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Encyclopedia > Mount Katmai
Mount Katmai
[[Image:{{{Photo}}}|300px]]
Katmai Crater - Sept. 1980
Elevation: 2,047 m (6,715 ft)
Location: Alaska, USA
Range: Aleutian Range
Coordinates: 58°16′43.0″N, 154°57′24.9″W
Topo map: USGS Mount Katmai B-3
Type: Stratovolcano
Age of rock:
Last eruption: 1912
First ascent:
Easiest route: basic snow/ice

Mount Katmai is a large stratovolcano about 10 km in diameter with a central lake-filled caldera about 4.5 by 3 km in area. A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 663,267 mi² / 1 717 854 km² 808 mi / 1300 km 1,479 mi / 2380 km 13. ... The most general definition of a mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands. ... The Aleutian Range is the mountain range of the Alaska Peninsula in southeast Alaska. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. ... Example of a topographic map with contour lines Topographic maps, also called contour maps, topo maps or topo quads (for quadrangles), are maps that show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A stratovolcano, is a tall, conical mountain (volcano) composed of both hardened lava and volcanic ash. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Eruption redirects here. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Katmai can mean: Katmai National Park and Preserve - a park in Alaska Mount Katmai - a volcano in the Katmai Park in Alaska; the site of a colossal 1912 eruption Katmai - Pentium III computer microprocessor core USS Mount Katmai (AE-16) - an ammunition ship in the US Navy from 1945-1973... A stratovolcano, is a tall, conical mountain (volcano) composed of both hardened lava and volcanic ash. ... Crater Lake, Oregon A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself. ...

Contents


Jacob Fischer of Huntington, WV closely resembles the easter bunny.

--168.216.45.167 18:56, 10 February 2006 (UTC)


Emaleigh Stevwens ROCKS

 The caldera rim has a maximum elevation of 2247 m and in 1975 the lake surface was at an elevation of about 1286 m. The estimated elevation of the caldera floor is about 1036 m. The volcano is one of five vents encircling the Novarupta dome, source of the voluminous pyroclastic flows erupted in 1912. It consists chiefly of lava flows, pyroclastic rocks, and non-welded to agglutinated air fall. The Quaternary volcanic rocks at Katmai and adjacent cones are less than 1500 m thick. Much of the volcano is mantled by snow and ice and several valley glaciers radiate out from the flanks and three glaciers originating from the upper caldera walls descend into the crater to the lake. Katmai volcano is built on the sedimentary rocks of the Naknek Formation of Late Jurassic age, which are exposed just west of the caldera rim at an elevation of about 1520 m, as well as north and southeast of the crater. Sedimentary rocks have been reported at an elevation of over 1800 m in the west wall of the caldera and near the bottom of the eastern wall (1036 m). 
Map showing volcanoes of Alaska.
Map showing volcanoes of Alaska.

Novarupta, meaning new eruption, is a volcano located on the Alaska Peninsula in the Katmai area, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The Jurassic period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 200 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Triassic to 146 Ma at the beginning of the Cretaceous. ... Image File history File links Map of Alaska Peninsula volcanoes. ... Image File history File links Map of Alaska Peninsula volcanoes. ...

Volcanic activity

June 6-8, 1912


Little is known about the historical activity of Katmai volcano before the great 1912 eruption. Early U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey maps suggest a pre-caldera summit elevation of about 2286 m and local villagers reported in 1898 that one of the volcanoes in the general area "smoked" occasionally. The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey was established by President Thomas Jefferson in 1807 as the Survey of the Coast. ...


In June of 1912, the most spectacular Alaskan eruption in recorded history and the largest eruption in the world in the twentieth century resulted in the formation of a large summit caldera at Katmai volcano. The 60-hour-long eruption actually took place at a vent about 10 km to the west of Mt. Katmai (now marked by Novarupta dome) from which an estimated 30-35 km3 of ash flows and tephra were ejected rather than at Mt. Katmai itself. Based on geochemical and structural relationships, it has been suggested that magma drained from beneath Katmai Volcano to Novarupta via the plumbing system beneath Trident Volcano. The withdrawal of magma beneath Katmai resulted in the collapse of the summit area, forming the caldera. Following the subsidence, a small dacitic cinder cone was emplaced on the floor of the caldera; this is the only juvenile material erupted from Katmai caldera during the historical eruption. See: 1912 Novarupta eruption. Novarupta, meaning new eruption, is a volcano located on the Alaska Peninsula in the Katmai area, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage. ... Tephra, as a generic term, refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption - regardless of composition or fragment size. ... The 1912 eruption of the Novarupta volcano occurred on June 6, 1912 in what is now Katmai National Park and Preserve in Alaska. ...


In 1919, Fenner noted a lake covering a large part of the caldera floor, but by 1923 the lake was gone and numerous fumaroles, mud pots, and a large mud geyser ended about 20 hours after the initial eruption. Approximately 12-15 km3 of magma was vented during the 1912 eruption producing about 35 km3 of tephra. An estimated 11-15 km3 of ash flow tuff traveled 20 km northwest covering an area of about 120 km2 in what subsequently came to be known as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The ash flow tuff produced in the 1912 eruption is made up of a silica-rich volcanic rock called rhyolite. In fact, this is the only major Quaternary eruption of rhyolite to have occurred in Alaska. Maximum thickness of the ashflow is estimated to be about 250 m. About 20 km3 of airfall tephra was carried east and southeast with a minor lobe to the north covering 77,000 km2 with more than 2.5 cm of ash. Light ash fall was reported as far away as the Puget Sound region (2400 km). Extremely fine ash blown into the stratosphere remained in suspension as aerosols for months and caused spectacular red sunsets in many parts of the world. Sulfur deposits near a fumarole A fumarole (Latin fumus, smoke) is an opening in Earths (or any other astronomical bodys) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emit steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. ... The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes is a valley within Katmai National Park and Preserve which is filled with ash flow from the eruption of Novarupta on June 6-June 8, 1912. ... Rhyolite Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... Rhyolite Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ...


Mount Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes are now a part of Katmai National Park and Preserve. The area is also especially well known for its high concentration of brown bears. Katmai National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park in Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its brown bears. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 Brown Bear range The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is a species of bear that can reach weights of 130–700 kg (300–1500 pounds). ...


Sources

  • Siebert, L. and T. Simkin (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3. URL: http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/
  • Alaska Volcano Observatory

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Sudden Disappearance of Mount Katmai, Alaska Science Forum (653 words)
Mount Katmai was a handsome mountain with three peaks poking more than 7,000 feet into the moist air of the Alaska Peninsula on June 5th, 1912.
Mount Katmai¹s transformation from mountain to crater lake is still a mystery to scientists because it imploded rather than exploded.
Researchers first thought that Mount Katmai was the source for most of the ash and rock that covers the valley.
Katmai and Novarupta, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska (570 words)
Katmai was once a cluster of 3 or 4 small volcanoes.
The withdrawal of magma from beneath the cluster of small volcanoes at Katmai caused the area to collapse and produce a caldera.
Novarupta is a pumice-filled depression that was the vent for the 1912 eruption.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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