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Encyclopedia > Mount Everest
Mount Everest

Everest from Kala Patthar in Nepal
Elevation 8,848 metres (29,029 ft)[1]
Ranked 1st
Location Flag of Nepal Nepal
Flag of the People's Republic of China Tibet, China[2]
Range Mahalangur Himal, Himalaya
Prominence 8,848 m (29,029 ft)
Coordinates 27°59′17″N, 86°55′31″ECoordinates: 27°59′17″N, 86°55′31″E[3]
First ascent May 29, 1953
Flag of New Zealand Edmund Hillary
Flag of Nepal Tenzing Norgay
Easiest route South Col (Nepal)

Mount Everest, also called Chomolungma or Qomolangma (Tibetan: ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ) or Sagarmatha (Nepali: सगरमाथा) is the highest mountain on Earth, as measured by the height of its summit above sea level. The mountain, which is part of the Himalaya range in High Asia, is located on the border between Nepal and Tibet, China. By the end of the 2006 climbing season there had been 3,050 ascents to the summit by 2,062 individuals, and at least 630 more ascents in 2007. There have been more than 200 deaths on the mountain, where conditions are so difficult that most corpses have been left where they fell; some are visible from standard climbing routes.[4] Mount Everest is a mountain in the Himalayas. ... Image File history File links Everest_kalapatthar_crop. ... Kala Patthar (5,545m /18,192ft) is a mountain in the Nepalese Himalayas. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The Mahalangur Himal is a subrange of the Himalaya spanning part of the border between Tibet and Nepal. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... The South Col usually refers to the southern col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the first and fourth highest mountains in the world. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Extremes on Land See also List of mountains. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Climbers range from experienced mountaineers to relative novices who count on their paid guides to get them to the top. This means climbers are a significant source of tourist revenue for Nepal, whose government also requires all prospective climbers to obtain an expensive permit, costing up to $25,000 (USD) per person. [5] Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ... USD redirects here. ...

Contents

Naming

The Tibetan name for Mount Everest is Chomolungma or Qomolangma (ཇོ་མོ་གླིང་མ, translated as "Mother of the Universe" or "Goddess Mother of the Snows"), and the related[citation needed] Chinese name is Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng (simplified Chinese: 珠穆朗玛峰; traditional Chinese: 珠穆朗瑪峰) or Shèngmǔ Fēng (simplified Chinese: 圣母峰; traditional Chinese: 聖母峰). According to English accounts of the mid-19th century, the local name in Darjeeling for Mount Everest was Deodungha, or "Holy Mountain." [1]. In the 1960s, the Government of Nepal gave the mountain the official Nepali name of Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा), meaning "Goddess of the Sky". The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ...


In 1865, the mountain was given its English name by Andrew Waugh, the British surveyor-general of India. With both Nepal and Tibet closed to foreign travel, he wrote: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Andrew Scott Waugh (1810 – 1878) was a British army officer and surveyor now remembered as the man who named the highest mountain in the world after Sir George Everest, his predecessor in the post of Surveyor-General of India. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...

I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal. In the meantime the privilege as well as the duty devolves on me to assign…a name whereby it may be known among citizens and geographers and become a household word among civilized nations. Photograph of Everest Colonel Sir George Everest (4 July 1790 – 1 December 1866) was a Welsh surveyor, geographer and Surveyor-General of India from 1830 to 1843. ...

Waugh chose to name the mountain after George Everest, first using the spelling Mont Everest, and then Mount Everest. However, the modern pronunciation of Everest (IPA: /ˈɛvərɪst/ (EV-er-est)) is in fact different from Sir George's own pronunciation of his surname, which was /ˈiːvrɪst/ (EAVE-rest). Photograph of Everest Colonel Sir George Everest (4 July 1790 – 1 December 1866) was a Welsh surveyor, geographer and Surveyor-General of India from 1830 to 1843. ...


In the late 19th century many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was "Gaurisankar".[6] This was a result of confusion of Mount Everest with the actual Gauri Sankar, which, when viewed from Kathmandu, stands almost directly in front of Everest. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Gauri Sankar is a mountain in the Himalaya, the second highest peak of the Rolwaling Himal, behind Melungtse (7,181m). ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ...


In the early 1960s, the Nepalese government realized that Mount Everest had no Nepalese name. This was because the mountain was not known and named in ethnic Nepal (that is, the Kathmandu valley and surrounding areas). The government set out to find a name for the mountain (the Sherpa/Tibetan name Chomolangma was not acceptable, as it would have been against the idea of unification (Nepalization) of the country. The name Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) was thus invented by Baburam Acharya. Motto जननी जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी  (Sanskrit) Mother and motherland are dearer than the heavens Anthem saiyon phul ka thunga hami Capital (and largest city) Kahtmandu Official languages Nepali Demonym Nepali Government Interim government  -  King [[]]1  -  Interim Head of State [[]]  -  Prime Minister [[]] Unification December 21, 1768  Area  -  Total 147,181 km² (93rd) 56,827 sq... A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the... See at the bottom of this page for other meanings of the word Sherpa. ... One of the great Historians from Nepal who was the one to invent the name Sagarmatha(सगरमाथा) for the tallest mountain in the world/Earth which is in Nepal close to the border with Tibet of China and which is known to the West by the name of Mt. ...


