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Encyclopedia > Mount Athos
Άγιον Όρος
Agion Oros
(Αυτόνομη Μοναστική Πολιτεία Αγίου Όρους)
Aftonomi Monastiki Politia Agiou Orous
Holy Mountain
Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain1
Flag of Mount Athos Coat of arms of Mount Athos
Flag
Capital Karyes
Largest city Karyes
Official languages Greek, Church Slavonic, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian
Government
 -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis
 -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I
Area
 -  Total 335.64 km² 
129.59 sq mi 
Population
 -  2001 census 2,262 
 -  Density 6.7/km² 
17.455/sq mi
Currency Euro (€)
1 Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek).
2 Greece's Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Mount Athos*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Iviron monastery lies near the site where according to tradition the Theotokos first landed on Athos
State Party Flag of Greece Greece
Type Mixed
Criteria i, ii, iv, v, vi, vii
Reference 454
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Mount Athos (Greek: Όρος Άθως) is a mountain on the peninsula of the same name in Macedonia, northern Greece, called in Greek Άγιον Όρος (Agion Oros, transliterated often as Hagion Oros), or in English, "Holy Mountain". In Classical times, the peninsula was called Ακτή (Acte or Akte). Politically it is known in Greece as the Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain. This World Heritage Site is home to 20 Eastern Orthodox monasteries and forms a self-governed monastic state within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date) The flag of Greece (Greek: , popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη, the blue-white) is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating... Image File history File links Mount_Athos_map_red. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Dora Bakoyianni Dora Bakoyianni (born 1954), is the mayor of Athens, capital of Greece. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... Patriarch Bartholomew I His All Holiness, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome (Greek:Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότητα ο Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαίος Α Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης) , born Demetrios Archontonis (Δημήτριος Αρχοντώνης, Dimítrios Archontónis) on 29 February 1940) has been the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, and thus first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion, since 2 November 1991. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 654 KB) Iviron monastery at Mount Athos, Greece as seen from the North-West, arriving from the path that connects Iviron with Stavronikita monastery. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


The peninsula, the easternmost "leg" of the larger Chalcidice peninsula, protrudes into the Aegean Sea for some 60 kilometres (37 mi) at a width between 7 to 12 km and covers an area of 335.637 square kilometres (129.59 sq mi), with the actual Mount Athos and its steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres (6,670 ft). The seas around the end of the peninsula can be dangerous. Chalkidikí or Chalcidice (in Greek: Χαλκιδική, alternative romanizations Khalkidhikí) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Though land-linked, it is accessible only by boat. The number of visitors is restricted and all are required to get a special entrance permit before entering Mount Athos. Only males are allowed entrance into Mount Athos, which is called "Garden of the Virgin" by monks[1], and Orthodox Christians take precedence in the permit issuance procedure. Only males over the age of 18 who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church are allowed to live on Athos. There are religious guards, who are not monks, that assist the monks, and any other people not monks are required to live in the peninsula's capital, Karyes. The 2001 Greek national census counted a population of 2,262 inhabitants. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. ... The National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG) is a General Secretariat of the Greek Ministry of Economy and Finance with more than 1100 employees. ...

Contents

List of settlements

The twenty self-governing monasteries

The sovereign monasteries, in the order of their place in the Athonite hierarchy:

  1. Great Lavra (Μεγίστη Λαύρα, Megísti Lávra)
  2. Vatopédi (Βατοπέδι or Βατοπαίδι)
  3. Iviron (Ιβήρων; ივერთა მონასტერი , iverta monasteri) - built by Georgians
  4. Hilandar (Χιλανδαρίου, Chilandariou; Хиландар) - Serbian
  5. Dionysiou (Διονυσίου)
  6. Koutloumousiou (Κουτλουμούσι)
  7. Pantokrator (Παντοκράτορος, Pantokratoros)
  8. Xiropotamou (Ξηροποτάμου)
  9. Zografou (Ζωγράφου, Зограф) - Bulgarian
  10. Dochiariou (Δοχειαρίου)
  11. Karakalou (Καρακάλλου)
  12. Filotheou (Φιλοθέου)
  13. Simonos Petra (Σίμωνος Πέτρα or Σιμωνόπετρα)
  14. Saint Paul's (Αγίου Παύλου, Agiou Pavlou)
  15. Stavronikita (Σταυρονικήτα)
  16. Ksenofondos (Ξενοφώντος)
  17. Osiou Grigoriou (Οσίου Γρηγορίου)
  18. Esfigmenou (Εσφιγμένου)
  19. Saint Panteleimon's (Αγίου Παντελεήμονος, Agiou Panteleimonos; Пантелеймонов; or Ρωσικό, Rossikon) - Russian
  20. Konstamonitou (Κωνσταμονίτου)

