although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in other wilderness environments. ...


In 1997 Mount Kenya was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[19]


Local culture

The main tribes living around Mount Kenya are Gĩkũyũ, Embu, Maasai and Kamba. They all see the mountain as an important aspect of their cultures. There is another municipality that begins with Embu, see Embu-Guaçu and there is an Embu in Kenya, see Embu, Kenya Embu, also das Artes, is a Brazilian city of the State of São Paulo, it is a suburb of the capital. ... Languages Maa (É”l Maa) Religions Monotheism Christianity The Maasai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... There is also Kemba in Gabon, see Kemba, Gabon Mukamba, pre 1923 The Kamba (Mukamba in singular, Akamba in the plural) are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the semi-arid Eastern Province of Kenya stretching east from Nairobi to Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya. ...


Gĩkũyũ

Several tribes that live around Mount Kenya believe the mountain to be sacred. For this reason they build their houses facing the mountain, with the doors on the side nearest it.
Several tribes that live around Mount Kenya believe the mountain to be sacred. For this reason they build their houses facing the mountain, with the doors on the side nearest it.

The Gĩkũyũ live on the southern and eastern sides of the mountain. They are agriculturalists, and make use of the highly fertile volcanic soil on the lower slopes. The Gĩkũyũ people believe that their God, Ngai lives on Mount Kenya.[20] They build their houses with the doors facing the mountain. The Gĩkũyũ name for Mount Kenya is 'Kĩrĩ Nyaga' (Kirinyaga), which literally translates to 'has ostriches'. The mountain looks like an ostrich; black body and white tip (tail feathers). God's name in Kikuyu is also 'Mwene Nyaga' meaning owner of the ostriches. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2226 × 1170 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2226 × 1170 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ... Ngai (Enkai, En-kai, Engai, Eng-ai, Mweai, Mwiai) is the supreme God in the monotheistic religions of the Kamba, Kikuyu and Maasai tribes of Kenya. ... Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya, and the second-highest in Africa (after Mount Kilimanjaro). ...


Embu

The Embu people believe that Mount Kenya is the home of their god, Ngai. The mountain is sacred, and they build their houses with the doors facing it.[21] The Embu name for Mount Kenya is Kirenia, which means mountain of whiteness.


Maasai

The Maasai are nomadic people, who use the land to the north of the mountain to graze their cattle. They believe that their ancestors came down from the mountain at the beginning of time.[21] The Maasai names for Mount Kenya are Ol Donyo Eibor and Ol Donyo Egere, which mean white mountain and speckled mountain respectively. Languages Maa (ɔl Maa) Religions Monotheism Christianity The Maasai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ...


The Ameru

The Ameru occupy the East and North of the Mountain. They are generally agricultural and also keep livestock. They occupy among the most fertile land in kenya. The Meru names for the Mt. Kenya are Kirimara (That which has white stuff or snow). Some Meru songs refer to 'Kirimara no makengi'(The mountain is all speckles.)


Other tribes

The first Europeans to visit Mount Kenya often brought members of other tribes as guides and porters. Many of these people had never experienced the cold, or seen snow and ice before. Their reactions were often fearful and suspicious.

Another trait of the Zanzibari character was shown at the same camp. In the morning the men came to tell me that the water they had left in the cooking-pots was all bewitched. They said it was white, and would not shake; the adventurous Fundi had even hit it with a stick, which would not go in. They begged me to look at it, and I told them to bring it to me. They declined, however, to touch it, and implored me to go to it. The water of course had frozen solid. I put one of the pots on the fire, and predicted that it would soon turn again into water. The men sat round and anxiously watched it; when it had melted they joyfully told me that the demon was expelled, and I told them they could now use this water; but as soon as my back was turned they poured it away, and refilled their pots from an adjoining brook.

J W Gregory, The Great Rift Valley[11]

Mackinder's expedition of 1899 met some men from the Wanderobo tribe. They were at about 3,600 m (12,000 ft), and are an example of a tribe that use the mountain for normal purposes.[14]


Main Peaks of Mount Kenya

Batian on the left, Nelion on the right, and Slade in the foreground
Batian on the left, Nelion on the right, and Slade in the foreground
  • Batian (5199 m - 17,058 ft)
  • Nelion (5188 m - 17,022 ft)
  • Pt Lenana (4985 m - 16,355 ft)
  • Coryndon Peak (4960 m - 16,273 ft)
  • Pt Pigott (4957 m - 16,266 ft)
  • Pt Thompson (4955 m - 15,466 ft)
  • Pt Dutton (4885 m - 16,027 ft)
  • Pt John (4883 m - 16,016 ft)
  • Pt Melhuish (4880 m - 16,010 ft)
  • Pt John Minor (4875 m - 15,990 ft)
  • Krapf Rognon (4800 m - 15,740 ft)[17]
  • Pt Peter (4757 m - 15,607 ft)
  • Pt Slade (4750 m - 15,580 ft)
  • Terere (4714 m - 15,462 ft)
  • Sendeyo (4704 m - 15,433 ft)
  • Midget Peak (4700 m - 15,420 ft)
  • The Hat (4639 m - 15,220 ft)
  • Delamere Peak
  • Macmillan Peak

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Glaciers on Mount Kenya

The Lewis glacier is the largest on Mount Kenya
The Lewis glacier is the largest on Mount Kenya

The glaciers on Mount Kenya are retreating rapidly. The Mountain Club of Kenya in Nairobi has photographs showing the mountain when it was first climbed in 1899, and again more recently, and the retreat of the glaciers is very evident.[22] Descriptions of ascents of several of the peaks advise on the use of crampons, but now there is no ice to be found. There is no new snow to be found, even on the Lewis Glacier (the largest of them) in winter, so no new ice will be formed. It is predicted to be less than 30 years before there is no more ice on Mount Kenya.[21] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1128 pixel, file size: 719 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1128 pixel, file size: 719 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ...


The area of glaciers on the mountain was measured in the 1980s, and recorded as about 0.7 km² (0.25 square miles).[23] This is far smaller than the first observations, made in the 1890s.


Clockwise from the north:

  • Northey
  • Krapf
  • Gregory
  • Lewis
  • Diamond
  • Darwin
  • Forel
  • Heim
  • Tyndall
  • Cesar
  • Josef

Water streams starting around Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the main water catchment area for two large rivers in Kenya; the Tana, the largest river in Kenya, and the Ewaso Ng'iro North.[4] The Mount Kenya ecosystem provides water directly for over 2 million people.[4] The streams that start on Mount Kenya are:

  • the Sirimon
  • the Liki
  • the Nanyuki
  • Mutonga
  • Kithino
  • the Nazita
  • Thingithu
  • the Nitmi
  • the Tnuchi
  • Kathita
  • the Nyamindi
  • the Sagana
  • the Nairobi
  • the Naro Moru
  • the Burguret

Nairobi River is a river flowing through the Kenyan capital Nairobi. ...

