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Encyclopedia > Motorway
Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. Similar symbols are used in some other countries.
Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. Similar symbols are used in some other countries.

Motorway is a term for both a type of road and a classification or designation. Motorways are high capacity roads designed to carry fast motor traffic safely. In the United Kingdom they are predominantly dual-carriageway roads, with two, three or four lanes in each direction (usually three), and all have grade-separated access, comparable with North American freeways and expressways as a road type, and interstates as a classification. Image File history File links UK_motorway_symbol. ... Image File history File links UK_motorway_symbol. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... The word lane has two meanings: a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... A motorway junction is a type of road junction, linking one motorway to another; to other roads; or sometimes to just a motorway service station. ... North American redirects here. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ...


In English-speaking countries the term is used in the United Kingdom, parts of Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, some other Commonwealth nations, and Ireland (a motorway is also called a mótarbhealach (plural: mótarbhealaí) in Irish). In Ireland, a road built to motorway standard, but without the designation (and the regulations and traffic restrictions resulting from that designation), is known as a high quality dual carriageway. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... N2 Ashbourne bypass,County Meath,Ireland. ...

Contents

International usage

Internationally, Motorways are referred to as:

Avtokinitódromos (Αυτοκινητόδρομος) is the Greek name for the national motorways of Greece. ... Auto-estrada is the Portuguese word for motorways/freeways. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... M0* (ringroad around Budapest) M1 (towards Northwestern Hungary – Győr, Tatabánya – and Austria) M15* (connects M1 to Bratislava) M3 (towards Northeastern Hungary – Miskolc, Debrecen, Nyíregyháza) M30 (connects M3 to Miskolc) M35 (connects M3 to Debrecen) M5 (towards Southeastern Hungary – Kecskemét, Szeged – and Serbia) M6 (towards Duna... Map The Autoroute system in France consists largely of toll roads, except around large cities. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Autostrada sign Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways/freeways, but is used in several countries including Belgium, Switzerland, Lithuania, Poland, Egypt, Israel, Albania and Romania. ... Avtopat (Автопат) is the Macedonian name for the motorways of the Republic of Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motorvägar (Swedish for motorway) are motorways that run through Sweden, Denmark and over the Öresund Bridge to Stockholm, Göteborg, Uppsala and Uddevalla. ... Highways in Turkey are a network in development. ... North American redirects here. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ...

Regulations and features

A Sunday in April 2004 at 5 p.m. on Britain's busy M25 which surrounds London
A Sunday in April 2004 at 5 p.m. on Britain's busy M25 which surrounds London

In Ireland and the UK, motorways are denoted by an M-prefixed (e.g. M1) or suffixed (e.g. A1(M)) road number and blue signage, distinguishing them from A-roads, which are signed in green. This is at odds with some countries in Europe, where the colours are reversed. In New Zealand, motorways are distinguished from regular state highways with the word 'Motorway' on entrance signage. Historically, New Zealand's motorways had green signage while everywhere else had black, until green signage was spread to the entire State Highway network by Transit New Zealand. For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ...


The construction and surfacing of motorways is generally of a higher standard than conventional roads, and maintenance is carried out more frequently; in particular, motorways drain water very quickly to reduce hydroplaning/aquaplaning. The road surface is generally asphalt concrete (popularly referred to as tarmac) or portland cement concrete. Other features are crash barriers, cat's eyes and, increasingly, textured road markings (a similar concept to rumble-strips). Hydroplaning (sometimes aquaplaning) in a road vehicle is an effect similar to planing in a boat. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... A close-up view of some freshly-laid tarmac. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Standard guardrail (A-profile) A crash barrier is a barrier on a road designed to prevent vehicles from leaving the roadway to improve road safety. ... A regular white cats eye of the kind invented by Shaw, marking the middle of the road. ... Rumble strips are strips of painted, ridged road surfaces to warn drivers when they stray from their lanes. ...