The Monastery of Great Lavra was built by the monk Athanasius of Trebizond with funds from Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas who intended to abdicate his throne and become a monk when he was assassinated in 969. ... The holy monastery of Vatopedi was built during the second half of the 10th century, by three monks, Athanasius, Nicholas and Antonius from Adrinople, who were the pupils of St. ... Iviron monastery, as seen from the path that connects Iviron to Stavronikita monastery Iviron monastery (Greek: Μονή Ιβήρων, Georgian: ივერთა მონასტერი) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Hilandar (Greek Chilandar) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, traditionally occupied and maintained by the Serbian Orthodox Church. ... Dionysiou monastery, codex 90, a 13th century manuscript containing selections from Herodotus, Plutarch and (shown here) Diogenes Laertius Dionysiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Διονυσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Koutloumousiou monastery (Greek: Μονή Κουτλουμουσίου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Pantokratoros monastery (Greek: Μονή Παντοκράτορος) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Xiropotamou monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξηροποτάμου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... The St George the Zograf or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир, Zografski manastir; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. ... Dochiariou monastery (Greek: Μονή Δοχειαρείου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Karakalou monastery (Greek: Μονή Καρακάλου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Filotheou monastery (Greek: Μονή Φιλοθέου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Simonopetra, southern view. ... Agiou Pavlou monastery (Greek: Μονή Αγίου Παύλου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Stavronikita monastery, South-East view Stavronikita monastery (Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to St. ... Ksenofondos monastery as seen from the sea Ksenofondos monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξενοφώντος) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Osiou Grigoriou monastery (Greek: Μονή Οσίου Γρηγορίου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... Esphigmenou monastery (Greek: Μονή Εσφιγμένου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to the Ascension of Christ. ... The Monastery of St Panteleimon The Russian Orthodox monastery of St Panteleimon is built on the south-west side of the peninsula of Mt. ... Konstamonitou monastery (Greek: Μονή Κοσταμονίτου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ...

The main sketes

Map of Mount Athos
Map of Mount Athos
  • Kafsokalyvia
  • Lakkoskete (Lacu, Sfântul Dumitru - Romanian)
  • New Skete
  • Prodromos (Prodromu, Sfântul Ioan Botezătorul - Romanian)
  • Provata
  • Saint Anne's Skete
  • Saint Basil's Skete
  • Skete of Iviron
  • Skete of Koutloumousiou
  • Skete of Pantokratoros
  • Skete of Vatopedi
  • Skete of Xenophontos
  • Saint Andrew's Skete also known as Saray (Σαράι)

Image File history File links Karta_Athos. ... Image File history File links Karta_Athos. ... Peak of Mount Athos as seen from the courtyard of the Prodromos Skete. ...

Important settlements

The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. ... Map of the athonite peninsula. ...

History

Antiquity

The peninsula as seen from the summit of Mount Athos ( 40°9′28″N, 24°19′36″E), looking north-west
The peninsula as seen from the summit of Mount Athos ( 40°9′28″N, 24°19′36″E), looking north-west

In the context of Greek mythology Athos was the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia. Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which fell in the Aegean sea and became the Athonite Peninsula. According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant. Image File history File links Athos_peninsula. ... Image File history File links Athos_peninsula. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Gigantomachia: Dionysos attacking a Gigante, Attic red-figure pelike, ca. ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Herodotus tells us that Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos populated the peninsula, then called Acte or Akte. (Herodotus, VII:22) Strabo reports of five cities on the peninsula: Dion (Dium), Cleonae (Kleonai), Thyssos (Thyssus), Olophyxos (Olophyxis), Acrothoï (Akrothoön), of which the last is near the crest. (Strabo, Geography, VII:33:1) Eretria also established colonies on Acte. Two other cities were established in the Classical period: Acanthus (Akanthos) and Sane. Some of these cities minted their own coins. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... Lemnos (mod. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Cleonae or Cleonæ or Kleonai may refer to any of several ancient cities, including: Archaies Kleones formerly Cleonae, in Argolis, now in Corinthia prefecture, Greece Cleonae (Chalcidice) on Mount Athos This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same... This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria. ... The Athos peninsula, site of Acanthus Acanthus or Akanthos (Greek: or Modern Greek: Aχανθος) (modern town of Ierissos, also Erisso) was an ancient Greek city on the Athos peninsula. ...


The peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes I, who spent three years [2] excavating a channel across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in 483 BC. After the death of Alexander the Great, the architect Dinocrates (Deinokrates), proposed to carve the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander. Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC - 483 BC - 482 BC 481 BC... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Dinocrates (also Deinocrates; fl. ...


The history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the exact location of the cities reported by Strabo. It is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos' new inhabitants, the monks, started arriving at some time before the 7th century AD.[3] (6th century - 7th century - 8th century _ other centuries) Events The religion of Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is revealed, and Arabs spread Islam into Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia. ...