In 2002, the Chinese People's Daily newspaper published an article making a case against the continued use of the English name for the mountain in the Western world, insisting that it should be referred to by its Tibetan name. The newspaper argued that the Chinese (in nature a Tibetan) name preceded the English one, as Mount Qomolangma was marked on a Chinese map more than 280 years ago.[7] The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... Occident redirects here. ...

Aerial view of Mount Everest from the south
Aerial view of Mount Everest from the south

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1435x572, 782 KB) Aerial view of Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1435x572, 782 KB) Aerial view of Mt. ...

Measurement

Another aerial view of Mount Everest from the south, with Lhotse in front and Nuptse on the left
Another aerial view of Mount Everest from the south, with Lhotse in front and Nuptse on the left

Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian mathematician and surveyor from Bengal, was the first to identify Everest as the world's highest peak in 1852, using trigonometric calculations based on measurements of "Peak XV" (as it was then known) made with theodolites from 240 km (150 miles) away as part of the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. Measurement could not be made from closer due to a lack of access to Nepal. Peak XV was found to be exactly 29,000 feet (8,839 m) high, but was publicly declared to be 29,002 feet (8,840 m). The arbitrary addition of 2 feet (0.6 m) was to avoid the impression that an exact height of 29,000 feet was nothing more than a rounded estimate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x652, 404 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x652, 404 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Radhanath Sikdar (1813-1870) was an Indian mathematician who calculated the height of Peak XV and discovered it to be the tallest mountain above sea level. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry All of the trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon triangle + metron measure[1]), informally called trig, is a branch of mathematics that deals with... An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... Each millennium had thrown up passion for doing something unique. ...


More recently, the mountain has been found to be 8,848 m (29,028 feet) high, although there is some variation in the measurements. The mountain K2 comes in second at 8,611 m (28,251 ft) high. On May 22, 2005, the People's Republic of China's Everest Expedition Team ascended to the top of the mountain. After several months' complicated measurement and calculation, on October 9, 2005, the PRC's State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping officially announced the height of Everest as 8,844.43 m ± 0.21 m (29,017.16 ± 0.69 ft). They claimed it was the most accurate measurement to date.[8] But this new height is based on the actual highest point of rock and not on the snow and ice that sits on top of that rock on the summit, so, in keeping with the practice used on Mont Blanc and Khan Tangiri Shyngy, it is not shown here. The Chinese also measured a snow/ice depth of 3.5 m,[9] which implies agreement with a net elevation of 8,848 m. But in reality the snow and ice thickness varies, making a definitive height of the snow cap, and hence the precise height attained by summiteers without sophisticated GPS, impossible to determine. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... Khan Tengri (Chinese, translated as Lord of the spirits, or Lord of the sky; or Turkic translated as Ruler of Skies, ruler Tengri) is a mountain of the Tian Shan mountain range. ...


The elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft) was first determined by an Indian survey in 1955, made closer to the mountain, also using theodolites. It was subsequently reaffirmed by a 1975 Chinese measurement.[10] In both cases the snow cap, not the rock head, was measured. In May 1999 an American Everest Expedition, directed by Bradford Washburn, anchored a GPS unit into the highest bedrock. A rock head elevation of 8,850 m (29,035 ft), and a snow/ice elevation 1 m (3 ft) higher, were obtained via this device.[11] Although it has not been officially recognized by Nepal,[12] this figure is widely quoted. Geoid uncertainty casts doubt upon the accuracy claimed by both the 1999 and 2005 surveys. An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying. ... Bradford Washburn (born June 7, 1910, Cambridge, Massachusetts) is an explorer, mountaineer, photographer, and cartographer extraordinaire. ... GPS redirects here. ... The GOCE project will measure high-accuracy gravity gradients and provide an accurate geoid model based on the Earths gravity field. ...


A detailed photogrammetric map (at a scale of 1:50,000) of the Khumbu region, including the south side of Mount Everest, was made by Erwin Schneider as part of the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, which also attempted Lhotse. An even more detailed topographic map of the Everest area was made in the late 1980s under the direction of Bradford Washburn, using extensive aerial photography.[13] Photogrammetry is a remote sensing technology in which geometric properties about objects are determined from photographic images. ... Khumbu is one of three subregions of the main Sherpa settlement of the Himalaya, the other two being Solu and Pharak. ... Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain on Earth and is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based...


It is thought that the plate tectonics of the area are adding to the height and moving the summit north-eastwards. Two accounts[11][14] suggest the rates of change are 4 mm per year (upwards) and 3-6 mm per year (northeastwards), but another account mentions more lateral movement (27 mm),[15] and even shrinkage has been suggested.[16] The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


The Mount Everest region, and the Himalayas in general, are thought to be experiencing ice-melt due to global warming.[17] The exceptionally heavy southwest summer monsoon of 2005 is consistent with continued warming and augmented convective uplift on the Tibetan plateau to the north.[citation needed] For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


Comparisons

Everest is the mountain whose summit attains the greatest distance above sea level. Several other mountains are sometimes claimed as alternative "tallest mountains on Earth". Mauna Kea in Hawaii is tallest when measured from its base;[18] it rises over 10,200 m (6.3 mi) when measured from its base on the mid-ocean floor, but only attains 4,205 m (13,796 ft) above sea level. For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