Common criteria

For a road to be classified as motorway a number of conditions must be fulfilled. Although they may vary from country to country, the following conditions generally apply:

  • Accessed at junctions by slip roads off the sides of the main carriageway;
  • Joined by link-roads at an interchange, the object of which is to allow traffic to change route without stopping or slowing significantly;
  • Traffic lights are not permitted (except at toll booths and certain interchanges) - see ramp meter;
  • Have signposted entry and exit points at the start and end;
  • Certain types of transport are banned, typically pedestrians, bicycles, learner drivers, horses, agricultural vehicles, underpowered vehicles (e.g. small scooters, invalid carriages). In the Republic of Ireland, the "Motorway Ahead" sign at every motorway junction lists the excluded classes of vehicles (this sign was also formerly used in the United Kingdom - from which the Irish version is based - but has been almost entirely phased out). Currently in the UK, the last junction a road becomes a motorway is signed for 'prohibited traffic'. In most Australian states, a sign for "Motorway Entrance" or "Freeway Entrance" was traditionally put at the start of these roads, but these too are being phased out. In New Zealand, a no pedestrians and no cycles sign precede the "Motorway Begins" sign to tell pedestrians and cycles that they are not allowed on the motorway.

In the UK and the Republic of Ireland there are further restrictions: In the field of road transport, a road junction is a place where two or more roads either meet or cross. ... In the field of road transport, a road junction is a place where two or more roads either meet or cross. ... This article is about a traffic control device. ... Metered Ramp A ramp meter or metering light is a device, usually a basic traffic light or a two-phase (red and green, no yellow) light together with a signal controller, that regulates the flow of traffic entering freeways according to current traffic conditions. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Tractor (disambiguation). ... A modern scooter The Piaggio MP3. ...

  • The central reservation remains unbroken (an exception being the Aston Expressway in Birmingham, which has an empty lane instead). With effect from January 2005 and based primarily on safety grounds, the UK’s Highways Agency's policy is that all new motorway schemes are to use high containment concrete step barriers in the central reserve. All existing motorways will introduce concrete barriers into the central reserve as part of ongoing upgrades and through replacement as and when these systems have reached the end of their useful life. This change of policy applies only to barriers in the central reserve of high speed roads and not to verge side barriers. Other routes will continue to use steel barriers
  • Emergency telephones (which connect directly to the police except in the UK where they connect you directly to the nearest Highways Agency Regional Control Centre where highly trained officers deal with your call sending either their own officers (HATO's) or other emergency services as required) are provided at a regular intervals (in the UK emergency telephones are situated at intervals of 1 mile, and at 1 km in Ireland)
  • No roundabouts apart from at the start and finish and some motorway interchanges
  • Hard shoulder available most of the time
  • Other roads are connected at motorway interchanges only. No roads join at any other point except for maintenance access.
  • Most junctions are numbered

Note that these only apply to roads directly designated as motorways. Roads may also be indirectly designated as such, see Inheritance below. The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ... The A38(M) is a short motorway in Birmingham, England, opened on May 24, 1972. ... This article is about the British city. ... The Highways Agency is an executive agency, part of the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom. ... Emergency telephone on a beach at Trefor in North Wales An Emergency telephone is a phone specifically provided for making calls to emergency services and are most often found in places of special danger or where it is likely that there will only be a need to make emergency calls. ... Hato is a town and municipality in the Santander Department in northeastern Colombia. ... A hard shoulder, or simply shoulder, is a reserved area by the verge of a road or motorway. ...


Traffic on a motorway is required to keep moving at all times, except in exceptional circumstances (cases where traffic queues have built up, the vehicle has broken down, or the driver has been instructed to stop by a police officer). A minimum speed limit of 50 km/h (30 mph) does not apply in the United Kingdom unlike in the Republic of Ireland. Traffic lights are very rarely present on motorways, but where they are installed (for example, at Junction 3 of the M50 in Ireland), they must be obeyed as usual. Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ... The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route (N50) in Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the north-eastern, northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ...