Early Christianity

According to the athonite tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was sailing accompanied by St John the Evangelist from Joppa to Cyprus to visit Lazarus. When the ship was blown off course to then pagan Athos it was forced to anchor near the port of Klement, close to the present monastery of Iviron. The Virgin walked ashore and, overwhelmed by the wonderful and wild natural beauty of the mountain, she blessed it and asked her Son for it to be her garden. A voice was heard saying "Ἔστω ὁ τόπος οὖτος κλῆρος σός καί περιβόλαιον σόν καί παράδεισος, ἔτι δέ καί λιμήν σωτήριος τῶν θελόντων σωθῆναι" (Translation: "Let this place be your inheritance and your garden, a paradise and a haven of salvation for those seeking to be saved"). From that moment the mountain was consecrated as the garden of the Mother of God and was out of bounds to all other women. Our Lady redirects here. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... Joppa is a Biblical name for the Israeli city of Yafo, otherwise known as Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv-Yafo. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500 For other uses, see Lazarus (disambiguation). ...


Historical documents on ancient Mount Athos history are very few. We are sure that monks were already there since the 4th century, or possibly since the 3rd. During Constantine I's reign (324-337) both Christians and pagans were living there. During the reign of Julian the Apostate (361-363), the churches of Mount Athos were destroyed, and Christians hid in the woods and inaccessible places. Later, during Theodosius I's reign (383-395), the pagan temples were destroyed. The lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria states that in the 5th century there was still a temple and a statue of "Zeus Athonite". After the Islamic conquest of Egypt in the 7th century, many orthodox monks from the Egyptian desert tried to find another calm place; some of them came to the Athos peninsula. An ancient document states that monks "...built huts of wood with roofs of straw (...) and by collecting fruit from the wild trees were providing themselves improvised meals..." Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... page of Marc. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... At the commencement of the Islamic conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ...


Byzantine era: the first monasteries

Zograf Monastery is one of the most ancient monasteries on Athos, founded during the reign of Leo VI the Wise.

The chroniclers Theophanes the Confessor (end of 8th century) and Georgios Kedrenos (11th century) wrote that the 726 eruption of the Thera volcano was visible from Mount Athos, proving that it was inhabited at the time. The historian Genesios recorded that monks from Athos participated at the 7th Ecumenical Council of Nicaea of 843. Around 860, the famous monk Efthymios the Younger came to Athos and a number of monk-huts ("skete of Saint Basil") were created around his habitation, possibly near Krya Nera. During the reign of emperor Basil I the Macedonian, the former Archbishop of Crete (and later of Thessaloniki) Basil the Confessor built a small monastery at the place of the modern harbour ("arsanas") of Chilandariou Monastery. Soon after this, a document of 883 states that a certain Ioannis Kolovos built a monastery at Megali Vigla. On a chrysobull of emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain is proclaimed a place of monks, and no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders are allowed to be settled there. The next year, in an imperial edict of emperor Leo VI the Wise we read about the "...so-called ancient seat of the council of gerondes (council of elders)...", meaning that there was already a kind of monks' administration and that it was already "ancient". In 887, some monks expostulate to the emperor Leo the Wise as the monastery of Kolovos is growing more and more and they lose their peace. In 908, the existence of a Protos ("First monk") is documented, who is the "head" of the monastic community. In 943, the borders of the monastic state was precisely mapped while we know that Karyes is already the capital town and seat of the administration and has the name "Megali Mesi Lavra" (Big Central Assembly). In 956, a decree offered land of about 1/4 of an acre (2 500 m²) to the Xiropotamou monastery, which means that this monastery was already quite big. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 951 KB) Summary View on the inner court of Zografou Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 951 KB) Summary View on the inner court of Zografou Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The St George the Zograf or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир, Zografski manastir; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. ... This follis by Leo VI bears the Byzantine Emperors official title, BASILEVS ROMEON, Emperor of the Romans; translation of text: Leo, by the grace of God, King of Romans Leo VI the Wise or the Philosopher (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI, Armenian: [1]), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine... Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... Georgios Kedrenos, also known as George Cedrenus, was a Byzantine historian of the mid eleventh century CE. In the 1050s he compiled A Concise History of the World, spanning the time from the biblical Creation until his own day. ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council of Nicaea) to restore the honoring of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. ... This follis by Leo VI bears the Byzantine Emperors official title, BASILEVS ROMEON, Emperor of the Romans; translation of text: Leo, by the grace of God, King of Romans Leo VI the Wise or the Philosopher (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI, Armenian: [1]), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine... Geron may refer to A Starets: an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery Geron Corporation, an American biotechnology company Geron oil is Richard Dawkinss mocking anagram of religion. This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Protos (Greek Πρώτος, translation First) is a monastic office at the eastern orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos. ...


