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Encyclopedia > Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus

Mt. Erebus, 1972
Elevation 3,794 metres (12,448 ft)
Location Ross Island, Antarctica
Prominence 3,794 m
Coordinates 77°32′S, 167°17′E
Type Stratovolcano
Age of rock 1 million years
Last eruption 2007 (continuing)
First ascent 1908 from a party led by T.W.E. David
Easiest route basic snow/ice climb

Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. 3,794 metres (12,448 ft) high, it is located on Ross Island, which is also home to three inactive volcanoes, notably Mt. Terror. Mount Erebus is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, which includes over 160 active volcanoes. Image File history File links Mount Erebus, Antarctica Photo by Richard Waitt, 1972 (U.S. Geological Survey). ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... For mountains named Mount Terror, see Mount Terror. ... The Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. ...


The volcano has been observed to be continuously active since 1972 and is the site of the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory run by New Mexico Tech. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (Also called New Mexico Tech), is a research university located in Socorro, New Mexico. ...

Mount Erebus, on Ross Island, is the largest volcano by volume, and second only to Mount Sidley in altitude, in Antarctica. This is a view from McMurdo Station.
Mount Erebus, on Ross Island, is the largest volcano by volume, and second only to Mount Sidley in altitude, in Antarctica. This is a view from McMurdo Station.

Mount Erebus was discovered on January 27, 1841 (and observed to be in eruption)[1] by polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross who named it and Mount Terror after his ships, Erebus and Terror (which were also used by Sir John Franklin on his disastrous Arctic expedition). It was first climbed (to the rim) by members of Sir Ernest Shackleton's party in 1908. Erebus was a primordial Greek god, the son of Chaos. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixel Image in higher resolution (2685 × 1758 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description = Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixel Image in higher resolution (2685 × 1758 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description = Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Topographic map of Mounts Sidley and Waesche (1:250,000 scale) Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir James Clark Ross (April 15, 1800 – April 3, 1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. ... HMS Erebus was a Hecla-class bomb vessel constructed by the Royal Navy in Pembroke Dockyard, Wales in 1826. ... HMS Terror in the Arctic HMS Terror was a bomb vessel designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in the Davy shipyard in Topsham, Devon. ... Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin FRGS (April 15, 1786 – June 11, 1847) was a British Royal Navy officer and Arctic explorer who mapped almost two thirds of the northern coastline of North America and whose last expedition disappeared while attempting to chart and navigate a section of the Northwest Passage... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Irish explorer, knighted for the success of the British Antarctic Expedition (1907 - 09) under his command, but now chiefly remembered for his Antarctic expedition of 1914–1916 in the ship Endurance, which is colloquially known as... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Deep blackness/darkness or shadow from Ancient Greek Έρεβος) was the son of a primordial God, Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ...


The first known solo ascent of Mount Erebus was accomplished by Charles J. Blackmer on January 19-20, 1991. Blackmer, an ironworker for many years at McMurdo Station and the South Pole, accomplished this in a twenty-four hour period. The ascent took approximately seventeen hours. This event has been cited in two books about Antarctic experiences, Terra Incognita by Sara Wheeler and Big Dead Place by Nicholas Johnson. McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geology and volcanology

View of the Mount Erebus Lava Lake from the crater rim. The lava lake is approximately 50 m in diameter.

Mount Erebus is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica. The summit contains a persistent convecting phonolitic lava lake, one of a very few long-lived lava lakes in the world. Characteristic eruptive activity consists of Strombolian eruptions from the lava lake or from one of several subsidiary vents, all lying within the volcano's inner crater.[2][3] The volcano is scientifically remarkable in that its relatively low-level and unusually persistent eruptive activity enables long-term volcanological study of a Strombolian eruptive system very close (hundreds of metres) to the active vents, a characteristic shared with only a few volcanos worldwide, such as Stromboli in Italy. Scientific study of the volcano is also facilitated by the proximity (35 km) of McMurdo Station (US) and Scott Base (NZ), both sited on Ross Island. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A lava lake in Hawaii Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a vent, volcanic crater, or broad depression. ... Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions, named after Stromboli, where such eruptions consist of rhytmical ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs to altitudes of tens to hundreds of meters. ... Sciara del fuoco For other uses see Stromboli (disambiguation) Stromboli is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the active volcanoes in Italy. ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... Aerial photograph of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. ...