A motorway in the UK, whether by design or inheritance, must have a Statutory Instrument (SI) defining a stretch of road and sliproads as a special road under the Highways Act 1980. In the Republic of Ireland, a Motorway Scheme must be made under the Roads Act 1993. A special road is a classification of road in the United Kingdom. ... The Highways Act 1980 consolidated with amendments, earlier legislation. ...


Speed limits

Queues after an accident on Britain's westbound M4
Queues after an accident on Britain's westbound M4

Motorway speed limits are generally higher than those on single-carriageway roads, and some types of vehicle, such as heavy goods vehicles, may be subject to lower limits. The M4 motorway runs from Swansea (South Wales) to London, over the Second Severn Crossing (a cable-supported bridge over the River Severn). ... The M4 motorway runs from Swansea (South Wales) to London, over the Second Severn Crossing (a cable-supported bridge over the River Severn). ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... A speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law by vehicles on a road. ...


UK motorways originally had no speed limit, and were designed for traffic travelling up to 100mph. Although the design speed of 100mph remains, the majority of UK motorways and dual carriageways are now subject to the national speed limit of 70 mph (110 km/h) for motorcars and motorcycles; some may have lower limits for various local reasons. A UK Department for Transport (DfT) study at several sites in 2006 showed that over half of all motorway traffic was travelling in excess of this limit.[1] In 2004 the Conservative Party proposed increasing the motorway speed limit to 80 mph (130 km/h) on some stretches,[2] although this did not appear in their 2005 election manifesto.[3] Some[citation needed] road safety groups feel this would be a good idea, as it more closely represents the normal (and, they claim, safe) driving practice of the majority of motorway users. In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems ideally based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ...


In Ireland the speed limit for motorways and some dual-carriageways was changed from 70 mph to 120 km/h (75 mph) as part of the conversion to metric speed limits for roads on 20 January 2005.[4] is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Pakistan, initially the speed limit on Motorway was 140 km/h (85 mph) for Light Vehicles and 120 km/h (75 mph) for Heavy Vehicles; however later it was restricted to 120 km/h (75 mph) for Light Vehicles and 110 km/h (70 mph) for Heavy Vehicles.


In New Zealand the speed limit on motorways and other dual carriageways is normally the top limit for state highways, 100 km/h (62 mph), with restrictions in some areas, such as the Auckland Harbour Bridge and Central Motorway Junction (both have limits of 80km/h (50mph)). The bridge from Watchman Island, west of it. ... Aucklands Spaghetti Junction The Central Motorway Junction, best known as Spaghetti Junction, is the intersection of New Zealand State Highways 1 and 16 south of the city centre of Auckland, New Zealand. ...


Germany has no general speed limit on its motorways (Autobahn); there are only particular speed limits e.g. at dangerous sections, sections with traffic jam hazards, road works or at motorways through cities. Recently, however, speeds on roughly 1/3 of the German motorway system have been restricted to 120-130 km/h. This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


Lanes

Diagram showing lanes and road layout, with Irish road markings.
Diagram showing lanes and road layout, with Irish road markings.

Most motorway carriageways comprise a main running surface, with a hard shoulder along one edge, and a median or central reservation separating it from the other carriageway along the other edge. The hard shoulder is generally provided for use in emergencies, such as breakdowns, only. However the M42 in the UK has recently introduced a system whereby the hard shoulder can be used as an extra lane during busy periods on a small section. Diagram explaining road lanes, as in Britain and Ireland. ... A hard shoulder, or simply shoulder, is a reserved area by the verge of a road or motorway. ...


The nearside edge (the edge up against the hard shoulder) of the running surface is marked with a solid white line, or in Ireland, a solid yellow line. The offside edge of the running surface (the edge nearest to the median) is marked with a solid white line. The running surface is divided into lanes by white dashed lines. On the M42 in the UK the hard shoulder line is not textured due to the frequent use of it as a running lane.