In 958, the monk Athanasios the Athonite (Άγιος Αθανάσιος ο Αθωνίτης) arrived on Mount Athos. In 962, the big central church of the "Protaton" in Karies is built. In the next year, with the support of his friend, Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, the monastery of Great Lavra was founded, still the largest and most prominent of the 20 monasteries existing today. It enjoyed the protection of the emperors of the Byzantine Empire during the following centuries and its wealth and possessions grew considerably. The Fourth Crusade in the 13th century brought new Roman Catholic overlords which forced the monks to complain and ask for the intervention of Pope Innocent III, until the restoration of the Byzantine Empire came. The peninsula was raided by Catalan mercenaries in the 14th century, a century that also saw the theological conflict over the hesychasm practised on Mount Athos and defended by Gregory Palamas. Russian icon of St Afanasy Afonsky Athanasios the Athonite, also called Athanasius of Trebizond (c. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... The Monastery of Great Lavra was built by the monk Athanasius of Trebizond with funds from Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas who intended to abdicate his throne and become a monk when he was assassinated in 969. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Catalan Company,[1] short name for the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th-century Europe. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ...


Ottoman era

Stavronikita monastery was the last monastery to be founded on Athos.
Stavronikita monastery was the last monastery to be founded on Athos.

The Byzantine Empire was conquered in the 15th century and the newly established Islamic Ottoman Empire took its place. The Athonite monks tried to maintain good relations with the Ottoman Sultans and therefore when Murad II conquered Thessaloniki in 1430 they immediately pledged allegiance to him. In return, Murad recognized the monasteries' properties, something which Mehmed II formally ratified after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. In this way the Athonite independence was somewhat guaranteed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 704 KB) Stavronikita monastery at Mount Athos, Greece as seen from the South-East. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 704 KB) Stavronikita monastery at Mount Athos, Greece as seen from the South-East. ... Stavronikita monastery, South-East view Stavronikita monastery (Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to St. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires...


The 15th and 16th centuries were particularly peaceful for the Athonite community. This led to relative prosperity for the monasteries. An example of this is the foundation of Stavronikita monastery which completed the current number of Athonite monasteries. Following the conquest of the Serbian Despotate by the Ottomans many Serbian monks came to Athos. The extensive presence of Serbian monks is depicted in the numerous elections of Serbian monks to the office of the Protos during the era. Stavronikita monastery, South-East view Stavronikita monastery (Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, dedicated to St. ... The Serbian Despotate (Serbian: Српска деспотовина or Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire. ... Protos (Greek Πρώτος, translation First) is a monastic office at the eastern orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos. ...


Sultan Selim I was a substantial benefactor of the Xiropotamou monastery. In 1517, he issued a fatwa and a Hatt-i Sharif, "noble edict" that "the place, where the Holy Gospel is preached, whenever it is burned or even damaged, it shall be erected again." He also endowed privileges to the Abbey and financed the construction of the dining area and underground of the Abbey as well as the renovation of the wall paintings in the central church that were completed between the years 1533-1541.[4] Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Xiropotamou monastery (Greek: Μονή Ξηροποτάμου) is an orthodox christian monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane was an 1839 proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I that launched the Tanzimat period of reforms and reorganization. ...


Despite the fact that most time the monasteries were left on their own, the Ottomans heavily taxed them and sometimes they seized important land parcels from them. This eventually culminated an economic crisis in Athos during the 17th century. This led to the adoption of the so called "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle (a semi-eremitic variant of Christian monasticism) by a few monasteries at first and later, during the first half of the 18th century, by all. This new way of monastic organization was an emergency measure taken by the monastic communities to counter their harsh economic environment. Contrary to the cenobitic system, monks in idiorrhythmic communities have private property, work for themselves, they are solely responsible for acquiring food and other necessities and they dine separately in their cells, only meeting with other monks at church. At the same time, the monasteries' abbots were replaced by committees and at Karyes the Protos was replaced by a four member committee.[5] For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ...


Russian tsars, and princes from Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia (until the end of the 15th century) helped the monasteries to survive, offering large donations. The population of monks and their wealth declined over the next centuries, but were revitalized during the 19th century, particularly by the patronage of the Russian government. As a result, the monastic population grew steadily throughout the century, reaching a high point of over 7000 monks in 1902. In 1912, during the First Balkan War, the Ottomans were forced out by the Greek Navy, which claimed the peninsula as part of the peace treaty in 1913. For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Ivan Fichev, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev, Georgi Todorov Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik... Hellenic Navy Jack The Hellenic Navy, (Greek: Πολεμικό Ναύτικο), is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Aghiou Panteleimonos Monastery, traditional home of Russian monks, was the main theater of the Imiaslavie dogmatic controversy during the early 20th century.
Aghiou Panteleimonos Monastery, traditional home of Russian monks, was the main theater of the Imiaslavie dogmatic controversy during the early 20th century.