Ecology of Mount Kenya

The flora and fauna of Mount Kenya is very diverse, due to the differences in altitude, rainfall, aspect and temperature. The mountain slopes are often split up into zones, with each zone having different dominant plant species. Most plants on Mount Kenya do not have common English names.[15] Wet weather on the mountain comes from the Indian Ocean, to the east and south-east. Consequently these slopes are wettest.[23]


Lowlands surrounding the mountain

The area surrounding the mountain is around 1000 m (3,250 ft) in height. It is very hot and dry, and mainly covered with grasslands and thorny scrub.[15] Savannah may refer to: Four cities in the United States: Savannah, Georgia, a city known for its historic district Savannah River, which flows past the Georgia city Savannah River Site, a nuclear facility near Augusta, Georgia, upriver from Savannah Savannah, Missouri Savannah, New York Savannah, Tennessee sav is so awesome... Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ...


Cultivated zone

The lower slopes of Mount Kenya are very fertile and the area is heavily cultivated
The lower slopes of Mount Kenya are very fertile and the area is heavily cultivated

The lower slopes of the mountain have a huge potential for cultivation. The soils are moist and very fertile due to volcanic activity.[15] The slopes below 1,800 m (5,900 ft) are intensively farmed, producing tea, coffee, beans, maize, bananas, potatoes and vegetables. A few large scale farms have been set up, where wheat and barley are grown. Livestock are also kept in less productive areas, particularly cows for their milk.[4][24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 1. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... A cup of coffee. ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... “Corn” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ...


The crops grown around the mountain differ, as the amount of rainfall between the northern and southern slopes is very different. The southern slopes are much wetter, so are ideal for growing tea and coffee, whereas the northern slopes are too dry for these crops. A system of irrigation has been developed which has increased productivity.[4] However, as so many people in Kenya are dependent on the rainfall on the mountain, this is reducing the amount of water that gets to more distant areas and causing drought there. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


Between 1,800 and 2,500 m (5,900-8,200 ft) there is sub-montane forest, which is exploited by the local people. There are many forest based industries, such as sawmills, furniture and construction, based around these slopes.[4] A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... welcome:: This is an article about items in a room. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Montane forest

The montane forest around Mount Kenya is full of a variety of species
The montane forest around Mount Kenya is full of a variety of species

The lower limit of the forest is between 2,000 and 2,500 m (6,550-8,200 ft).[15] Here again, there are differences in the vegetation on different aspects of the mountain. On the south-east slopes the dominant species is Ocotea usambarensis, which can grow up to 45 m (150 ft). Mosses, lichens and ferns also grow here.[24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Ocotea usambarensis Engl. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as the phycobiont) that can produce food for the lichen from sunlight. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ...


On the northern slopes the dominant species is the East African juniper Juniperus procera.[24] This can be over 30 m (100 ft) tall and is used as softwood timber. Also used as timber is Podo, Podocarpus milanjianus, which can grow to 45 m (150 ft).[24] The African Olive Olea africana is common in drier forest and at lower elevations. Schefflera is similar to strangler figs, where it starts as an epiphyte and kills the host tree. Common shrubs are elderberry Sambucus africanus, and raspberry. Herbs are common in the forest. Most common are clover (Trifolium), Shamrock pea (Parochetus communis), sunflecks (Guizotia reptans), orchids (Impatiens spp.), mints (Leonotis spp.and Plectranthus spp.) and stinging nettles (Urtica massaica).[15] Binomial name Juniperus procera Hochst. ... species 105 species (Farjon 1998); see list Podocarpus is a genus of conifers, the most numerous and widely distributed of the podocarp family Podocarpaceae. ... Species Olea is a genus of about 20 species in the family Oleaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. ... Species See text Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5–30 species of shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... Trifolium can mean: A type of Clover The universal symbol for radiation and radioactive materials This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Parochetus is a genus of perennial herbs. ... Species Many, see text. ... Species See text Impatiens namchabarwensis Impatiens rosulata Impatiens parviflora Impatiens is a genus of about 900-1000 species of flowering plants in the family Balsaminaceae. ... Species About 30, including: Leonotis leonurus Leonotis nepetifolia Leonotis ocymifolia The genus Leonotis (Lions Ear or Lions-Tail) consists of about 30 species of plants in the family Lamiaceae. ... Species See text. ... “Nettles” redirects here. ...


Many species of animals live in the montane forest. Some are residents, and others visit from the surrounding land. Various species of monkeys, several antelopes, tree hyrax and some larger animals such as elephant and buffalo all live in the forest. Zebra are only found on the northern slopes, where the forest belt is narrowest. Some rare species, such as the giant forest hog, suni, and mountain bongo are found here. Predators include hyena and leopard, and occasionally lion.[24] Many bird species are also found here, including turacos, francolins and hornbills.[24] Various types of sunbirds, parrots, swallows and mountain buzzards are common. At the Met Station, on the Naro Moru route, the Green ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) and Abyssinian ground-thrush are found,[15] both of which are rare. Also on the Naro Moru route buffalo have been observed digging the soil with their horns and eating it. This is probably because of the iron in the soil, which is necessary for adaptation to altitude.[25] For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Genera Aepyceros Alcelaphus Antidorcas Antilope Cephalophus Connochaetes Damaliscus Gazella Hippotragus Kobus Madoqua Neotragus Oreotragus Oryx Ourebia Pantholops Procapra Sylvicapra Taurotragus Tragelaphus and others Antelope are herbivorous mammals of the family Bovidae, often noted for their horns. ... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; Afrikaans: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Thomas, 1904 The Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) is the largest wild member of the pig family Suidae. ... Suni (Scientific name: Neotragus moschatus) are the smallest antelopes in the world. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus eurycerus Ogilby, 1837 The Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus is a large African forest antelope species. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaenidae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Genera Corythaeola Tauraco Ruwenzorornis Musophaga Corythaixoides Crinifer The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae (literally banana-eaters). ... Species 41, see text The francolins are the species of bird in the genus Francolinus of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... Genera Aceros Anorrhinus Anthracoceros Buceros Bucorvus Ceratogymna (=Bycanistes) Ocyceros Penelopides Tockus Hornbills (Family Bucerotidae) are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cows horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. ... Genera Many: see text The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig-parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy-parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and Kea) Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots) Tribe Psittrichadini (Pesquets Parrot) Tribe... Genera Many, see text. ... Binomial name Buteo oreophilus Hartert &Neumann, 1914 The Mountain Buzzard, (Buteo oreophilus), is a bird that lives in east and central Africa[1]. It lives in montane forests and their adjacent grasslands. ... Binomial name Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789) The Green Ibis, Mesembrinibis cayennensis, is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. ... Binomial name Zoothera piaggiae (Bouvier, 1877) The Abyssinian Ground-thrush Zoothera piaggiae is a passerine bird native to north-east Africa. ...


