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Encyclopedia > Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat

Satellite picture of Mount Ararat
Elevation 5,137 metres (16,854 ft), see section
Location Doğubayazıt, Ağrı Province, Turkey
Prominence 3,611 m (11,847 ft) ranked 48th
Coordinates 39°42.113′N 44°17.899′E / 39.701883, 44.298317Coordinates: 39°42.113′N 44°17.899′E / 39.701883, 44.298317 (GPS)
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1840[1]

Mount Ararat (see section Names for other names) is the tallest peak in Turkey. This snow-capped, dormant volcanic cone is located in the Iğdır Province, near the northeast corner of Turkey, 16 km (10 mi) west of the Iranian and 32 km (20 mi) south of the Armenian border. Credit(s): Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Location of Province AÄŸrı AÄŸrı (Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¡Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ«; Kurdish: Agirî [1]) is a province on the eastern borders of Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the North, Erzurum to the Northeast, MuÅŸ and Bitlis to the Southeast, Van to the south, and IÄŸdır to the northeast. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... This is a list of mountains ordered by their topographic prominence. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ... Puu Ōō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on KÄ«lauea, Hawaii Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. ... shows the Location of the Province IÄŸdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ...

Contents

Names

Turkish: Ağrı Dağı[2][3], "Mountain of Pain"[4][5]; Armenian: Մասիս or Արարատ, Masis or Ararat; Kurdish: Çîyayê Agirî [6],"Fiery Mountain"[7]. The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ...


Geology

Location of Mount Ararat in Turkey
Location of Mount Ararat in Turkey

Ararat is a stratovolcano, formed of lava flows and pyroclastic ejecta, with no volcanic crater. Above the height of 4,200 m (13,780 ft), the mountain mostly consists of igneous rocks covered by an ice sheet. Image File history File links Ararat-Location. ... Image File history File links Ararat-Location. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much...


A smaller 3,896 m (12,782 ft) cone, Little Ararat, rises from the same base, southeast of the main peak. The lava plateau stretches out between the two pinnacles. The bases of these two mountains is approximately 1,000 km² (386 sq mi) wide. Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat Armenian: ), (Turkish: is the sixth tallest peak in modern Turkey. ...


The formation of Ararat is hard to retrieve geologically, but the type of vulcanism and the position of the volcano raise the idea that subduction relation vulcanism occurred when the Tethys Ocean closed during the Neogene, as recently occurred along the borders of the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates from Cabo de Gata to the Caucasus.


Elevation

An elevation of 5,165 m (16,946 ft) for Mount Ararat is given by some authorities, but others, including Encyclopedia Britannica give 5,137 m (16,854 ft). Public domain and verifiable SRTM data and a 2007 GPS measurement show that 5,137 m is more accurate, and that the true elevation may be lower. 5,137 m is also supported by detailed topographic mapping (see summit map). The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a research effort that obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth to date. ...


Activity

It is not known when the last eruption of Ararat occurred; there are no historic or recent observations of large-scale activity recorded. The last eruption will have occurred somewhere in the last 10000 years. It seems that Ararat was active in the 3rd millennium BC; under the pyroclastic flows, artifacts from the early Bronze Age and remains of human bodies have been found.[8]


However, it is known that Ararat was shaken by a large earthquake in July 1840, the effects of which were largest in the neighbourhood of the Ahora Gorge (a northeast trending chasm that drops 1,825 metres (5,988 ft) from the top of the mountain). An unstable part of the northern slope collapsed and a chapel, a monastery and a village were covered by rubble. According to some sources, Ararat erupted then as well, albeit under the ground water level.


Ararat anomaly

Main article: Ararat anomaly

Picture of the Ararat anomaly taken by the US Defense Intelligence Agency in 1949 The Ararat anomaly is an object appearing on photographs of the snowfields at the summit of Mount Ararat, Turkey, and advanced by some believers in Biblical literalism as the remains of Noahs Ark. ...

History

Ararat from the book "Noah's Ark Uncovered" by Henri Nissen
Ararat from the book "Noah's Ark Uncovered" by Henri Nissen

Over the centuries, the area has been contested territory between several states. The first unified state to rule the region surrounding the mountain was ancient Urartu. After the decline of Urartu following invasions by Scythians and the Medes in 585 BC, a semi-independent Armenian state emerged under the rule of the Orontid Dynasty, the members of which frequently intermarried with their overlords, the Achaemenid Persians. After the defeat of the Achaemenids by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, the Orontids gained autonomy, albeit under Macedonian influence. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 947 KB) Photograph of Mount Ararat courtesy of Henri Nissen (source). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 947 KB) Photograph of Mount Ararat courtesy of Henri Nissen (source). ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Mede nobility. ... The Orontid Dynasty (in Armenian: ÔµÖ€Õ¾Õ¡Õ¶Õ¤Õ¸Ö‚Õ¶Õ«Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ« Õ°Õ¡Ö€Õ½Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶) was the first known Armenian dynasty. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


According to a legend, a Roman emperor ordered a number of Roman soldiers who converted to Christianity (now called ten thousand martyrs of Mount Ararat) to be crucified on Mount Ararat. 10,000 martyrs of Mount Ararat by Vittore Carpaccio The ten thousand martyrs of Mount Ararat were, according to legend, Roman soldiers who converted to Christianity and were crucified on Mount Ararat by order of the Roman emperor. ...