In June of 1913 a small Russian fleet, consisting of the gunboat Donets and the transport ships Tsar and Kherson, delivered the archbishop of Vologda, and a number of troops to Mount Athos to intervene in the theological controversy over imiaslavie (a Russian Orthodox movement). The archbishop held talks with the imiaslavtsy and tried to make them change their beliefs voluntarily, but was unsuccessful. On July 31 the troops stormed the St. Panteleimon Monastery. Although the monks were not armed and did not actively resist, the troops showed very heavy-handed tactics. After the storming of St. Panteleimon Monastery the monks from the Andreevsky Skete surrendered voluntarily. The military transport Kherson was converted into a prison ship and several imiaslavtsy monks were sent to Russia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x900, 341 KB) Subject: Mountain Athos Photographer: Witold Rawicz (PL) File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Athos Rossikon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x900, 341 KB) Subject: Mountain Athos Photographer: Witold Rawicz (PL) File links The following pages link to this file: Mount Athos Rossikon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... View of the Rossikon. ... Schema-monk Illarion Imiaslavie (Russian: ) or Imiabozhie (Имябожие), also referred as onomatodoxy, is a dogmatic movement which was condemned by the Russian Orthodox Church, but that is still promoted by some affiliated with Gregory Lourie of the Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church (a splinter group of the Russian Orthodox Church), and by... St. ... Schema-monk Illarion Imiaslavie (Russian: ) or Imiabozhie (Имябожие), also referred as onomatodoxy, is a dogmatic movement which was condemned by the Russian Orthodox Church, but that is still promoted by some affiliated with Gregory Lourie of the Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church (a splinter group of the Russian Orthodox Church), and by...


After a brief diplomatic conflict between Greece and Russia over sovereignty, the peninsula formally came under Greek sovereignty after World War I. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Modern times

The self-governed region of the Holy Mountain, according to the Decree passed by the Holy Community on the 3rd October 1913 and according to the international treaties of London (1913), Bucharest (1913), Neuilly (1919), Sèvres (1920) and Lausanne (1923), is considered part of the Greek state. The Decree, "made in the presence of the Holy Icon of Axion Estin", stated that the Holy Community recognised the Kings of Greece as the lawful sovereigns and "successors on the Mountain" of the "Emperors who built" the monasteries and declared its territory as belonging to the then Kingdom of Greece. Later a "Special Double Assembly" of the Holy Community in Karyes passed the "Constitutional Charter" of the Holy Mountain, which was ratified by the Greek Parliament. This regime originates from the "self-ruled monastic state" as stated on a chrysobull parchment signed and sealed by the Byzantine Emperor John Tzimisces in 972. This important document is preserved in the House of the Holy Administration in Karyes. The autonomy of the Holy Mountain was later reaffirmed by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1095. According to the constitution of Greece,[6] Mount Athos (the "Monastic State of Hagion Oros") is, "following ancient privilege", politically self-governed and consists of 20 main monasteries which constitute the Holy Community, and the capital town and administrative centre, Karyes, also home to a governor as the representative of the Greek state. The governor is an executive appointee. The status of the Holy Mountain and the jurisdiction of the Hagiorite institutions were expressly described and ratified upon admission of Greece to the European Union (then the European Community). The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the... Axion estin (Greek: Άξιον εστίν, Slavonic: Достóйно éсть, Dostóino yesÅ¥), or It is Truly Meet, is a theotokion (sticheron composed in honor of the Theotokos), which is chanted in the Divine Services of the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. ... John I, last name Kourkouas and surnamed Tzimisces (Greek: Ioannes Tzimisces Kourkouas, written Ιωάννης «Τζιμισκής» Κουρκούας), lived c. ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... For other uses, see Autonomy (disambiguation). ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In modern times, the Mount Athos monasteries have repeatedly been struck by wildfires, e.g. in August 1990, and in March 2004, fire gutted a large section of the Serbian monastery, Hilandar. Due to the secluded locations of the monasteries, often atop small hills, as well as the unavailability of suitable fire fighting gear, the damages inflicted by these fires are often considerable. This article is about the year. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hilandar (Greek Chilandar) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, traditionally occupied and maintained by the Serbian Orthodox Church. ...


On September 12, 2004, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, Peter VII, was killed, together with 16 others, in a helicopter crash in the Aegean Sea off the peninsula. The Patriarch was heading to Mount Athos. The cause of the crash remains unknown. It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... His Beatitude Petros VII (September 3, 1949 – September 11, 2004) was the Eastern Orthodox Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa from 1997 to 2004. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The monasteries of Mount Athos have a history of opposing ecumenism, or movements towards reconciliation between the Orthodox Church of Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church. The Esphigmenou monastery is particularly outspoken in this respect, having raised black flags to protest against the meeting of Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople and Pope Paul VI in 1972 . Esphigmenou was subsequently expelled from the representative bodies of the Athonite Community. The conflict escalated in 2002 with Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople declaring the monks of Esphigmenou an illegal brotherhood and ordering their eviction; the monks refuse to be evicted, and oppose their replacement with a new brotherhood. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Holy Royal and Stauropegic Monastery of Esfigmenou is a monastery on the peninsula of Mount Athos, Greece, which has broken from the mainstream Christian Orthodox church since 1964[1]. It has existed as a monastery with this name since the 10th century. ... His All Holiness Athenagoras I, by the grace of God, Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch (Greek: Πατριάρχης Αθηναγόρας, born Aristokles Spyrou) (March 25, 1886 - July 6/7, 1972) was the 268th Patriarch of Constantinople from 1948 to 1972. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Patriarch Bartholomew I His All Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew is the 270th successor to the Apostle Andrew and spiritual leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide. ...