By the same measure of base[18] to summit, Denali, in Alaska, is also taller than Everest. Despite its height above sea level of only 6,193.6 m (20,320 ft), Denali sits atop a sloping plain with elevations from 300-900 m (1,000-3,000 ft), yielding a height above base in the range of 5,300-5,900 m (17,300-19,300 ft); a commonly quoted figure is 5,600 m (18,400 ft).[19] By comparison, reasonable base elevations for Everest range from 4,200 m (13,800 ft) on the south side to 5,200 m (17,100 ft) on the Tibetan Plateau, yielding a height above base in the range of 3,650 m (12,000 ft) to 4,650 m (15,300 ft).[13]. Denali redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


The summit of Chimborazo in Ecuador is 2,168 m (7,113 ft) farther from the Earth's centre (6,384.4 km or 3,967.1 mi) than that of Everest (6,382.3 km or 3,965.8 mi), because the Earth bulges at the Equator. However, Chimborazo attains a height of only 6,267 m (20,561 ft) above sea level, and by this criterion it is not even the highest peak of the Andes. The inactive stratovolcano Chimborazo is Ecuadors highest summit. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


The deepest spot in the ocean is deeper than Everest is high: the Challenger Deep, located in the Mariana Trench, is so deep that if Everest were to be placed into it there would be more than 2 km (1.25 mi) of water covering it. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ...


Climbing routes

View from space showing South Col route and North Col/Ridge route
View from space showing South Col route and North Col/Ridge route

Chomo Lonzo Makalu Mount Everest Tibetan Plateau Rong River Changtse Rongbuk Glacier North Face East Rongbuk Glacier North Col north ridge route Lhotse Nuptse South Col route Gyachung Kang Cho Oyu Press button (bottom right) to enlarge image Image File history File links STS058-101-12_2. ... Image File history File links STS058-101-12_2. ...

Southern and northern climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station.
Southern and northern climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station.

Mt. Everest has two main climbing routes, the southeast ridge from Nepal and the northeast ridge from Tibet, as well as many other less frequently climbed routes. Of the two main routes, the southeast ridge is technically easier and is the more frequently-used route. It was the route used by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 and the first recognised of fifteen routes to the top by 1996. This was, however, a route decision dictated more by politics than by design as the Chinese border was closed to foreigners in 1949. Reinhold Messner (Italy) summited the mountain solo for the first time, without supplementary oxygen or support, on the more difficult Northwest route via the North Col to the North Face and the Great Couloir, on August 20 1980. He climbed for three days entirely alone from his base camp at 6500 meters. This route has been noted as the 8th climbing route to the summit. Download high resolution version (1000x662, 416 KB)The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station looking south-south-east over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ... Reinhold Messner (born September 17, 1944) is an Italian mountaineer and explorer, often cited [1] as the greatest mountain climber of all time, noted for making the first solo ascents of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen eight-thousanders (peaks over... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most attempts are made during May before the summer monsoon season. A change in the jet stream at this time of year reduces the average wind speeds high on the mountain. While attempts are sometimes made after the monsoons in September and October, the additional snow deposited by the monsoons and the less stable weather patterns makes climbing more difficult. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 12 km above the surface of the Earth, just under the tropopause. ...


Southeast ridge

The ascent via the southeast ridge begins with a trek to Base Camp at 5,380 m (17,600 ft) on the south side of Everest in Nepal. Expeditions usually fly into Lukla (2,860 m) from Kathmandu and pass through Namche Bazaar. Climbers then hike to Base Camp, which usually takes six to eight days, allowing for proper altitude acclimatization in order to prevent altitude sickness. Climbing equipment and supplies are carried by yaks, dzopkyos (yak hybrids) and human porters to Base Camp on the Khumbu Glacier. When Hillary and Tenzing climbed Everest in 1953, they started from Kathmandu Valley, as there were no roads further east at that time. Everest Base Camp is the camp at which most expeditions up the worlds highest mountain start from in Nepal. ... Lukla is a town in the Khumbu region of eastern Nepal where most people visiting the Himalayas near Mount Everest start their journey. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... Namche Bazaar Namche Bazaar (नाम्चे बजार−also Nemche Bazaar or Namche Bazar) is a village in the Khumbu region of Nepal. ... Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS) or altitude illness is a pathological condition that is caused by acute exposure to high altitudes. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... A Dzo is a male hybrid of a yak and a domesticated cow. ... This article discusses human bearers of burdens. ... The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal and flows down from the Khumbu Icefall on the southern slopes of Mount Everest. ...

A view of Everest southeast ridge base camp. The Khumbu Icefall can be seen in the left. In the center are the remains of a helicopter that crashed in 2003.
A view of Everest southeast ridge base camp. The Khumbu Icefall can be seen in the left. In the center are the remains of a helicopter that crashed in 2003.

Climbers will spend a couple of weeks in Base Camp, acclimatizing to the altitude. During that time, Sherpas and some expedition climbers will set up ropes and ladders in the treacherous Khumbu Icefall. Seracs, crevasses and shifting blocks of ice make the icefall one of the most dangerous sections of the route. Many climbers and Sherpas have been killed in this section. To reduce the hazard, climbers will usually begin their ascent well before dawn when the freezing temperatures glue ice blocks in place. Above the icefall is Camp I at 6,065 m (19,900 ft). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8180x1636, 3642 KB) Summary author: Nuno Nogueira Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8180x1636, 3642 KB) Summary author: Nuno Nogueira Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Everest Base Camp is the camp at which most expeditions up the worlds highest mountain start from in Nepal. ... The Khumbu Icefall is an icefall at the head of the Khumbu Glacier. ... The word Sherpa originally referred to an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Niple, high into the Himalayas (although many of them now live in India). ... The Khumbu Icefall is an icefall at the head of the Khumbu Glacier. ... Seracs in firn at 10000 on the Winthrop Glacier of Mount Rainier in Washington, USA A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac, a crumbly white cheese) is a steep ridge or pillar of ice formed between two crevasses of a glacier. ...


