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Encyclopedia > Mount Damavand
Damāvand

Damāvand in winter
Elevation 5,610 metres (18,406 ft)[1]
Location Māzandarān, Iran
Range Alborz
Prominence 4,667 m (15,312 ft) Ranked 12th
Coordinates 35°57′19″N 52°06′33″E / 35.95528, 52.10917Coordinates: 35°57′19″N 52°06′33″E / 35.95528, 52.10917
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption Unknown
First ascent 1837 by W. T. Thomson
Easiest route Hike
Listing Volcanic Seven Summits

Mount Damāvand (Persian: دماوند ) also known as Donbavand, is a dormant volcano in Iran. Located in the middle Alborz Range, adjacent to Varārū, Sesang, Gol-e Zard and Mīānrūd, it is the highest point in both Iran and the wider Middle East. It is also the highest volcano in all of Asia. Though not volcanically active[2], there are fumaroles near the summit crater that deposit sulfur, which were most recently known to be active on July 6, 2007[3]. The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Āmol county, Māzandarān, 66 km (41 miles) northeast of Tehran. The 15th century Jame mosque of Damavand. ... Image File history File links Damavand_in_winter. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... This is a list of mountains ordered by their topographic prominence. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... There are many notable lists of mountains around the world. ... The Volcanic Seven Summits on an Elevation World Map. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Amol (IPA: , Persian: آمل) is a city in northern Iran, in the province of Mazandaran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


Damavand is, as any cursory reading of Persian literature will indicate, the Mount Olympus of Persian mythology.[4] The best major settlement for mount climbers is new Iranian Mountain Federation Camp in village Polour, located at the south of the mountain. Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ...

Contents

History

Mount Damāvand has its own special place in Iranian mythology and folklore. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Aži Dahāka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhāk was also chained on some cave in mount Damāvand after being defeated by Kāveh and Fereydūn. Damāvand is also significant to the patriotic Iranian legend of Arash. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ... Statue of Arash in Borujerd Âraŝ, the Archer (Persian: Ä€raÅ¡-e KamāngÄ«r) is a heroic archer of the Persian mythology. ...


Symbolism and mythology

Damāvand is the symbol of Iranian resistance against the foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. The famous poem Damāvand by Mohammad Taqī Bahār is one of the many poetic creations about Damāvand. Bahars tomb in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ...


The first verse of this poem is:


ای دیو سپید پای در بند
Ay dīve sepīde pāī dar band,
Oh white demon with feet in chains
ای گنبد گیتی ای دماوند
Ay gonbade gītī, ay Damāvand
Oh terrestrial dome, Oh Mount Damāvand


In Persian mythology, the mountain is where Zahhāk the Dragon King is slain by the hero Fereydūn. The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Šahnameh. Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ...


Routes to the summit

There are at least 16 known routes [3] to the summit which have different difficulties. Some of them are very dangerous and need rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has step stamps and also a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp /Shelter [4] at 4220 m (about 13,845 ft). The longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nāndal and a night stay at Takht-e Fereydoun (elevation 4300 m - about 13,000 ft), a two-story shelter. The western route is famous for its sunset view. Sīmorgh shelter in this route at 4100 m (about 13,500 ft) is a newly constructed shelter with two stories. There is a frozen waterfall / Ice Fall[5](Farsi name Ābshār Yakhī)about 12m tall at 5100m height is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.


Geographical location

Map of Māzandarān province showing the location of mount Damāvand in the south
Map of Māzandarān province showing the location of mount Damāvand in the south
Map of central Alborz Peaks: 1 `Alam Kūh
     -25m to 500m     500m to 1500m     1500m to 2500m     2500 to 3500m     3500m to 4500m     4500m to 5671m
     -25m to 500m     500m to 1500m     1500m to 2500m     2500 to 3500m     3500m to 4500m     4500m to 5671m
2 Āzād Kūh 3 Damāvand
4 Do Berar 5 Do Khaharan
6 Ghal`eh Gardan 7 Gorg
8 Kholeno 9 Mehr Chal
10 Mīšīneh Marg 11 Naz
12 Shah Alborz 13 Sīālān
14 Tochal 15 Varavašt
Rivers: 0
1 Alamūt 2 Chālūs
3 Do Hezār 4 Harāz
5 Jājrūd 6 Karaj
7 Kojūr 8 Lār
9 Nūr 10 Sardāb
11 Seh Hazār 12 Shāh Rūd
Cities: 1 Āmol
2 Chālūs 3 Karaj
Other: D Dīzīn
E Emāmzādeh Hāšem K Kandovān Tunnel
* Latīān Dam ** Lār Dam