Bamboo zone

The bamboo suppresses other vegetation growth, roads allow other species to populate.
The bamboo suppresses other vegetation growth, roads allow other species to populate.

The bamboo zone is found in the middle of the forest zone. It is entirely natural, and not the result of deforestation.[15] Bamboo is very dependent on rainfall. For this reason it is very sparse in the north, and in some places absent entirely. In the west the bamboo can grow up to 9 m (30 ft), and in the wetter south-eastern slopes it can grow as high as 15 m (50 ft).[24] Bamboo suppresses other vegetation, but there are scattered trees in this zone, including juniper and witch-hazel, plus varieties of flowers, ferns and mosses.[24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (884 × 883 pixel, file size: 913 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (884 × 883 pixel, file size: 913 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Witch hazel is the name of: Witch-hazel: Hamamelis, a genus of decorative shrubs in North America and east Asia. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As bamboo is not palatable to most animals, there is very little resident fauna here. However, there are many tracks through the bamboo made by large animals such as buffalo and elephant on their way between the forests and the moorland higher up the mountain.


Timberline forest

Mosses are common in the timberline forest
Mosses are common in the timberline forest

The timberline forest is usually found between 3,000 and 3,500 m (9,850-11,500 ft), although it extends to lower altitudes on the drier slopes.[15] Smaller trees dominate in the timberline forest, and the characteristic trees are African rosewood (Hagenia abyssinica) and Giant St John's Wort (Hypericum). The common flowers are red-hot poker (Kniphofia thomsonii), giant forest lobelia (Lobelia bambuseti) and violets (Viola spp.).[15][24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Hagenia abyssinica Willd. ... Species See text Hypericum is a genus of about 400 species of flowering plants in the family Clusiaceae, formerly often treated separately in their own family the Hypericaceae. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ...

Red-hot pokers are some of the flowers found in timberline forest and lower heathland zones
Red-hot pokers are some of the flowers found in timberline forest and lower heathland zones

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Heathland and chaparral

Heathland and chaparral are found between 3,200 and 3,800 m (10,500-12,500 ft). Heathland is found in the wetter areas, and chaparral is found in the drier ones. Most of the plants in these areas are shrubs with small leaves. The dominant plants in the heathland areas are Erica, which can grow to over 10 m tall. In chaparral the plants are often shrubbier and more aromatic, such as African sage (Artemisia afra) and sugarbush (Protea kilimanjaro).[15] For other uses, see Erika. ... Binomial name Artemisia afra Jacq. ... Species See text Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes. ...


Herbs found in the heathland and chaparral zone are gentians (Swertia spp.) and sedges (Carex spp.), with alpine species living higher up in the zone.[15] Genera Many, see text Gentianaceae, or the Gentian family, is a family of plants in about 80 genera and some 900 species. ... Carex (L., 1753) is a genus of plants in the family Cyperaceae, commonly known as sedges (although other, related species are also called sedges, those of genus Carex may be called true sedges). ...


Animals in this zone are a mixture of forest and alpine species. There are few resident large animals in this zone, but rats, mice and voles live at this altitude, and their predators, the eagles, buzzards and kites, are present.[24] Herds of eland are sometimes found, and occasional lions, but there are no longer rhino on Mount Kenya. Binomial name Taurotragus oryx Pallas, 1766 The Common Eland (Taurotragus oryx) is a savannah and plain antelope found in East and Southern Africa. ... Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ...


Afro-alpine zone

Giant groundsels in the Mackinder Valley
Giant groundsels in the Mackinder Valley

The Afro-alpine zone starts at about 3,800 m (12,500 ft). It is characterised by thin dry air and a huge temperature fluctuation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1711x1189, 597 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mount Kenya Mount Kenya National Park ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1711x1189, 597 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mount Kenya Mount Kenya National Park ...

The inflorescence of Lobelia telekii can grow up to 3 m (10 ft) tall
The inflorescence of Lobelia telekii can grow up to 3 m (10 ft) tall

Plants are subject to solifluction, where needle-ice is produced every night.[26] This ice uproots seedlings and can damage roots. Some plants have evolved to live without roots, such as lichens and moss-balls. Giant groundsel (Senecio keniodendron) and Lobelia keniensis have spongy areas between the cells in their leaves where water can freeze every night without damaging the plants.[27] When these plants are subjected to temperatures above 15°C (59°F), photosynthesis is considerably reduced.[26] For this reason they are restricted to the Afro-alpine zone of the mountain. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 137 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (199 × 867 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 137 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (199 × 867 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Binomial name Lobelia telekii The inflorescence of Lobelia telekii can grow up to 3m (10ft) tall Lobelia telekii is a member of the lobelia family found in the tropics. ... Binomial name Senecio keniodendron (R.E.Fries and T.C.E.Fr. ... Binomial name Lobelia deckenii Lobelia deckenii is a species of giant lobelia of the mountains of East Africa. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Vegetation becomes more sparse at this altitude, with small and giant heathers being dominant. Some, the Philippias, can grow as high as 10 m (33 ft).[24] The dominant plant in the Afro-alpine zone on Mount Kenya is the grass Festuca pilgeri[28] Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ...


There are three kinds of giant rosette plants; Carduus, Senecio and Lobelia. Carduus keniensis, the giant thistle, is endemic to Mount Kenya and the Aberdares. Giant groundsels, Senecio spp., are only found on East African mountains. They have leaves up to 10 m (33 ft) and some species have stems. Species See text Carduus is a genus of about 90 species of thistles in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe, Asia and Africa. ... Species See text The Genus Senecio of the daisy family (Family Asteraceae) includes ragworts and groundsels. ... Species See text. ... The Aberdare Range (formerly, the Sattima Range, Kikuyu: Nyandarua) is a 160 km long range of uplands in west central Kenya, north of the capital Nairobi, that forms a section of the eastern rim of the Great Rift Valley as it runs roughly north-south through East Africa. ... The East African mountains are a mountain region in East Africa, encompassing Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi. ...


Senecio keniodendron is endemic to Mount Kenya. It is a giant rosette plant, and can grow up to 6 m (20 ft) tall. It tends to grow in dense groups of even-sized plants, and flowers every 5-20 years.[28]


Two species, Senecio keniodendron and S. keniensis are separated by altitude. S. keniodendron occurs more frequently with increasing altitude above 3,900 m (12,800 ft) and up to 4,500 m (14,750 ft),[29] whereas S. keniensis occurs mainly below 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and very rarely above 4,200 m (13,750 ft). There is a small overlap, and in this area hybrids are formed.[28] Binomial name Senecio keniensis Senecio keniensis is a groundsel (Senecio) found at high altitudes on East African mountains, such as the Afro-alpine zone of Mount Kenya. ...