Antiochus the Great briefly subjugated Armenia in 201 BC, ending Orontid rule in the region. After the defeat of Antiochus in the Battle of Magnesia, a new independent Armenian Kingdom emerged in 198 BC that lasted for over six centuries, until 428, when it was briefly being annexed to the Roman Empire by Trajan from 114 to 118. Following the partition of Armenia between the Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 428, the region was a constant battleground between the two, and afterwards between the Arab Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional... Combatants Roman Republic Seleucid Empire Commanders Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Scipio Africanus Eumenes II of Pergamum Antiochus III the Great Strength 50. ... Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC. Capital Tigranakert Language(s) Armenian Political structure Empire History  - Established 190 BC  - Disestablished 66 BC The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Arab Caliphate could refer to: The Umayyad Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Category: ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Ararat became part of the territory of the Armenian Kingdom of Ani under the Bagratuni Dynasty early in the ninth century A.D., which was then annexed by Byzantium in 1045. It then lost the territory to the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Georgian Kingdom took the region from the Seljuks from the late 12th century to the early 13th century, until various Mongol rulers of the Ilkhanate, including Tamerlane, took control of the area in the 13th and 14th centuries. The region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 and often fought over and taken by the Safavids. In 1855 the northern side of the mountain became part of the Russian Empire, the southern side remained within the Ottoman Empire. The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower Ani (Armenian: , Latin: Abnicum[1] ) is a ruined and uninhabited medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... The recorded history of Georgia dates back more than 4,000 years and the Georgian language is one of the oldest living languages in the world. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...

Ararat from Doğubeyazıt by Christian Koehn
Ararat from Doğubeyazıt by Christian Koehn

Dr. Friedrich Parrot, with the help of Khachatur Abovian, was the first explorer in modern times to reach the summit of Mount Ararat, subsequent to the onset of Russian rule in 1829. He was followed in 1856 by a group of five explorers led by Major Robert Stuart. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1723x1173, 310 KB) Mount Ararat / Büyük Ağrı Dağı, eastern Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1723x1173, 310 KB) Mount Ararat / Büyük Ağrı Dağı, eastern Turkey. ... Doğubeyazıt Morning Doğubeyazıt (Kurdish: Bazîd; Armenian: Դարոյնք, Դարենից, or Պակովան (Latin transliteration: Daroynk‘, Darenic‘, or Pakovan)) is a city and district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, and is Turkeys most eastern district, the border crossing to Iran. ... Johann was a naturalist and traveller. ... Portrait of Khachatur Abovian Khachatur Abovian (Armenian: ) (15 October 1805–1848) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead. ... Robert Stuart was born in Ireland in about 1812 to Thomas Stuart (of Whitehall, County Clare, and Lifford, County Limerick, the illegitimate son of Thomas Smyth and brother of Major-General Charles Stuart). ...


In 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the October Revolution, the area became part of the Democratic Republic of Armenia, but the republic was short-lived. With the invasion of the Red Army, the area became part of the Soviet Union. Following the Treaty of Kars in 1923, the area was divided up between Turkey and the USSR, and the new border, which became internationally recognised, placed Ararat on the Turkish side of the border. At that time, Armenia was joined together with Georgia and Azerbaijan as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR. When the TSFSR was dissolved in 1936 and each of the three countries became separate Soviet Republics (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR), Armenia depicted Ararat on its coat of arms. Turkey protested against this symbolic gesture on the grounds that Ararat was part of its territory, but the Kremlin refused to take action. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked...