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 293 pixelsFull resolution (931 × 341 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author: http://en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 293 pixelsFull resolution (931 × 341 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author: http://en. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... Alam Kuh, also transliterated as Alam Kooh (Persian: علم کوه) is a mountain in the Alborz mountains range in the north of Iran between Tehran and the Caspian sea, forming a peak of the Takht-e Suleyman Massif. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1345x1005, 98 KB) Author: http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1345x1005, 98 KB) Author: http://en. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Do Berār is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Do Khāharān is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Ghaleh Gardan is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Gorg is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Kholeno is a mountain in Iran. ... Mehr Chal is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Mishineh Marg is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Nāz is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Shah Alborz is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Sialan is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Categories: Mountains of Iran | Iran geography stubs ... Varavasht is a mountain in Alborz range in Iran. ... Haraz (Persian: هراز) is a river in northern Iran that flows northward from foot of Mount Damavand across Larijan, through Amol city, and finally to the Caspian Sea between Mahmood Abad and Fereydoon Kenar. ... Amol (IPA: , Persian: آمل) is a city in northern Iran, in the province of Mazandaran. ... Chaloos (Persian: چالوس), also transliterated as Chalous and Chalus is a city in Mazandaran Province, in Iran. ... Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... One of the best ski resorts in the world, Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range. ... Latyan Dam (Persian: سد لتيان sad-de latyān) is a dam located less than 25 km from Tehran. ... Lar Dam (Persian: سد لار sad-de lār) is a dam located in foot of Mount Damavand. ...

Nomination as National Heritage Site

An anthropologist of Mazandaran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Department, Touba Osanlou, has said that a proposal has been made by a group of Iranian mountaineers to register the highest peak in the Middle East, Mount Damavand as a national heritage site. Mazandaran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Department has accepted the proposal, the Persian daily Jam-e Jam reported. Osanlou noted that the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization is presently in the process of renaming an upcoming ancient festivity after Mount Damavand. "We have proposed Tirgan Festivity, Tabari Norouz, to be named as Damavand National Day," he added. Tirgan Festivity is held in Amol County’s Rineh region in Mazandaran province. [6] The gates of Bagh Melli, where some offices of ICHO are located at. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Arabic الطبري, AD 838-AD 923), was an author from Persia. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... Amol County (Persian: شهرستان آمل) is a county in Mazandaran Province in Iran. ... Rineh is a small town, located in the foot of Mount Damavand, in Mazandaran, Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ...


Damāvand photos

Footnotes

  1. ^ The 5,610 m given here is from the Statistical Centre of Iran, which states that "the highest point in Iran is Mount Damāvand being 5,610 metres high". This elevation is consistent with SRTM data. Two GPS measurements [1] [2] report slightly higher elevations, in the 5620's, but also report -17m for the nearby Caspian Sea despite its accepted -28m. This suggests that there is slight local geoid inaccuracy built into hand held GPS measurements in this area, and that the official Iranian elevation is accurate. The most frequently given elevation on the web, 5,671 m, is definitely wrong.
  2. ^ Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Damavand
  3. ^ Volcanic Hole on Damavand. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  4. ^ Milani, A. Lost Wisdom. 2004. Washington. ISBN 0934211906 p.67

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a research effort that obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth to date. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The GOCE project will measure high-accuracy gravity gradients and provide an accurate geoid model based on the Earths gravity field. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Mount Damavand Guide
  • Damavand Climbing Tour Guide
  • Damavand Weather Forecast
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mount Damavand
  • Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Damavand
  • Mount Damavand on TierraWiki.org
  • Damavand Mountaineering Guide
  • Facts and Misc. Information
  • Summit Post: Damavand
  • Rahdoon Damavand
  • Mount Damavand Climbing Tour
  • Informative 2007 trip report


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran Mountain Climbing Travel and Tour (3761 words)
The city of Damavand is located 75 kilo-meters northeast of Tehran on the slopes of magnificent Mount Damavand with natural scenery of several orchards and a pleasant climate that makes it a desirable summer resort.
Damavand peak is situated in Larijan district, southwest of Amol and 69 kilometers northeast of Teheran.
Damavand peak is situated in Larijan district, southwest of Amol and 69 Kilometers northeast of Tehran.
Mount Damavand (5671 m) Guided Tour - Winter South Face (603 words)
But the most important obstacles in mount Damavand winter ascent are strong wind and freezing cold in altitude that sometimes reaches to -50°C! You should be fit and well-equipped to summit Damavand in winter time.
To scale mount Damavand in winter time, you should be fit, strong and well-equipped.
If you are interested in summer ascent of mount Damavand, take a look at our summer south face and summer north face plans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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