Also present are Carex monostachya, Agrostis trachyphylla, Carduus platyplyllus, Arabis alpina, Senecio keniophytum and Lobelia telekii.[29] Carex (L., 1753) is a genus of plants in the family Cyperaceae, commonly known as sedges (although other, related species are also called sedges, those of genus Carex may be called true sedges). ... Species Bentgrass or bent (Agrostis) is a large genus with over 100 species belonging to the Poaceae family. ... Species See text Carduus is a genus of about 90 species of thistles in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe, Asia and Africa. ... Binomial name Arabis alpina L. Synonyms Arabis merinoi Pau Arabis pieninica Woll. ... Binomial name Senecio keniophytum (R.E.Fr. ... Binomial name Lobelia telekii The inflorescence of Lobelia telekii can grow up to 3m (10ft) tall Lobelia telekii is a member of the lobelia family found in the tropics. ...


There are giant grass tussocks - Festuca pilgeri in wetter areas and Pentaschistis minor in drier areas. Pentaschistis is a genus of grass in the Poaceae family. ...


Senecio brassica, Lobelia keniensis and tussock grasses are dominant in the wetter areas. The Alchemilla species A. cyclophylla, A. argyrophylla and A. johnstonii are dominant in the drier areas.[29] Binomial name Senecio keniensis Senecio keniensis is a groundsel (Senecio) found at high altitudes on East African mountains, such as the Afro-alpine zone of Mount Kenya. ... genus Alchemilla External links Section Herbal information Ladys Mantel Herbalist David Hoffmann @ Health World Section Eclectic herbal information Ladys Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris) Mrs. ...

Giant lobelias can grow to 6 m (20 ft). Tussock grass grows alongside the lobelias.
Giant lobelias can grow to 6 m (20 ft). Tussock grass grows alongside the lobelias.

There are over 100 species of wildflower in the Afro-alpine zone including everlastings (Helichrysum spp.), buttercups (Ranunculus orephytes), sunburst (Haplocarpha rupellii) and African gladiola (Gladiolus thomsoni). Because of the variation, some are in flower at all times of year. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 1020 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 1020 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Helichrysum arenarium- Dwarf Everlasting Helichrysum foetidum- Stinking Strawflower Helichrysum petiolare- Licorice Plant Helichrysum sanguineum- Red Everlasting The strawflower is a flowering plant of the genus Helichrysum in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). ... Species over 400; see text Ranunculus glacialis, one of the white-flowering species Blooming outside Conservatory of Flowers Seed head of Ranunculus showing developing achenes Wild buttercups near the River Thames Ranunculus is a large genus of about 400 species of plants in the Ranunculaceae. ... Binomial name Gladiolus crassifolius Gladiolus crassifolius is a species of Gladiolus found in Africa. ...


On the alpine slopes there are plenty of birds. Many species of sunbirds live here, as well as alpine chats, starlings, wagtails and birds of prey such as auger buzzard, lammergeier and Verreaux's eagle. Birds pollinate some Senecio species, and all Lobelia species on the mountain.[26] Genera Many: see text The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. ... Binomial name Cercomela sordida (Ruppell, 1837) The moorland chat, Cercomela sordida, is a species of Cercomela also known as the Alpine or Hill chat. ... Genera Aplonis Mino Basilornis Sarcops Streptocitta Enodes Scissirostrum Sarroglossa Ampeliceps Gracula Acridotheres Leucopsar Sturnia Sturnus Creatophora Fregilupus (extinct) Necropsar (extinct) Coccycolius Lamprotornis Cinnyricinclus Spreo Cosmoparus Onychognathus Poeoptera Grafisia Speculipastor Neochicla Buphagus See also: Myna, Oxpecker Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. ... Genera Dendronanthus Motacilla The wagtails are a group of small passerine birds with long tails which they wag frequently. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Binomial name Buteo rufofuscus (Forster, 1798) The Jackal Buzzard (Buteo rufofuscus) is a 55-60 cm long African bird of prey with three main subspecies. ... Binomial name Gypaetus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lammergeier or Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus, is an Old World vulture, the only member of the genus Gypaetus. ... Binomial name Aquila verreauxii Lesson, 1830 Verreauxs Eagle (Aquila verreauxii), also known as the African Black Eagle or Black Eagle, is a large bird of prey. ...


In the dry season there are butterflies, but there are never bees, wasps, fleas or mosquitoes. Trout have been introduced to the streams and tarns and are now found all around the mountain. For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ...


Smaller mammal species live in the Afro-alpine zone, including the groove-toothed rat, various African dormice and rock hyrax. Few large mammals are found at this altitude. Eland are found in dry areas, and zebra and common duiker have been recorded this high. Buffalo, elephant and hyena are also visitors. Species Otomys anchietae Otomys angoniensis Otomys barbouri Otomys burtoni Otomys cuanzensis Otomys dartmouthi Otomys denti Otomys dollmani Otomys irroratus Otomys jacksoni Otomys lacustris Otomys laminatus Otomys maximus Otomys occidentalis Otomys orestes Otomys saundersiae Otomys tropicalis Otomys typus Otomys uzungwensis African vlei rats are also known as groove-toothed rats and... Species Graphiurus angolensis Graphiurus christyi Graphiurus crassicaudatus Graphiurus johnstoni Graphiurus kelleni Graphiurus lorraineus Graphiurus microtis Graphiurus monardi Graphiurus murinus Graphiurus nagtglasii Graphiurus ocularis Graphiurus platyops Graphiurus rupicola Graphiurus surdus The African dormice, Graphiurus, are a genus of dormouse that live throughout sub-Saharan Africa in a variety of habitats. ... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; Afrikaans: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Binomial name Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Duiker. ...


The only common carnivore in the Afro-alpine zone is the leopard, although leopard, lion and hyena have all been seen on Point Lenana.[15]


Nival

Plants in the nival zone are scarce. They must be small to withstand the climate.
Plants in the nival zone are scarce. They must be small to withstand the climate.

Nival is the area around the bottoms of the glaciers. On Mount Kenya this area is usually above 4,500 m (14,750 ft). It is not a continuous zone, because the glaciers are no longer continuous. There is very little vegetation here. The giant tree groundsel can grow to around 6 m (20 ft). Other groundsel, Helichrysum and Lobelia are found here. Buffalo, elephant and hyena have all been seen in this zone, although very infrequently.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 728 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1244 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 728 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1244 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Walking Routes up Mount Kenya

There are eight walking routes up to the main peaks. Starting clockwise from the north these are the: Meru, Chogoria, Kamweti, Naro Moru, Burguret, Sirimon and Timau Routes.[24] Of these Chogoria, Naro Moru and Sirimon and used most frequently and therefore have staffed gates. The other routes require special permission from the Kenya Wildlife Service to use.[21] Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) was established in 1990. ...