In the UK and Ireland the lanes in a given direction are numbered sequentially from the nearside (left) as lane 1, lane 2, lane 3, etc. Lane 1 is the lane next to the hard shoulder.


The lane closest to the nearside of the road (lane 1 in the UK) is generally intended for normal steady driving, while the other lane or lanes, those closer to the median, are intended for overtaking or passing slower-moving vehicles. Vehicles are expected to use the nearside-most lane which is clear. The Highway Code for the UK recommends that vehicles only overtake on the right. Similar rules apply on German autobahns and in some other countries. In heavy traffic it may be acceptable to cruise in any lane and to pass slower vehicles on either side to avoid constant lane changes. Front Cover of the Highway Code The Highway Code is the official road safety manual for the United Kingdom. ...


Junctions

The most basic motorway junction is a two-lane flyover with four slip-roads, two on each side of the motorway, to exit or enter. A simple crossroads or roundabout is present at each end of the flyover. A rather large version of a roundabout, using two curved flyovers, is sometimes used to present a single large junction for users of the slip-roads or crossing road. The slip roads leading off the motorway are known as 'exit sliproads', those leading onto the motorway as 'entry sliproads'. The precise sliproad at any junction may be identified by reference to the direction of the carriageway, for example 'northbound entry slip'. High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... Overpass in East Potomac Park, Washington, D.C. Flyover in Miami Beach, Florida An overpass (In UK, most Commonwealth countries flyover) is a bridge, road or similar structure that crosses over another road. ... A roundabout is a type of road junction at which traffic enters a one-way stream around a central island. ...


The signal-controlled roundabout is often used in these situations and has become very common in Ireland. A far greater degree of complexity is present in Britain, with varying types of Spaghetti Junction-style interchanges. A roundabout, rotary (the term used almost universally in the US state of Massachusetts), or gyratory circus is a type of road junction (or traffic calming device) at which traffic streams around a central island, after first yielding to the circulating traffic. ... Gravelly Hill Interchange (unofficially known as Spaghetti Junction) is junction 6 of the M6 motorway where it meets the A38(M) Aston Expressway in Birmingham, England. ...


Motorway junctions are usually given a number, indicated in the UK and in Ireland with a white number on a black background in the corner of signs approaching that junction. The same junction number is used in both directions on the motorway. Sometimes, where a junction is newly inserted between two existent junctions, it will be given a letter also (e.g. 2A). In Ireland, the junction numbering has only been used consistently on the M50 since it was opened, however a junction numbering scheme is now being applied to all motorways. This has necessitated certain junctions being renumbered on the M7 (and, in future, on the M4). The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ...


Location and construction

Major intercity or national routes are often built or upgraded to motorway standard. Motorways are also commonly used for ring roads around cities or bypasses of built-up areas. In New Zealand, motorways tend to only occur in large cities, for purposes of taking commuters between the suburbs and the central city. A beltway (American English), ring road or orbital motorway (British English) is a circumferential highway found around many cities. ... Bypass routes are a type of bannered highway usually used when the main route of the highway goes through a town and an alternate route of the same highway goes around the highway. ...


In Britain there are plans to improve many motorways as well as to upgrade some roads to motorway status. In Ireland, the National Roads Authority has been connecting main cities with motorways as part of a six-year National Development Plan. The European Union has part-funded many motorway projects in the past, as part of a Trans-European Transport Networks, and there are plans to invest billions of euro in such projects in the next ten years. The National Roads Authority (NRA) (Irish: An tÚdarás um Bóithre Náisiúnta) is a State body in the Republic of Ireland, responsible for the national road network. ... There are officially eleven cities in Ireland between the two jurisdictions in Ireland, five of these in Northern Ireland and six of them in the Republic of Ireland. ... The National Development Plan was created to develop Irelands infrastructure to help invest the rewards from the economic success of the Celtic Tiger National Development Plan (NDP) is the title given by the Irish Government to a scheme of organised large-scale expenditure on (mainly) national infrastructure. ... The Trans-European transport networks (TEN-T) were created by European Union legislation in the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