Mount Erebus is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The bottom half of the volcano is a shield and the top half is a stratocone (Mount Etna is like this as well). The composition of the current eruptive products of Erebus is anorthoclase-porphyric tephritic phonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanite and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Erebus edifice. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into quantitative trait locus. ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- and Arabic jebel, both meaning mountain) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... Feldspar (from the German Feld, field, and Spat, a rock that does not contain ore) is the name of an important group of rock-forming minerals which make up perhaps as much as 60% of the Earths crust. ... (For other meanings of Porphyr, see Porphyry) A slab of imperial porphyry from Egypt, about 15 cm across. ... Phonolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ...


Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte were erupted after the basanite. The upper slopes of Mount Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephritic phonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera less than 100,000 years old. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephritic phonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a large deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses. A sample of trachyte Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Basanite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Phonolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... A lava bomb is a globule of molten rock (tephra) larger than 2. ... Feldspar (from the German Feld, field, and Spat, a rock that does not contain ore) is the name of an important group of rock-forming minerals which make up perhaps as much as 60% of the Earths crust. ...


Air disaster

Air New Zealand Flight 901 was a scheduled passenger transport service from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand to Antarctica and return, without an intermediate stop. The Air New Zealand flyover service, for the purposes of Antarctic sightseeing, was operated with McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 aircraft and began in February 1977. The flight crashed into Mount Erebus in whiteout conditions in 1979, killing all 257 people aboard. Air New Zealand discontinued the service after the crash. Air New Zealand Flight TE901 was a scheduled Antarctic sightseeing flight from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand. ... Air New Zealand Flight TE901 was a scheduled Antarctic sightseeing flight from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand. ... Auckland International Airport (IATA: AKL, ICAO: NZAA) is the largest and busiest international airport in New Zealand serving over 12 million passengers a year, which is expected to more than double in less than 15 years. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Whiteout is a weather condition in which visibility is reduced by snow and diffuse lighting from overcast clouds. ...


During the Antarctic summer, snow melt on the flanks of Mount Erebus continually brings debris from the crash to the surface of the snow; it is plainly visible from the air.


Gallery

Notes and references

  1. ^ Ross, Voyage to the Southern Seas, vol. i, p. 216-18
  2. ^ Kyle, P. R. (Ed.), Volcanological and Environmental Studies of Mount Erebus, Antarctica, Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 1994.
  3. ^ Aster R., Mah, S., Kyle, P., McIntosh, W., Dunbar, N., and J. Johnson, Very long period oscillations of Mount Erebus volcano, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2522, doi:10 .1029/2002JB002101, 2003.

See also

The Erebus Ice Tongue extends into McMurdo Sound from Ross Island between Cape Royds and McMurdo Station. ... Lower Erebus Hut // The Lower Erebus Hut (LEH) is a permanent field facility located on Mount Erebus in Ross Island, Antarctica. ... darn ... The Volcanic Seven Summits on an Elevation World Map. ...

References

  • Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Mount Erebus
  • LeMasurier, W. E.; Thomson, J. W. (eds.) (1990). Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. American Geophysical Union, 512 pp. ISBN 0-87590-172-7. 
  • The Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (includes live camera images of the volcano's lava lake, video clips of eruptions, and other information)

The American Geophysical Union (or AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting (as of 2006) of over 49,000 members from over 140 countries. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mount Erebus (131 words)
Mount Erebus (77°32'S, 169°10' E) in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano.
Mount Erebus was discovered in 1841 by polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross.
The ships and the volcano were all named for Erebus, a primordial Greek god, the son of Chaos.
Mount Erebus at AllExperts (657 words)
Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth.
Mount Erebus was discovered in 1841 by polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross (whose ships were named Erebus and Terror; these ships were also used by Sir John Franklin on his disastrous Arctic expedition), and first climbed (to the rim) by members of Sir Ernest Shackleton's party in 1908.
The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-porphyric tephritic phonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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