After reaching a low point of just 1145 mainly elderly monks in 1971, the monasteries have been undergoing a steady and sustained renewal, both in the quality and the quantity of new monks that have been drawn to the Athonite monastic community. By the year 2000, the monastic population had reached 1610, with all 20 monasteries and their associated sketes receiving an infusion of mainly young well-educated monks with a zeal for the faith unseen in many decades. Many younger monks possess university education and advanced skills that allow them to work on the cataloguing and restoration of the Mountain's vast repository of manuscripts, vestments, icons, liturgical objects and other works of art, most of which remain unknown to the public because of their sheer volume. Projected to take several decades to complete, this restorative and archival work is well under way, funded by UNESCO and the EU, and aided by many academic institutions. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...


Contemplated postage stamp issue

In the winter of 1915-1916 the allied forces were considering occupation of the Holy Mountain. In anticipation of this they prepared a set of stamps which were intended for issue on 25 January 1916 for the use of the Governing body of the Monastic Republic. Image File history File linksMetadata Ark_Royal_(1914). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ark_Royal_(1914). ... The Royal Navy had been using a converted cruiser, HMS Hermes, as a seaplane carrier, to conduct trials in 1913. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


These stamps were produced in sheets of 12, (3 rows of 4), on board the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. Six values were produced, ranging up to one shilling, and all were printed in black but on various different paper types. The Royal Navy had been using a converted cruiser, HMS Hermes, as a seaplane carrier, to conduct trials in 1913. ...


The design of these stamps consisted of a square border with the name MOUNT ATHOS at the bottom in English, the left in Russian and on the right in Greek. At the top was inscribed THEOCRACY. The denomination appeared at each corner with the English in the lower corners, Greek in the top left and Russian in the top right. The inner section showed a double headed Byzantine eagle with the effigy of the Madonna and Child in an oval on its breast.


These stamps have no official status but fall into the category of prepared for use but not issued. Two points of interest arise with these stamps: They are the only issue to bear the currency and alphabets of three different languages, and the only issue to have been produced on a warship in wartime.


Administration and organization

The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes
The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes

The Holy Mountain is governed by the "Holy Community" (Iera Kinotita) which consists of the representatives of the 20 Holy Monasteries, having as executive committee the four-membered "Holy Administration" (Iera Epistasia), with the Protos being its head. Civil authorities are represented by the Civil Governor, appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose main duty is to supervise the function of the institutions and the public order. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 693 KB) Photo of the building that houses the secular administration of the monastic state of Mount Athos at Karyes, Greece. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 693 KB) Photo of the building that houses the secular administration of the monastic state of Mount Athos at Karyes, Greece. ... The building that houses the secular administration at Karyes Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. ... Protos (Greek Πρώτος, translation First) is a monastic office at the eastern orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ...


In each of the 20 monasteries - which today all follow the coenobitic system - the administration is in the hands of the "Abbot" (Hēgoumenos) who is elected by the brotherhood for life. He is the lord and spiritual father of the monastery. The Convention of the brotherhood is the legislative body. All the other establishments (cloisters, cells, huts, retreats, hermitages) are dependencies of some of the 20 monasteries and are assigned to the monks by a document called "homologon". Cenobitic (also spelled coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ...


Beyond the monasteries there are 12 skētae, smaller communities of monks, as well as many (solitary) hermitages throughout the peninsula. All persons leading a monastic life thereon acquire Greek citizenship without further formalities, upon admission as novices or monks. Visits to the peninsula are possible for laymen, but they need special permission. A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ...


Of the 20 monasteries located on the Holy Mountain, the brethren of 17 are predominantly ethnically Greek and of the other 3 is drawn from the monks of other origins, who become Greek subjects notwithstanding: the Chelandari Monastery — Serbians, the Zografou Monastery — Bulgarians and the Aghios Panteleimon Monastery — Russians. Among the 12 cloisters, two are Romanian, the coenobitic "Skētē Timiou Prodromou" (which belongs to the Monastery Meghistis Lavras) and the idiorrythmic "Skētē Aghiou Dēmētriou tou Lakkou", also called "Lakkoskētē" (which belongs to the Aghios Pavlos Monastery) and another one is Bulgarian, "Skētē Bogoroditsa" (which belongs to the Aghios Panteleimon Monastery).