From Camp I, climbers make their way up the Western Cwm to the base of the Lhotse face, where Camp II or Advanced Base Camp (ABC) is established at 6,500 m (21,300 ft). The Western Cwm is a relatively flat, gently rising glacial valley, marked by huge lateral crevasses in the centre which prevent direct access to the upper reaches of the Cwm. Climbers are forced to cross on the far right near the base of Nuptse to a small passageway known as the "Nuptse corner". The Western Cwm is also called the "Valley of Silence" as the topography of the area generally cuts off wind from the climbing route. The high altitude and a clear, windless day can make the Western Cwm unbearably hot for climbers. Often called the Valley of Silence, the Western Cwm (cwm, pronounced coom, is Welsh) is a broad, flat, gently undulating glacial valley basin terminating at the foot of the Lhotse Face. ... Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain on Earth and is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col. ... Measuring snowpack in a crevasse on the Easton Glacier, North Cascades, USA A crevasse is a crack or fissure in a glacier or snow field. ... Nuptse is a mountain in the Nepalese Khumbu region of the Himalayas, two kilometres WSW of Mount Everest. ... High altitude are regions on the Earths surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above mean sea level. ...


From ABC, climbers ascend the Lhotse face on fixed ropes up to Camp III, located on a small ledge at 7,470 m (24,500 ft). From there, it is another 500 metres to Camp IV on the South Col at 7,920 m (26,000 ft). From Camp III to Camp IV, climbers are faced with two additional challenges: The Geneva Spur and The Yellow Band. The Geneva Spur is an anvil shaped rib of black rock named by a 1952 Swiss expedition. Fixed ropes assist climbers in scrambling over this snow covered rock band. The Yellow Band is a section of sedimentary sandstone which also requires about 100 metres of rope for traversing it. The practice of fixing in place bolted ropes to assist climbers and walkers in exposed mountain locations. ... The South Col usually refers to the southern col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the first and fourth highest mountains in the world. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ...


On the South Col, climbers enter the death zone. Climbers typically only have a maximum of two or three days they can endure at this altitude for making summit bids. Clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If weather does not cooperate within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many all the way back down to Base Camp. The death zone is a term that refers to high altitudes, encountered by mountain climbers, where the amount of oxygen present cannot sustain human life. ...


From Camp IV, climbers will begin their summit push around midnight with hopes of reaching the summit (still another 1,000 metres above) within 10 to 12 hours. Climbers will first reach "The Balcony" at 8,400 m (27,700 ft), a small platform where they can rest and gaze at peaks to the south and east in the early dawn light. Continuing up the ridge, climbers are then faced with a series of imposing rock steps which usually forces them to the east into waist deep snow, a serious avalanche hazard. At 8,750 m (28,700 ft), a small table-sized dome of ice and snow marks the South Summit. The toe of an avalanche in Alaskas Kenai Fjords. ...


From the South Summit, climbers follow the knife-edge southeast ridge along what is known as the "Cornice traverse" where snow clings to intermittent rock. This is the most exposed section of the climb as a misstep to the left would send one 2,400 m (8,000 ft) down the southwest face while to the immediate right is the 3,050 m (10,000 ft) Kangshung face. At the end of this traverse is an imposing 12 m (40 ft) rock wall called the "Hillary Step" at 8,760 m (28,750 ft). The Kangshung Face, is the East Face of Mount Everest, located upon the side of the mountain that lies in Tibet. ... The Hillary Step is a vertical part of upper Mount Everest. ...


Hillary and Tenzing were the first climbers to ascend this step and they did it with primitive ice climbing equipment and without fixed ropes. Nowadays, climbers will ascend this step using fixed ropes previously set up by Sherpas. Once above the step, it is a comparatively easy climb to the top on moderately angled snow slopes - though the exposure on the ridge is extreme especially while traversing very large cornices of snow. After the Hillary Step, climbers also must traverse a very loose and rocky section that has a very large entanglement of fixed ropes that can be troublesome in bad weather. Climbers will typically spend less than a half-hour on "top of the world" as they realize the need to descend to Camp IV before darkness sets in, afternoon weather becomes a serious problem, or supplemental oxygen tanks run out.


Northeast ridge

Everest North Face, Tibet
Everest North Face, Tibet

The northeast ridge route begins from the north side of Everest in Tibet. Expeditions trek to the Rongbuk Glacier, setting up Base Camp at 5,180 m (17,000 ft) on a gravel plain just below the glacier. To reach Camp II, climbers ascend the medial moraine of the east Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of Changtse at around 6,100 m (20,000 ft). Camp III (ABC - Advanced Base Camp) is situated below the North Col at 6,500 m (21,300 ft). To reach Camp IV on the north col, climbers ascend the glacier to the foot of the col where fixed ropes are used to reach the North Col at 7,010 m (23,000 ft). From the North Col, climbers ascend the rocky north ridge to set up Camp V at around 7,775 m (25,500 ft). The route goes up the north face through a series of gullies and steepens into downsloping slabby terrain before reaching the site of Camp VI at 8,230 m (27,000 ft). From Camp VI, climbers will make their final summit push. Climbers must first make their way through three rock bands known as First Step: 27,890 feet - 28,000 feet, Second Step: 28,140 feet - 28,300 feet, and Third Step: 28,510 feet - 28,870 feet. Once above these steps, the final summit slopes (50 to 60 degrees) to the top. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixels, file size: 883 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixels, file size: 883 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Rongbuk Glacier and the Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Everest Base Camp is the camp at which most expeditions up the worlds highest mountain start from in Nepal. ... Changtse (Tibetan for north peak) is a mountain immediately north of Mount Everest. ... The North Col refers to the pass or col connecting Mount Everest and Changtse to its North. ...