Meru Route

This route leads from Katheri, south of Meru, to Lake Rutundu following the Kathita Munyi river. It does not lead to the peaks, but up onto the alpine moorland on the slopes of the mountain.[24] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Chogoria Route

The Gorges Valley is a major feature on the Chogoria Route.
The Gorges Valley is a major feature on the Chogoria Route.

This route leads from Chogoria town up to the peaks circuit. The 32 km (20 miles) from the forest gate to the park gate are often done by vehicle, but it is also possible to walk. There is much wildlife in the forest, with safari ant columns crossing the track, monkeys in the trees, and the potential for seeing elephant, buffalo and leopard. The road is not in good condition, and requires careful driving and walking. Near the park gate the bamboo zone starts, with grasses growing to 12 m high (40 ft). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 668 pixel, file size: 596 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 668 pixel, file size: 596 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chogoria is a town located in Mwimbi Division of Meru South District in the Eastern Province of Kenya. ...


Once in the park the track passes through rosewood forests, with lichens hanging from the branches. At one point the path splits, with the smaller track leading to a path up the nearby Mugi Hill and across to Lake Ellis.

The Temple is a large overhanging buttress overlooking Lake Michaelson, close to Hall Tarns.
The Temple is a large overhanging buttress overlooking Lake Michaelson, close to Hall Tarns.

Near the trackhead a small bridge crosses the Nithi stream. Following the stream downriver a few hundred metres (yards) leads to The Gates Waterfall. The path heads up a ridge above the Gorges Valley, with views to the peaks, Lake Michaelson, The Temple, and across the valley to Delamere and Macmillan Peaks. Hall Tarns are situated right on the path and above The Temple, which is a 300 m (1,000 ft) cliff above Lake Michaelson.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (922 × 1211 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (922 × 1211 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


As the path carries on it crosses the flat head of the Nithi River and then the slope steepens. The path splits, heading west to Simba Col, and south west to Square Tarn. These are both on the Peak Circuit Route.


Kamweti Route

This route follows the Nyamindi West River.[24] The route is restricted, if it still exists. It is not mentioned in the official guidebook published by the Kenya Wildlife Service, so it may no longer be passable.[21]


Naro Moru Route

Vertical bog on Mount Kenya on the Naro Moru Route
Vertical bog on Mount Kenya on the Naro Moru Route

This route is taken by many of the trekkers who try to reach Point Lenana. It can be ascended in only 3 days and has bunkhouses at each camp so a tent is not necessary. The terrain is usually good, although one section is called the Vertical Bog. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The track starts in Naro Moru town and heads past the Park Headquarters up the ridge between the Northern and Southern Naro Moru Rivers. At the roadhead is the Meteorological Station, to which it is possible to drive in the dry season. The route drops down into the Northern Naro Moru Valley to Mackinder's Camp on the Peak Circuit Path. Nano Moru is a small market town in central Kenya, lying on the Naro Moru River, between Nyeri and Nanyuki. ...


Burguret Route

This route has restricted access.[21] It starts in Gathiuru, and mainly follows the North Burguret River, then continues up to Hut Tarn on the Peak Circuit Path.


Sirimon Route

This route starts 15 km (9 miles) east around the Mount Kenya Ring Road from Nanyuki. The gate is 10 km (6 miles) further along the track, which can be walked or driven by two-wheel drives.[15] Nanyuki is a market town in central Kenya, lying north west of Mount Kenya. ...


The track climbs up through the forest. On the north side of the mountain there is no bamboo zone, so the forest gradually turns into moorland covered with giant heather. The track ends at Old Moses Hut and becomes a path. This continues up the hill before splitting into two routes. To the left, the least used path goes around the side of the Barrow, to Liki North Hut. The vegetation becomes more sparse, with giant lobelia and groundsels dotted around. The path climbs over a ridge, before rejoining the main path ascending the Mackinder Valley. Shipton's Cave can be found in the rock wall to the left of the steep path just before reaching Shipton's Camp.


From Shipton's Camp, it is possible to ascend the ridge directly in front of the camp to the site of Kami Hut, which no longer exists, or follow the river up to Lower Simba Tarn and eventually to Simba Col. These are both on the Peak Circuit Path.


Timau Route

This is a restricted route.[21] It starts very close to the Sirimon Route, at Timau Village, and skirts around the edge of the forest for a considerable distance. It used to lead to the highest point on the mountain to which is was possible to drive, but has not been used for many years. From the trackhead it is possible to reach Halls Tarns in a few hours, then follow the Chogoria Route to the Peak Circuit Path


Peak Circuit Path

This is a path around the main peaks, with a distance of about 10 km (6 miles) a height gain and loss of over 2000 m (6,600 ft). It can be walked in one day, but more commonly takes two or three. It can also be used to join different ascent and descent routes. The route does not require technical climbing.[17]


Climbing Routes

Most of the peaks on Mount Kenya have been summited. The majority of these involve rock climbing as the easiest route. The grades given are East African climbing grades. Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ...

Peak Altitude Route Name Grade Climbing Season* First Ascent
Batian 5,199 m (17,058 ft) North Face Standard Route IV+ Summer A.H. Firmin and P. Hicks, 31 July 1944[30]
South-West Ridge Route IV Winter A.H. Firmin and J.W. Howard, 8 January 1946[31]
Nelion 5,188 m (17,022 ft) Normal Route IV- Summer/Winter E.E. Shipton and P.W. Harris 6 January 1929[32]
Batian/Nelion Ice Window Route V- Summer P. Snyder, Y. Laulan and B. LeDain 20 August 1974[33]
Batian/Nelion Diamond Couloir VI Summer P. Snyder and T. Mathenge 4-5 October 1973[33]
Pt Pigott 4957 m (16,266 ft) South Ridge III+ Summer/Winter W.M. and R.J.H. Chambers February 1959[15]
Thomson's Flake Thomson's Flake VI L. Hernacarek, W. Welsch and B. Cliff September 1962[15]
Pt Dutton 4885 m (16,027 ft) North-East Face and Ridge IV S. Barusso and R.D. Metcalf 4 August 1966[15]
Pt John 4883 m (16,016 ft) South-East Gully III Summer E.E. Shipton and R.E.G. Russel 18 December 1929[15]
Pt Melhuish 4880 m (16,010 ft) South-East Face IV+ R.M.Kamke and W.M. Boyes December 1960[15]
Pt Peter 4757 m (15,607 ft) North-East Gully and Ridge III E.E. Shipton and H.W. Tilman July 1960[15]
Window Ridge VI, A1 F.A. Wedgewood and H.G. Nicol 8 August 1963[15]
Midget Peak 4700 m (15,420 ft) South Gully IV E.E. Shipton and H.W. Tilman August 1930[17]

* Climbing Season refers to northern hemisphere summers and winters. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric Shipton (1907 - 1977) was a Himalayan mountaineering legend. ... Sir Percy Wyn-Harris (born 1903, died 1979) was an English mountaineer and yachtsman and was Colonial governor of The Gambia between 1949 and 1958. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill Tilman Major Harold William Bill Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar (14 February 1898–1977) was a mountaineer and explorer, famous for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Huts on Mount Kenya

Caretakers are present at most huts,[21] but not all. The huts range from very basic (Liki North) with little more than a roof, to luxurious with log fires and running water (Meru Mt Kenya Lodge). Most huts have no heat or light, but spacious with dormitories and communal areas. They also offer separate accommodation for porters and guides. The communal areas of the huts can be used by campers wishing to retreat from the weather or to store food away from the hyaena and hyraxes.