Visiting procedure

Aerial photo from North
Aerial photo from North

Entry to the mountain is usually by ferry boat either from the port of Ouranoupolis (for west coast monasteries) or Ierrisos for those on the east coast. Before embarking on the boat all visitors must have been issued a diamonētērion, a form of Byzantine visa that is written in Greek, dated to the Julian calendar, and signed by four of the secretaries of leading monasteries. There are generally two kinds of diamonētērion: the general diamonētērion that enables the visitor to stay overnight at any one of the monasteries but only stay in the mountain for three days, and the special diamonētērion which allows a visitor to visit only one monastery or skete but to stay as many days as he has agreed with the monks. The general diamonētērion is available upon application from the Pilgrims' Bureau in Thessaloniki. Once this has been granted it will be issued at the port of departure, on the day of departure. Once granted, the pilgrim can then contact the monastery where they would like to stay in order to reserve a bed (one night only per monastery). The ferries require reservations, both ways. mountathos File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... mountathos File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ...


Most visitors arrive at the small port of Dafni from where they can take the only paved road in the mountain to the capital Karyes or continue via a further smaller boat to other monasteries down the coast. There is a public bus between Dafni and Karyes. Expensive taxis operated by monks are available for hire at Dafni and Karyes. They are all-wheel drive vehicles since most roads in the mountain are unpaved. Visitors to monasteries on the mountain's western side prefer to stay on the ferry and disembark at the monastery they wish to visit. Map of the athonite peninsula. ...


Upon arrival at a monastery, the visitor may ask the guest-master if and when they may see and venerate the relics and miraculous icons and may receive a kind of guided tour and information about the history of the monastery. Visitors should not miss the old church of "Protaton" with its exceptional murals and to venerate the miraculous holy icon of Virgin Mary, called "Axion Esti", which is the household icon of the patron saint of the Holy Mountain.


Prohibition of entry for women

Monks feel that the presence of women alters the social dynamics of the community and therefore slows the path towards spiritual enlightenment. It is incorrect to suggest that the prohibition is in order to reduce sexual temptation. This myth has earned the Holy Mountain a certain amount of unnecessary notoriety. However, female domestic animals are forbidden (with the exception of cats, which keep down the rodent population, and chickens, which lay eggs that provide the fresh egg yolk needed for the paint used in iconography). The interdiction is punished by imprisonment from one to two years. The European parliament has urged Greece twice to change this rule, but the demand was rejected.[7] Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Athos did shelter refugees including women and girls twice in its history: during the aftermath of the failed 1770 Orlov Revolt, and during the Greek War of Independence in 1821. The Orlov Revolt (1770) was a precursor to the Greek War of Independence (1821), which saw a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese at the instigation of Count Orlov, commander of the Russian Naval Forces of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


There was an incident in the 1930s regarding Aliki Diplarakou, the first Greek beauty pageant contestant to win the Miss Europe title, who shocked the world when she dressed up as a man and sneaked into Mount Athos. Her escapade was discussed in the July 13, 1953 Time magazine article entitled The Climax of Sin.[8] Aliki Diplarakou, in Greek: Αλίκη Διπλαράκου, (August 28, 1912 - October 30, 1993) grandmother of Princess Sibilla of Luxembourg, and the first Greek contestant to win the Miss Europe title. ... This article or section should be merged with Hellenes Greeks in Ancient History In Latin literature, Græci (or Greeks, in English) is the name by which Hellenes are known. ... Marina Tsintikidou, Miss Europe 1992. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... TIME redirects here. ...


Status in the European Union

For the purposes of the European Union treaty, Mount Athos is a part of a member state, only outside EU VAT territory.


Culture and life in the Hagion Oros

Art treasures

The Athonian monasteries possess huge deposits of invaluable medieval art treasures, including icons, liturgical vestments and objects (crosses, chalices), codices and other Christian texts, imperial chrysobulls, holy relics etc. Until recently no organized study and archiving had been carried out, but a EU-funded effort to catalogue, protect and restore them is under way since the late 1980's. Their sheer number is such, it is estimated that several decades will pass before the work is completed. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ... Derrynaflan Chalice, an 8th or 9th Century chalice, found in County Tipperary, Ireland For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ...


Languages

Greek is commonly used in all Greek monasteries, but in some monasteries there are other languages in use: in St Panteleimonos, Russian (35 monks in 2000); in Hilandar, Serbian (46); in Zographou, Bulgarian (15); and in the sketae of Prodromos and Lacu, Romanian (64). Today, many of the Greek monks also speak English. Since there are monks from many nations in Athos (some come as far as Latin America), they also speak their own native languages. View of the Rossikon. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Peak of Mount Athos as seen from the courtyard of the Prodromos Skete. ...