China is paving a 130-km (66-mile) dirt road from Tingri County to its Base Camp in order to accommodate growing numbers of climbers on their side of the mountain. It will become the highest asphalt-paved road in the world. Construction began on June 18, 2007, at a cost of 150 million yuan (US$19.7 million). China also plans on routing the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay over Everest, going up the South Col route and back down the North Col route, on the way to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[20] Location in Xigazê Prefecture Tingri County or Dhringgri County (Tibetan: དིང་རི་རྫོང་; Wylie: ding ri rdzong; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a county of the Xigazê Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The 2008 Olympic Torch Relay is planned to take place from March 25 to August 8, 2008, prior to the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Peking redirects here. ...


Ascents

Mount Everest as seen from the Rongbuk Monastery.
Mount Everest as seen from the Rongbuk Monastery.

I took this photo myself in 1994. ... Mount Everest as seen from the Rongbuk Monastery. ... // Main article: Mount Everest The first British expedition, under the leadership of Colonel Charles Howard-Bury and the mountaineering leader, Harold Raeburn, including George Mallory, Guy Bullock and Edward Oliver Wheeler. ...

Early expeditions

On June 8, 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine, both of the United Kingdom, made an attempt on the summit via the north col/north ridge route from which they never returned. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... George Herbert Leigh Mallory (18 June 1886 – 8 June/9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. ... Andrew Sandy Irvine (April 8, 1902 – 8-9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the third British Expedition to Mount Everest in 1924. ...


In 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition found Mallory's body in the predicted search area near the old Chinese camp. Controversy has raged in the mountaineering community as to whether the duo may have summited 29 years before the confirmed ascent (and of course, safe descent) of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953. The general consensus among climbers has been that they did not. The goal of the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition of 1999 was to discover evidence of whether George Mallory and Andrew Irvine had been the first to summit Mt. ... An open crevasse. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mallory had gone on a speaking tour of the United States the year before in 1923; it was then that he exasperatedly gave the famous reply, "Because it is there," to a New York journalist in response to hearing the question, "Why climb Everest?" for seemingly the thousandth time. Comprehensive information is available at Mallory and Irvine: The Final Chapter including critical opposing viewpoints. This article is about the state. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ...


In 1933, Lady Houston, a British millionaire ex-showgirl, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933, which saw a formation of aircraft led by the Marquess of Clydesdale fly over the summit in an effort to deploy the British Union Flag at the top. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Millionairess redirects here. ... A Las Vegas showgirl, from the Folies Bergere. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton, 11th Duke of Brandon (February 3, 1903 - March 30, 1973), was born in Pimlico, London, England. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ...


Early expeditions ascended the mountain from Tibet, via the north face. However, this access was closed to western expeditions in 1950, after the Chinese reasserted control over Tibet. However, in 1950, Bill Tilman and a small party which included Charles Houston, Oscar Houston and Betsy Cowles undertook an exploratory expedition to Everest through Nepal along the route which has now become the standard approach to Everest from the south. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Bill Tilman Major Harold William Bill Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar (14 February 1898–1977) was a mountaineer and explorer, famous for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages. ...


First successful ascent by Tenzing and Hillary

In 1953, a ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, returned to Nepal. Hunt selected two climbing pairs to attempt to reach the summit. The first pair (Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans) came within 300 feet of the summit on 26 May, but turned back after becoming exhausted. The next day, the expedition made its second and final assault on the summit with its second climbing pair. The summit was eventually reached at 11:30 a.m. local time on May 29, 1953 by the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay from Nepal climbing the South Col Route. At the time, both acknowledged it as a team effort by the whole expedition, but Tenzing revealed a few years later that Hillary had put his foot on the summit first.[21] They paused at the summit to take photographs and buried a few sweets and a small cross in the snow before descending. News of the expedition's success reached London on the morning of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation. Returning to Kathmandu a few days later, Hillary and Hunt discovered that they had been promptly knighted for their efforts. Lord John Hunt (June 22, 1910 - 8 November 1998) was a British officer who is best known as the leader of the 1953 expedition to Mount Everest. ... Thomas Duncan Bourdillon (born 1924, died Bernese Oberland, 29 July 1956), was a British mountaineer, a member of the team which conquered Mount Everest in 1953. ... Robert Charles Evans M.D., DSc, Knight, (1918 - 1995}, was a mountaineer and educator. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... The word Sherpa originally referred to an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Niple, high into the Himalayas (although many of them now live in India). ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


1996 disaster

See Main articles: 1996 Everest Disaster.

During the 1996 climbing season, fifteen people died trying to come down from the summit, making it the deadliest single year in Everest history. Eight of them died on May 11 alone. The disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialization of Everest. The 1996 Everest Disaster refers to a single day of the 1996 climbing season, May 11, 1996, when eight people died on Mount Everest during summit attempts. ...


Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in one of the affected parties, and afterwards published the bestseller Into Thin Air which related his experience. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide who felt impugned by Krakauer's book, co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb. The dispute sparked a large debate within the climbing community. In May 2004, Kent Moore, a physicist, and John L. Semple, a surgeon, both researchers from the University of Toronto, told New Scientist magazine that an analysis of weather conditions on May 11 suggested that freak weather caused oxygen levels to plunge by around 14%.[22][23] Jon Krakauer Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954), is an American non-fiction author and mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing. ... Outside is a magazine focused on the outdoors. ... Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. ... Anatoli Nikoliavich Boukreev (January 16, 1958 - December 25, 1997) was a Russian climber who made seven ascents of 8,000 metre peaks without supplemental oxygen. ... The Climb is an account by Russian mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the May 1996 Mount Everest expeditions, during which five climbers lost their lives. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...


The storm's impact on climbers on the mountain's other side, the North Ridge, where several climbers also died, was detailed in a first hand account by British filmmaker and writer Matt Dickinson in his book The Other Side of Everest. First hand is where one experiences something personally, in effect, within reach of ones hands, also known as first person. ... Matt Dickinson is a film-maker and writer who specialises in the wild places and people of the world. ...


2003 - 50th Anniversary of First Ascent

2003 marked the 50th anniversary of the first ascent, and a record number of teams, including some very distinguished climbers, climbed or attempted to climb the mountain.


2005 - Helicopter landing

On 14 May 2005, pilot Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS 350 B3 Helicopter on the summit of Mount Everest[24] and remained there for two minutes. (His rotors were continually engaged; this is known as a "hover landing".) His subsequent take-off set the world record for highest take-off of a rotorcraft.[25] Delsalle had also performed a take-off two days earlier from the South Col, leading to some confusion in the press about the validity of the summit claim. Nonetheless, the summit landing is unconfirmed. This event does not count as an "ascent" in the usual fashion. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eurocopter Group is a global helicopter manufacturing and support company formed in 1992 from the merger of the helicopter divisions of French Aérospatiale and German DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA). ... This article is about the AStar helicopter. ...


2006 - North Face ski descent

On 16 May 2006, adventurers Tormod Granheim and Tomas Olsson skied the Norton Couloir from the summit to the North Col. During the descent Olsson fell an estimated 1700 meters to his death. is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tormod Maurer (born September 17. ...


2006 - David Sharp controversy

Double-amputee climber Mark Inglis revealed in an interview with the press on May 23, 2006, that his climbing party, and many others, had passed a distressed climber, David Sharp, on May 15, sheltering under a rock overhang 450 meters below the summit, without attempting a rescue. The revelation sparked wide debate on climbing ethics, especially as applied to Everest. The climbers who left him said that the rescue efforts would be useless and only cause more deaths because of how many people it would have taken to pull him off. Mark Joseph Inglis (born September 27, 1959) is a mountaineer, researcher, winemaker and motivational speaker. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Sharp was a British mountaineer who possibly summitted Mount Everest on his third attempt but died on 15 May 2006 near the summit. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Much of this controversy was captured by the Discovery Channel while filming the television program Everest: Beyond the Limit. A crucial decision affecting the fate of Sharp is shown in the program, where an early returning climber (Max Chaya) is descending and radios to his base camp manager (Russell Brice) that he has found a climber in distress. He is unable to identify Sharp, and Sharp had chosen to climb solo without any support, so he did not identify himself to other climbers. The base camp manager assumes that Sharp is part of a group that has abandoned him, and informs his climber that there is no chance of him being able to help Sharp [at 8000+ meters in altitude, barely anyone has the strength to help another man who is only semi conscious, and Max Chaya is only an amateur mountaineer]. As Sharp's condition deteriorates through the day and other descending climbers pass him, his opportunities for rescue diminish: his legs and feet curl from frost-bite, preventing him from walking; the later descending climbers are lower on oxygen and lack the strength to offer aid; time runs out for any Sherpas to return and rescue him. Most importantly, Sharp's decision to forgo all support leaves him with no margin for recovery. Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ...


As this debate raged, on May 26, Australian climber Lincoln Hall was found alive, after being declared dead the day before. He was found by a party of four climbers (Dan Mazur, Andrew Brash, Myles Osborne and Jangbu Sherpa) who, giving up their own summit attempt, stayed with Hall and descended with him and a party of 11 Sherpas sent up to carry him down. Hall later fully recovered. Similar actions have been recorded since, including on May 21, 2007, when Canadian climber Meagan McGrath initiated the successful high-altitude rescue of Nepali Usha Bista. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lincoln Hall (born 1956) is a veteran Australian mountain climber and author. ... Daniel Mazur (born 1961) is a US mountaineer, guide and expedition leader. ... Motto जननी जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी  (Sanskrit) Mother and motherland are dearer than the heavens Anthem saiyon phul ka thunga hami Capital (and largest city) Kahtmandu Official languages Nepali Demonym Nepali Government Interim government  -  King [[]]1  -  Interim Head of State [[]]  -  Prime Minister [[]] Unification December 21, 1768  Area  -  Total 147,181 km² (93rd) 56,827 sq...