Symbolism for Armenians

Ararat rises from a flat plain and dominates the skyline of Armenia's capital, Yerevan. Since ancient times, Ararat has been revered by the Armenians as their spiritual home and as the home of the gods of the Armenian pantheon. Today, it is the national symbol of Armenia. Mount Ararat is featured in the center of the Coat of Arms of Armenia. In 1937, a coat of arms was adopted. This coat prominently featured Mount Ararat along with the Soviet hammer and sickle and red star behind it. The inclusion of Ararat brought objections from Turkey because the mountain is part of its territory. The Kremlin retorted that although the gay Turkish symbol was the crescent, surely it did not mean that they laid claim to the moon. The Soviet Union broke apart in 1991 and Armenia thus became an independent republic. In 1992, a slightly modified version of the DRA's coat of arms was adopted and has remained in place ever since. The mountain is often depicted by Armenian artists on paintings, obsidian engravings, backgammon boards and other artifacts. From Yerevan, Artashat (Artaxarta), Masis and Armavir, and throughout much of the country, citizens and tourists get a clear glimpse of both peaks, Mount Ararat and Little Ararat (Sis). Khor Virap, a monastery located just across the border from Turkey, is particularly popular with tourists for its view of the mountain. Ararat (film) is a 2002 film by Atom Egoyan (about the Armenian Genocide) that displays this symbolism. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... The Coat of Arms of Armenia The coat of arms of Armenia consists of an eagle and a lion supporting a shield. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... Marble statue of a woman found in Artashat. ... The Khor Virap (Ô½Õ¸Ö€ ÕŽÕ«Ö€Õ¡Õº in Armenian, meaning deep dungeon) monastery is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Armenia. ... Ararat is a 2002 film directed, written, and co-produced by Atom Egoyan about the Armenian Genocide, an event that is denied by the government of Turkey. ... Atom Egoyan at the Third Golden Apricot Film Festival. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ...


Climbing Mount Ararat

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
an early account of an ascent of Mount Ararat.

The climb is long, but there is a fairly easy route from the south in late summer for climbers who are familiar with the use of axe and crampons. Snow covers the last 400 m (¼ mile) year-round. There are two possible campsites on the mountain, and the glacier begins around 4,800 m (15,750 ft). The gay Turkish government requires a climbing permit and use of a certified Turkish guide. Arrangements can take two months to complete. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


Gallery

A three dimensional model that shows both peaks

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1215x274, 48 KB) Ararat (NASA) Source: http://photojournal. ...

See also

In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ... 96205 Ararat is an asteroid. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... This is a list of named asteroids, with links to the Wikipedia articles on the people, places, characters and concepts that they are named after. ... The Volcanic Seven Summits on an Elevation World Map. ... Mount Ararat (39°42′N, 44°17′E), satellite image — a stratovolcano, 5,137 meters (16,854 ft) above sea level, prominence 3,611 meters, believed to have erupted within the last 10,000 years. ... Picture of the Ararat anomaly taken by the US Defense Intelligence Agency in 1949 The Ararat anomaly is an object appearing on photographs of the snowfields at the summit of Mount Ararat, Turkey, and advanced by some believers in Biblical literalism as the remains of Noahs Ark. ... From Noahs Ark: Adrift in Dark Waters - the Durupinar ark site with site promoter David Fasold in the foreground The Durupinar site is a boat-shaped mound site in the Tenderuk mountains named after Turkish Army Captain Ilhan Durupinar who identified the formation in a Turkish Air Force aerial...

Notes

  1. ^ Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Ararat Eruptive History
  2. ^ http://www.wan-press.org/article3057.html "...Mount Ararat, or Ağrı Dağı as it is known in Turkish"
  3. ^ (see meaning of Ağrı)
  4. ^ Shockey, Don, 1986. Agri-Dagh, Mount Ararat: The Painful Mountain, Fresno, CA: Pioneer Publishing, ISBN 1572584122.
  5. ^ http://www.arksearch.com/nadanger.htm "...see why the Turkish word for Mount Ararat is Agri Dagh or the 'Mountain of Pain!'"
  6. ^ Joyce Blau, Veysi Barak, Manuel de Kurde: Kurmanji, L'Harmattan Publishers, Paris, 1999, p.36, ISBN 2738476228.
  7. ^ Ararat/Ağri Daği
  8. ^ Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Ararat

This list of replaced loanwords in Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords mostly of Arabic and Persian, but also French, Greek, and Italian origin, which were replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms - in...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mount Ararat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (551 words)
Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı Dağı; Armenian Արարատ; Kurdish Çîyayê Agirî; Persian آرارات Ararat; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂrārāṭ), the tallest peak in modern Turkey, is a snow-capped dormant volcanic cone, located in the far northeast of Turkey, 16 km west of Iran and 32 km south of Armenia.
Mount Ararat is featured in the center of the Coat of Arms of Armenia.
Several expeditions to Mount Ararat to search for the Ark have occured, but the Turkish government has closed off the northwestern area of the mountain since the early 1990s due to military conflicts with Kurdish rebels.
Mount Ararat - All About Turkey (708 words)
Ararat is located at Agri in eastern Turkey near the Russian and Iranian borders.
Ararat is a dormant volcano; the last eruption was on June 2, 1840.
On 1st of November 2004 Ararat Mountain and surroundings were declared as the 35th National Park of Turkey by the Government so it's believed that it will attract more visitors and help to the local economy as well.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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