Around the Peak Circuit Path

A view of the Austrian Hut on Mt Kenya with Nelion (5,188 m) in the background. The Normal Route up Nelion can be seen, but is not highlighted.
A view of the Austrian Hut on Mt Kenya with Nelion (5,188 m) in the background. The Normal Route up Nelion can be seen, but is not highlighted.
Austrian Hut/Top Hut (4790 m - 15,715 ft)
Austrian Hut is the highest hut on Mount Kenya, with the exception of Howell Hut on Nelion. It is a good base for the ascent of Lenana, or for exploring the surrounding area. Peaks that can be ascended with Austrian Hut as a base camp include Point Thompson, Point Melhuish and Point John. It is also the starting point for the Normal Route up Nelion, as well as other routes up to the summits.

The ridge from Austrian Hut has many lava formations. There is little flora here, as the ridge is covered in scree which freezes every night and bakes every day, but there are still small flowers. There are no mammals or birds at this altitude.
Two Tarn Hut (4490 m - 14,731 ft)
Kami Hut (site of) (4439 m - 14,564 ft)

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (951 × 1362 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (951 × 1362 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Huts on Chogoria Route

Meru Mt Kenya Lodge (3017 m - 9,898 ft)
This is a privately owned lodge on the edge of the national park. Park fees have to be paid. The lodge is about 500 m from the park gate, and consists of several log cabins, each with a bedroom, kitchen, bathroom and living area with log fireplace. There is hot running water in the cabins, which sleep 3-4 people. The campsite is located at the park gate, and has running water.
Urumandi Hut (site of) (3063 m - 10,050 ft)
This hut was built in 1923 and is no longer used.[15]
Minto's Hut (porters only) (4290 m- 14,075 ft)
Minto's Hut sleeps 8 porters, and is situated near Hall Tarns. There is a campsite nearby. Water is taken directly from the tarns. The tarns have no outflow and so the stagnate water needs to be filtered or boiled before use.

Huts on Naro Moru Route

The Warden's Cottage (2400 m - 7,900 ft)
This was home to the park's senior wardens until 1998.[21] There are two bedrooms, a bathroom, a kitchen and a living area with veranda and log fire. There is running hot water. The cottage is inside the national park, so park fees must be paid.
Meteorological Station (3050 m - 10,000 ft)
The Met Station is administered by Naro Moru Lodge.[21] There are several bunkhouses here as well as a campsite.
Mackinder's Camp (4200 m -13,778 ft)
Mackinder's Camp is also administered by Naro Moru Lodge.[21] There is a large bunkhouse and plenty of space for camping.

Huts on Sirimon Route

Liki North Hut is a small bothy that sleeps 8 and provides little more than shelter.
Liki North Hut is a small bothy that sleeps 8 and provides little more than shelter.
Shipton's Camp is one of the larger huts on the mountain. It is close to the little climbed Terere and Sendeyo, which are seen in the background.
Shipton's Camp is one of the larger huts on the mountain. It is close to the little climbed Terere and Sendeyo, which are seen in the background.
Sirimon Bandas (2650 m - 8,690 ft)
Sirimon Bandas are located at Sirimon Gate, just inside Mt Kenya National Park. The bandas each have two bedrooms, a kitchen, a dining room, a bathroom and a veranda. There is hot running water. The surrounding area contains much wildlife, including hyaena, zebra, many antelope, baboons and lots of species of birds. Park fees have to be paid, although the bandas are situated just outside the gates.

There is a campsite next to the bandas, with running water and long drops.
Old Moses Camp (3400 m - 11,150 ft)
Old Moses Camp is administered by Mountain Rock Bantu Lodge.[34] It has dormitories and a large campsite, as well as accommodation for guides and porters.
Liki North Hut (3993 m - 13,095 ft)
Liki North Hut is little more than a shed to keep the weather off. There is space to camp and a river nearby for water. The hut can sleep 8 people. It is on the lesser used path between Old Moses and Shipton's Camps and can by used as a base for climbing Terere and Sendeyo or to stop off on the way to Shipton's Camp.
Shipton's Camp (4236 m - 13,894 ft)
Shipton's Camp is administered by Mountain Rock Bantu Lodge.[34] It is home to many rock hyrax, as well as striped mice, many types of sunbirds and Alpine Chats. Mountain Buzzards fly overhead. The vegetation is dominated by giant groundsel, but there are many flowers and lobelia as well. On the skyline is a view of Points Peter and Dutton, with Batian overshadowing them. Also in view are Thompson's Flake and Point Thompson, with Point Lenana on the other side of the Gregory Glacier. In front of the main peaks is the Krapf Rognon, with the Krapf Glacier behind.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bothy In the United Kingdom a bothy is a simple shelter, left unlocked and available for anyone to use without charge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (1406 × 789 pixel, file size: 828 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (1406 × 789 pixel, file size: 828 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Huts on Nelion

Howell Hut (5188 m - 17,023 ft)
This hut, on top of Nelion, was built by Ian Howell in February 1970. The corrugated iron for the hut was dropped onto the Lewis Glacier by helicopter and Howell carried it to the summit in thirteen solo ascents and built the hut.[15]

Other huts around the mountain

Mountain Rock Bantu Lodge
[34]The lodge is situated north of Naro Moru and offers rooms, tented accommodation and a campsite. It administers the Old Moses and Shipton's Camps on the Sirimon Route.
Naro Moru River Lodge
This lodge is situated near Naro Moru, and offers facilities from bird watching to equipment hire and guided climbs of the mountain. It also administers the bunkhouses at the Met Station and Mackinder's Camp on the Naro Moru Route.
The Serena Mountain Lodge
[35] This luxury hotel is found on the western slopes of the mountain, at around 2,200 m (6,600 ft). It has its own waterhole and offers guided walks, trout fishing and luxury climbs up the mountain, as well as conference facilities.
Naro Moru Youth Hostel
The youth hostel is situated between Naro Moru and Naro Moru Gate, and is a renovated farmhouse. It has dormitories and a campsite, with hot water, a kitchen and equipment hire.
Castle Forest Lodge
This lodge was built by the British in the late 1920s as a retreat for royalty.[21] It is on the southern slopes of the mountain in the forest at about 2,100 m (6,900 ft).
Rutundu Log Cabins
This luxury lodge is on the northern slopes of the mountain at about 3,100 m (10,200 ft).