Death zone

Main article: Death zone

While conditions for any area classified as a death zone apply to Mount Everest (altitudes higher than 8,000 m/26,246 ft), it is significantly more difficult for a climber to survive at the death zone on Mount Everest. Temperatures can dip to very low levels, resulting in frostbite of any body part exposed to the air. Because temperatures are so low, snow is well-frozen in certain areas and death by slipping and falling can also occur. High winds at these altitudes on Everest are also a potential threat to climbers. The atmospheric pressure at the top of Everest is about a third of sea level pressure, meaning there is about a third as much oxygen available to breathe as at sea level.[26] The death zone is a term that refers to high altitudes, encountered by mountain climbers, where the amount of oxygen present cannot sustain human life. ... This article is about a medical condition. ...


In May 2007 the Caudwell Xtreme Everest undertook a medical study of oxygen levels in human blood at extreme altitude. Over 200 volunteers climbed to Everest Base Camp where various medical tests were performed to examine blood oxygen levels. A small team also performed tests on the way to the summit.


Even at base camp the low level of available oxygen had direct effect on blood oxygen saturation levels. At sea level these are usually 98% to 99%, but at base camp this fell to between 85% and 87%. Blood samples taken at the summit indicated very low levels of oxygen present. A side effect of this is a vastly increased breathing rate, from 20--30[citation needed] breaths per minute to 80--90 breaths, leading to exhaustion just trying to breathe.


Lack of oxygen, exhaustion, extreme cold and the dangers of the climb all contribute to the death toll.


One death-dealing phenomenon, however, does not plague climbers — lightning. Lightning does not strike Mount Everest. NASA's lightning detection system does record significant lightning in the Tibet plateau, up to about 7,000 feet. But none along the high Tibetan mountains.[27]


Bottled oxygen controversy

Most expeditions use oxygen masks and tanks[28] above 8,000 m (26,246 ft). Everest can be climbed without supplementary oxygen but this increases the risk to the climber. Humans do not think clearly with low oxygen, and the combination of severe weather, low temperatures, and steep slopes often require quick, accurate decisions. Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


The use of bottled oxygen to ascend Mount Everest has been controversial. George Mallory himself described the use of such oxygen as unsportsmanlike, but he later concluded that it would be impossible to summit without it and consequently used it. [29] When Tenzing and Hillary made the first successful summit in 1953 they used bottled oxygen. For the next twenty-five years, bottled oxygen was considered standard for any successful summit. George Herbert Leigh Mallory (18 June 1886 – 8 June/9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. ... Tenzing Norgay (May 1914 – 9 May 1986), often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. ...


Reinhold Messner was the first climber to break the bottled oxygen tradition and in 1978, with Peter Habeler, made the first successful climb without it. Although critics alleged that he sucked mini-bottles of oxygen - a claim that Messner denied - Messner silenced them when he summited the mountain, without supplemental oxygen or support, on the more difficult northwest route, in 1980. In the aftermath of Messner's two successful ascents, the debate on bottled oxygen usage continued. Reinhold Messner (born September 17, 1944) is an Italian mountaineer and explorer, often cited [1] as the greatest mountain climber of all time, noted for making the first solo ascents of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen eight-thousanders (peaks over... Peter Habeler (born July 22nd 1942 in Mayrhofen, Austria) is an Austrian mountaineer. ...


The aftermath of the 1996 Mount Everest disaster further intensified the debate. Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air (1997) expressed the author's personal criticisms of the use of bottled oxygen. Krakauer wrote that the use of bottled oxygen allowed otherwise unqualified climbers to attempt to summit, leading to dangerous situations and more deaths. The May 10 disaster was partially caused by the sheer number of climbers (33 on that day) attempting to ascend, causing bottlenecks at the Hillary Step and delaying many climbers, most of whom summited after the usual 2 p.m. turnaround time. He proposed banning bottled oxygen except for emergency cases, arguing that this would both decrease the growing pollution on Everest—many bottles have accumulated on its slopes—and keep marginally qualified climbers off the mountain. The 1996 disaster also introduced the issue of the guide's role in using bottled oxygen.[30] Guide Anatoli Boukreev's decision not to use bottled oxygen was sharply criticized by Jon Krakauer. Boukreev's supporters (who include G. Weston DeWalt, who co-wrote The Climb) state that using bottled oxygen gives a false sense of security.[31] Krakauer and his supporters point out that, without bottled oxygen, Boukreev was unable to directly help his clients descend.[32] They state that Boukreev said that he was going down with client Martin Adams,[32] but when Adams slowed down[citation needed], Boukreev later descended faster and left him behind.[32] Jon Krakauer Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954), is an American non-fiction author and mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing. ... Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hillary Step is a vertical part of upper Mount Everest. ... Anatoli Nikoliavich Boukreev (January 16, 1958 - December 25, 1997) was a Russian climber who made seven ascents of 8,000 metre peaks without supplemental oxygen. ... The Climb is a film directed by Bob Swaim. ...


Life-threatening thefts

Other climbers have reported life-threatening thefts from supply caches. Vitor Negrete, the first Brazilian to climb Everest without oxygen and part of David Sharp's party, died during his descent, and theft from his high-altitude camp may have contributed.[33] The climbers who left him said that the rescue efforts would be useless and only cause more deaths because of how many people it would have taken to pull him off. Vitor Negrete (c. ...


Flora and fauna

Euophrys omnisuperstes, a minute black jumping spider, has been found at elevations as high as 6,700 meters, possibly making it the highest confirmed permanent resident on Earth. They lurk in crevices and possibly feed on frozen insects that have been blown there by the wind. It should be noted that there is a high likelihood of microscopic life at even higher altitudes. Binomial name Euophrys omnisuperstes Wanless, 1975 Euophrys omnisuperstes is a small black jumping spider that lives at elevations of up to 6,700 meters on Mount Everest, making it possibly the highest known permanent resident on earth. ... Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera The jumping spider family (Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species (Peng , 2002). ...