The sketae

See also: Skete

Monastic life in the sketae is totally different. Some of them resemble a tidy farmhouse, others are poor huts, others have the gentility of Byzantine tradition or of Russian architecture of the past century. The monk of a cell, having to take care of the worries of everyday life, makes up his program by himself. For the visitor, it is worth experiencing this side of monastic life, but most of the cells have very little or no capacity for hospitality. A skete is a group of hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, although with a level of support present not available for a lone hermit. ...


There are two types of "cloisters" ("sketae"): the coenobitic skete and the idiorrhythmic skete. The first, both in architecture and life-style, follows the typical model of a monastery. In contrast, the second is rather like a hamlet, and daily life there is much like that of a "cell", but there are also some duties for the community. Near the centre of the settlement is the central church called "Kyriakon" (that could be translated "for Sunday") where the whole brotherhood meets on Sundays and religious celebrations. Usually there are also an administration house, a library, storehouses and a guesthouse.


The Friends of Mount Athos

The Friends of Mount Athos is a society formed in 1990 by people who shared a common interest for the monasteries of Mount Athos. Timothy Ware, auxiliary bishop Kallistos of Diokleia, is the President of the society. Among its members are Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Charles, Prince of Wales, Heir Apparent to the British throne.[9] Timothy Ware was born in 1934. ... Bishop Richard Pates, current auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis and the Titular Bishop of Suacia. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Athonite monasticism at the dawn of the third millennium, Pravmir Portal
  2. ^ Warry, J. 1998 Warfare in the Classical World Salamander Book Ltd., London p 35
  3. ^ Kadas, Sotiris. The Holy Mountain (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotike Athenon, 9. ISBN 960-213-199-3. 
  4. ^ Municipality of Stagira, Acanthos
  5. ^ Kadas, Sotiris. The Holy Mountain (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotike Athenon, 14-16. ISBN 960-213-199-3. 
  6. ^ Article 105 of the Constitution of Greece - The regime of Mount Athos.
  7. ^ Is there a monastery in Greece that won't even allow female animals?
  8. ^ The Climax of Sin, Time Magazine, 1953
  9. ^ BBC, Prince visits 'monastic republic'

Bibliography

  • The 6,000 Beards of Mount Athos ISBN 0-85955-251-9 by Ralph H. Brewster. A guide to the peninsula, first published in 1935, detailing the landscape, monasteries, skites, and the life of the inhabitants, including customs and more not usually discussed.
  • Mount Athos ISBN 960-213-075-X by Sotiris Kadas. An illustrated guide to the monasteries and their history (Athens 1998). With many illustrations of the Byzantine art treasures on Mount Athos.
  • Athos The Holy Mountain by Sydney Loch. Published 1957 & 1971 (Librairie Molho, Thessaloniki). Loch spent most of his life in the Byzantine tower at Ouranopolis, close to Athos, and describes his numerous visits to the Holy Mountain. A fascinating travelogue. The famous Molho Bookstore in Thessaloniki may have a few copies left.
  • Dare to be Free ISBN 0-330-10629-5 by Walter Babington Thomas. Offers insights into the lives of the monks of Mt Athos during WWII, from the point of view of an escaped POW who spent a year on the peninsula evading capture.
  • Blue Guide: Greece ISBN 0-393-30372-1, pp. 600-03. Offers history and tourist information.
  • Mount Athos Renewal in Paradise ISBN 0-300-10323-9, by Graham Speake. An extensive book about Athos in the past, the present and the future. Includes valuable tourist information. Features numerous full-color photographs of the peninsula and daily life in the monasteries.

See also

  • Hesychasm

Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ...

External links

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Mount Athos


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mount Athos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3515 words)
Mount Athos (Greek: Όρος Άθως) is a mountain and a peninsula in Macedonia, northern Greece, called Άγιον Όρος (Agio Oros or Agion Oros or "Holy Mountain") in Greek, transliterated often as (Hagion Oros).
According to the constitution of Greece, Mount Athos (the "Monastic State of Aghion Oros") is politically self-governed and consists of 20 main monasteries (which constitute the Holy Community to administer the territory) and the capital city and administrative centre, Karyes, also home to a governor as the representative of the Greek state.
The monasteries of Mount Athos have a history of opposing ecumenism, or movements towards reconciliation between the Orthodox Church of Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church.
Mount Athos (2555 words)
Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the three strips in which the great mountainous peninsula of Chalcidice ends.
Amid the political disasters of the Greeks, during the fourteenth century, Mount Athos appears as a kind of Holy Land, a retreat for many men eminent in Church and State, and a place where the spirit of Greek patriotism was cherished when threatened elsewhere faith ruin (Krumbacher, 1058-59).
The monks of Mount Athos are somewhat indifferent towards these treasures; nothing has been done to make them accessible, except the unsuccessful attempt of Archbishop Bulgaris of Corfu to found at Mount Athos, towards the close of the eighteenth century, a school of the classical languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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