Names on Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya got its current name through a series of convolutions since Krapf sited it in 1849. Various tribes have different names for the mountain. The Kĩkũyũ call it Kirinyaga, which means white or bright mountain. The Embu call it Kirenia, or mountain of whiteness. The Maasai call it Ol Donyo Eibor or Ol Donyo Egere, which mean the White mountain or the speckled mountain respectively.[12] The Wakamba call it Kiinyaa, or the mountain of the ostrich. The male ostrich has speckled tail feathers, which look similar to the speckled rock and ice on the mountain.[17][21]


Krapf was staying in a Wakamba village when he first saw the mountain[36] and so settled on the name Kenia (IPA pronunciation ˈkiːnjə[37]), a corruption of the Wakamba Kiinyaa.[38] Krapf spelt this as both Kenia and Kegnia.[36][8] It is important to note that at the time this referred to the mountain without having to include mountain in the name. The current name Mount Kenya was used by some as early as 1894,[39] but this was not a regular occurrence until 1920 when Kenya Colony was established.[40] Before 1920 the area now known as Kenya was known as the British East Africa Protectorate and so there was no need to mention mount when referring to the mountain.[40] Mount Kenya was not the only English name for the mountain as shown in Dutton's 1929 book Kenya Mountain.[9] By the 1930s Kenya was becoming the dominate spelling, but Kenia was occasionally used.[41] At this time both were still pronounced ˈkiːnjə.[38] There is also Kemba in Gabon, see Kemba, Gabon The Kamba people (Wakamba) are a Bantu people who live in the semi-arid Eastern Province of Kenya stretching east from Nairobi to Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ...


Kenya was given its Independence in 1963 and Jomo Kenyatta was elected as the first president.[42] The coincidence of the spelling of his surname meant that pronunciation of Kenya changed to reflect the pronunciation of Kenyatta.[38] The country was named after colony which in turn was named after the mountain as it is a very significant landmark.[40][43] To distinguish easily between the country and the mountain, the mountain became known as Mount Kenya with the current IPA pronunciation ˈkɛnjə.[37] This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ...


Names of peaks

Lenana was the Chief Medicine-Man of the Maasai circa 1890. Pt Lenana was named after him by Halford Mackinder. Lenana was the son of Batian who was the previous Chief Medicine-Man.
Lenana was the Chief Medicine-Man of the Maasai circa 1890. Pt Lenana was named after him by Halford Mackinder. Lenana was the son of Batian who was the previous Chief Medicine-Man.[9]

The peaks of Mount Kenya have been given names from three different sources. Firstly, several Maasai chieftains have been commemorated, with names such as Batian, Nelion and Lenana. These names were suggested by Mackinder, on the suggestion of Hinde, who was the resident officer in Maasailand at the time of Mackinder's expedition. They commemorate Mbatian, a Maasai Laibon (Medicine Man), Nelieng, his brother, and Lenana and Sendeyo, his sons.[9] Terere is named after another Maasai headman. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 498 pixelsFull resolution (2952 × 1836 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 498 pixelsFull resolution (2952 × 1836 pixel, file size: 4. ... List of Rulers of the Masai (Kenya) (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) The Laibon originated as chief ritual leaders, later emerging as leaders exercising both political and military authority. ...


The second type of names that were given to peaks are after climbers and explorers. Some examples of this are Shipton, Sommerfelt, Tilman, Dutton and Arthur. Shipton made the first ascent of Nelion, and Sommerfelt accompanied Shipton on the second ascent. Tilman made many first ascents of peaks with Shipton in 1930. Dutton and Arthur explored the mountain between 1910 and 1930. Arthur Firmin, who made many first ascents, has been remembered in Firmin's Col. Humphrey Slade, of Pt Slade, explored the moorland areas of the mountain in the 1930s, and possibly made the first ascent of Sendeyo.[15]


The remaining names are after well-known Kenyan personalities, with the exception of John and Peter, which were named by the missionary Arthur after two disciples. Pigott was the Acting Administrator of Imperial British East Africa at the time of Gregory's expedition, and there is a group of four peaks to the east of the main peaks named after governers of Kenya and early settlers; Coryndon, Grigg, Delamere and McMillan.[15] In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ...


The majority of the names were given by Melhuish and Dutton, with the exception of the Maasai names and Peter and John. Interestingly Pt Thomson is not named after Joseph Thomson, who confirmed the mountain's existence, but after another J Thomson who was an official Royal Geographical Society photographer.[15] The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph...


Mount Kenya in literature

  • Kirinyaga is also the title of a book by Mike Resnick.
  • Facing Mount Kenya is the title of a book by Jomo Kenyatta about the Kĩkũyũ.
  • No Picnic on Mount Kenya is a story of three Prisoners of War who escaped from their prison camp, ascended the mountain in 1943, and then returned to their prison camp, written by Felice Benuzzi.[18]
  • Kenya Mountain is the account by E A T Dutton of his expedition to Mount Kenya in 1926.