Birds, such as the bar-headed goose have been seen flying at the higher altitudes of the mountain, while others such as the Chough have been spotted at high levels on the mountain itself, scavenging on food, or even corpses, left over by climbing expeditions. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Synonyms Eulabeia indica The Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) is a goose which breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes. ... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-billed Chough, or just Chough (pronounced ), Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... Categories: Stub ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Mount Everest, the worlds highest mountain The following is a list of the worlds 100+ highest mountains per height above sea level, all of which are located in Asia. ... The North Col refers to the pass or col connecting Mount Everest and Changtse to its North. ... The South Col usually refers to the southern col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the first and fourth highest mountains in the world. ... Rongbuk Glacier and the Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Mount Everest as seen from the Rongbuk Monastery. ... The Kangshung Face, is the East Face of Mount Everest, located upon the side of the mountain that lies in Tibet. ... NASA composite satellite photo The geography of China stretches some 5,026 kilometers across the East Asian landmass bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam in a changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including... Sagarmatha National Park, is located in eastern Nepal, containing parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. ... Fig 1: The earth in the Early Permian. ... The eight-thousanders are the fourteen mountains that rise more than 8,000 meters above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges. ...

Image gallery

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Mount Everest

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

References

  1. ^ Based on elevation of snow cap, not rock head. For more details, see Measurement.
  2. ^ The position of the summit of Everest on the international border is clearly shown on detailed topographic mapping, including official Nepalese mapping.
  3. ^ The WGS84 coordinates given here were calculated using detailed topographic mapping and are in agreement with adventurestats. They are unlikely to be in error by more than 2". Coordinates showing Everest to be more than a minute further east that appeared on this page until recently, and still appear in Wikipedia in several other languages, are incorrect.
  4. ^ http://www.education.theage.com.au/pagedetail.asp?intpageid=1652&strsection=students&intsectionid=0
  5. ^ http://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/0305/expert_everest.html
  6. ^ L. A. Waddell, "The Environs and Native Names of Mount Everest," The Geographical Journal, Vol. 12, No. 6 (Dec. 1898), pp. 564-569. Available at JSTOR.
  7. ^ Web Reference. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  8. ^ Xinhua.net. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  9. ^ abc.au article. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  10. ^ ABC.net. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  11. ^ a b Alpine Research. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  12. ^ Nepalese government site. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  13. ^ a b Mount Everest (1:50,000 scale map), prepared under the direction of Bradford Washburn for the Boston Museum of Science, the Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, and the National Geographic Society, 1991, ISBN 3-85515-105-9
  14. ^ National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  15. ^ Museum of Science. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. Now hosted at the Internet Archive
  16. ^ BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  17. ^ India and China in warming study. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  18. ^ a b The "base" of a mountain is a problematic notion in general with no universally accepted definition. However for a peak rising out of relatively flat terrain, such as Mauna Kea or Denali, an approximate height above "base" can be calculated. For Everest the situation is more complicated, since it only rises above relatively flat terrain on its north (Tibetan Plateau) side. Hence the concept of "base" has even less meaning for Everest than for Mauna Kea or Denali, and the range of numbers for "height above base" is wider. In general, comparisons based on "height above base" are somewhat suspect.
  19. ^ NOVA Online: Surviving Denali, The Mission. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  20. ^ Xinhua News Agency, June 18, 2007.
  21. ^ Tenzing Norgay and James Ramsey Ullman, Man of Everest (1955, also published as Tiger of the Snows)
  22. ^ (29 May 2004) "The day the sky fell on Everest". New Scientist (2449): 15. Retrieved on Dec 11, 2006. 
  23. ^ Peplow, Mark (May 25, 2004). High winds suck oxygen from Everest Predicting pressure lows could protect climbers. (English). BioEd Online. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. “Moore explains that these jet streaks can drag a huge draught of air up the side of the mountain, lowering the air pressure. He calculates that this typically reduces the partial pressure of oxygen in the air by about 6%, which translates to a 14% reduction in oxygen uptake for the climbers. Air at that altitude already contains only one third as much oxygen as sea-level air.”
  24. ^ Eurocopter Everest page (pictures)
  25. ^ Federation Aeronautique Internationale records page. (Search for "Everest" on this page).
  26. ^ Online high altitude oxygen calculator. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  27. ^ Does lightning strike Mount Everest?
  28. ^ Mountainzone article.. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  29. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/lost/mystery/
  30. ^ The debate between G. Weston DeWalt and Jon Krakauer on bottled oxygen and Boukreev's actions can be found in the Salon debates
  31. ^ http://www.gsk.com/people/mogens/acclimatisation.htm
  32. ^ a b c Coming Down page 3 DWIGHT GARNER salon.com 1998 August
  33. ^ Mounteverest.net article. See also second article.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mount Everest,Everest Mountain,Mount Everest Information,Mount Everest Trek in Nepal (622 words)
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
Mount Everest was named for Sir George Everest (1790-1866), a British surveyor-general of India.
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Mount Everest - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4781 words)
Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth, as measured by the height of its summit above sea level.
The Mount Everest region, and the Himalayas in general, are thought to be suffering ice-melt due to global warming.
The aftermath of the 1996 Mount Everest disaster further intensified the debate.
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