Michael Diamond Resnick (born Chicago, March 5, 1942), far better known as Mike Resnick, is a popular and prolific science fiction author. ... Facing Mount Kenya, written in 1938, is an anthropological book about the Kikuyu people of central Kenya. ... Jomo Kenyatta Jomo Kenyatta (October 20, 1889 – August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of Kenya. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Rough Guide. Rough Guide Map Kenya [map], 9 edition, 1:900,000, Rough Guide Map. Cartography by World Mapping Project. (2006) ISBN 1-84353-359-6.
  2. ^ Hastenrath, Stefan (1984). The Glaciers of Equatorial East Africa (in English). Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company. ISBN 90-277-1572-6. 
  3. ^ Baker, B. H. (1967). Geology of the Mount Kenya area. Nairobi: Geological Survey of Kenya. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Gichuki, Francis Ndegwa (August 1999). "Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya". Ambio 28 (5): 430-435. 
  5. ^ Charter aircraft crashes into Kenya's Mount Kenya., Airline Industry Information, 21 July 2003
  6. ^ Rescue teams resume efforts to recover bodies of those killed in charter aircraft crash, Airline Industry Information, 23 July 2003
  7. ^ Aircraft flown off Mount Kenya, (News) The Times, Sat, Jan 23 1943; pg. 3; Issue 49451; col C
  8. ^ a b c d Krapf, Johann Ludwig (1860). Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  9. ^ a b c d Dutton, E.A.T. (1929). Kenya Mountain. London: Charles Whittingham and Griggs. 
  10. ^ Krapf, Johann Ludwig (13th May 1850). "Extract from Krapf's diary" (in English). Church Missionary Intelligencer i: 345. 
  11. ^ a b Gregory, John Walter [1896] (1968). The Great Rift Valley. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  12. ^ a b Thomson, Joseph [1885] (1968). Through Masai Land, 3, London: Frank Cass & Co Ltd. 
  13. ^ von Höhnel, Lieutenant Ludwig; Count Samuel Teleki (1894). Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie. London: Longmans. 
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Allan, Iain (1981). The Mountain Club of Kenya Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. Nairobi: Mountain Club of Kenya. ISBN 978-9966985606. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Mackinder, Halford John (May 1900). "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa". The Geographical Journal 15 (5): 453-476. DOI:10.2307/1774261. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Burns, Cameron (1998). Kilimanjaro & Mount Kenya; A Climbing and Trekking Guide. Leicester: Cordee. ISBN 1-871890-98-5. 
  18. ^ a b Benuzzi, Felice [1953] (2005). No Picnic on Mount Kenya: A Daring Escape, a Perilous Climb. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1592287246. 
  19. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Site. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  20. ^ Kenyatta, Jomo (1961). Facing Mount Kenya. London: Secker and Warburg. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kenya Wildlife Service, Mount Kenya Official Guidebook, Kenya Wildlife Service, 2006.
  22. ^ Mountain Club of Kenya Homepage. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  23. ^ a b Karlén, Wibjörn; James L Fastook, Karin Holmgren, Maria Malmström, John A Matthews, Eric Odada, Jan Risberg, Gunhild Rosqvist, Per Sandgren, Aldo Shemesh and Lars-Ove Westerberg (August 1999). "Glacier Fluctuations on Mount Kenya since ~6000 Cal. Years BP: Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa". Ambio 28 (5): 409-418. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage. Mt Kenya 1:50000 Map and Guide [map], 1 edition, 1:50000 with 1:25000 inset. Cartography by West Col Productions. (1991) ISBN 0-906227-39-9.
  25. ^ Mahaney, W.C. (1987). "Behaviour of the African Buffalo on Mount Kenya". African Journal of Ecology 25: 199-202. 
  26. ^ a b c Smith, Alan P.; Truman P. Young (1987). "Tropical Alpine Plant Ecology". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18: 137-158. 
  27. ^ Beck, Erwin; Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Margot Senser and Renate Scheibe (1984). "Equilibrium freezing of leaf water and extracellular ice formation in Afroalpine 'giant rosette' plants". Planta 162: 276-282. 
  28. ^ a b c Young, Truman P.; Mary M. Peacock (1992). "Giant senecios and alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya". Journal of Ecology 80: 141-148. 
  29. ^ a b c Mizuno, Kazuharu (1998). "Succession Processes of Alpine Vegetation in Response to Glacial Fluctuations of Tyndall Glacier, Mt. Kenya, Kenya". Arctic and Alpine Research 30 (4): 340-348. 
  30. ^ Alpine Journal, 1945
  31. ^ Mountain Club of Kenya Bulletin 3, 1947
  32. ^ Alpine Journal Vol. 42
  33. ^ a b Mountain Club of Kenya Bulletin 72, 1974
  34. ^ a b c Mountain Rock Bantu Lodge. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  35. ^ Serena Mountain Lodge. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  36. ^ a b Krapf, Johann Ludwig (13th May 1850). "Extract from Krapf's diary" (in English). Church Missionary Intelligencer i: 452. 
  37. ^ a b "Kenya". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  38. ^ a b c Foottit, Claire [2004] (2006). Kenya, The Brade Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. ISBN 1-84162-066-1. 
  39. ^ Gregory, J. W. (1894). "Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.--Part I. The Glacial Geology of Mount Kenya". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 50: 515-530. DOI:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1894.050.01-04.36. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  40. ^ a b c British East Africa Annexed--"Kenya Colony", Reuter (News) The Times, Thursday, Jul 08, 1920; pg. 13; Issue 42457; col C
  41. ^ The spelling of Kenya, J.H. Reynolds, Secretary Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, RGS (Letters to the editor) The Times, Mon, Feb 08 1932; pg. 8; Issue 46051; col B
  42. ^ Castro, Alfonso Peter (1995). Facing Kirinyaga (in English). London: Intermediat Technology Publications Ltd.. ISBN 1-85339-253-7. 
  43. ^ "East Africa: Kenya: History: Kenya Colony". Encyclopedia Britannica (15) 17. (2002). 801, 1b. ISBN 0-85229-787-4. 

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... Johann Ludwig Krapf (born January 11, 1810 in Tübingen-Derendingen; died November 26, 1881 in Korntal-Münchingen) was a German missionary in East Africa, an explorer, linguist, and traveler. ... Johann Ludwig Krapf (born January 11, 1810 in Tübingen-Derendingen; died November 26, 1881 in Korntal-Münchingen) was a German missionary in East Africa, an explorer, linguist, and traveler. ... John Walter Gregory (27 January 1864 - 2 June 1932) was a British geologist. ... Joseph Thomson (February 14, 1858 - August 2, 1895) was a Scottish geologist and explorer who played an important part in the Scramble for Africa. ... Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel Lieutenant Ludwig Ritter von Höhnel (6 August 1857 – 23 March 1942) was a Austrian naval officer and explorer. ... Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer and geopolitician. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jomo Kenyatta Jomo Kenyatta (October 20, 1889 – August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of Kenya. ... Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) was established in 1990. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Ludwig Krapf (born January 11, 1810 in Tübingen-Derendingen; died November 26, 1881 in Korntal-Münchingen) was a German missionary in East Africa, an explorer, linguist, and traveler. ... John Walter Gregory (27 January 1864 - 2 June 1932) was a British geologist. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Seven Second Summits are the second highest mountains of each of the seven continents. ... The Volcanic Seven Summits on an Elevation World Map. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mount Kenya (1526 words)
Kenya was claimed as a British protectorate in 1895, and the effect on Kikuyu culture was immense.
Mount Kenya is vital to the livelihood of the local populations who revere it.
Mount Kenya also plays a critical large-scale role: it serves as a water catchment reservoir for nearly one third of Kenya’s population and feeds the country’s largest river, which in turn supports hydro-electric plants that provide more than 50 percent of the country’s electricity.
Mount Kenya - Africa - Safari, Wildlife, Climbs (1355 words)
In fact, Mount Kenya consists of three principal zones: the rocky peak area, which is actually an eroded volcanic plug, with its mantle of glaciers and snowfields; the alpine zone with its distinctive giant vegetation; and the vast gentle lower slopes drenched in mountain forest and bamboo jungle.
The Maasai hold Mount Kenya sacred because they believe this is where the first Maasai couple descended with their cattle; the number of cattle is a symbol of wealth to the Maasai.
Mount Kenya was formed from the explosive lava flow and the rapid cooling-heating process that followed, which accumulated the debris over a period of time.
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