One of the most recently constructed motorways in the UK is the M6 Toll, bypassing Birmingham and Wolverhampton, which opened in 2004 and is the only completely toll motorway in England. There are tolled sections of motorway on the M4 and M48, where they cross the River Severn at the Severn crossings. Although the crossing of the River Thames east of London on the M25 is tolled, the bridge and tunnels themselves are officially designated the A282 to permit usage by non-motorway traffic. In Ireland, the M1, M4, and M50 are all tolled, with sections of the M6, M7 and M8 likely to face tolls also in the future. The M6 Toll (previously called the Birmingham North Relief Road, or BNRR) is the United Kingdoms first toll-paying motorway, other than the Severn Bridges on the M4 and M48 motorways. ... This article is about the British city. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... The M48 is a small motorway in England and Wales that includes the original Severn Bridge. ... The Severn crossing is generally used to refer to two river crossings over the River Severn between England and Wales. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... The A282 is a road linking the two ends of the M25 at Dartford and Thurrock, via the Dartford Crossing. ... The N1 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, partly connecting Dublin and Belfast along the east of Ireland (mostly as the M1 motorway). ... The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ... The N6 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin to Galway (by connecting from the M4 motorway at Kinnegad) across the midlands of Ireland. ... The M7 motorway is a motorway in Ireland that runs continuously from the outskirts of Naas to south of Portlaoise. ...


Inheritance

In the UK and in Ireland certain types of traffic are not permitted on motorways. Thus, to avoid people being forced to travel illegally, there are a number of rules about stretches of road which must be designated as motorways.


In all cases, there must be an escape route for traffic not wishing or not permitted to enter the motorway. As a result, the motorway technically begins as soon as the escape route has diverged from it; for example at a grade-separated junction, the motorway starts at the junction with the exiting slip road, and the opposite slip road is also part of the motorway for this and the following reason. An exception was the A1(M) near Leeds, which was "illegal", as pedestrians could legally cross 300 yards from the start, but cyclists and other types of traffic not permitted on motorways had no way of turning back - the escape route was the Boot & Shoe a mile before. This is remedied by the A1(M) extension. On some maps the start was disguised or covered so people could not see the blunder. This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ...


As a result, this creates a less-restrictive set of rules for the standard of the road. Roads whose only destination is a motorway must be assigned motorway status, notwithstanding the possibility of their not being built to normal motorway standards. For example, the A48(M) motorway outside Cardiff begins after the last exit to St Mellons, since by staying on the dual carriageway you cannot get anywhere other than the M4 eastbound; however, it is a motorway-grade highway. A similar example in Ireland is the M6, currently a short 2 km section of the N6 eastbound that leads exclusively to the M4 motorway. The equivalent westbound section of the N6 is not signed as a motorway however. The A48(M) is a motorway in Wales, a short spur off the M4 towards Cardiff. ... St Mellons (Welsh: ) is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... The N6 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin to Galway (by connecting from the M4 motorway at Kinnegad) across the midlands of Ireland. ...


Route numbering

United Kingdom

In England and Wales, the numbers of major motorways were a numbering system of their own not conterminous with that of the A-road network, though based on the same principle of zones.[5] Running clockwise from the M1 the zones were defined for Zones 1 to 4 based on the proposed M2, M3 and M4 motorways. The M5 and M6 numbers were reserved for the other two planned long distance motorways.[6] The Preston Bypass, the UK's first motorway, should have been numbered A6(M) under the scheme decided upon, but it was decided to keep the number M6 as had already been applied.[6] Certain portions or bypasses of A-roads may be designated as motorways, the name of these portions being given the suffix "(M)". An example is the A1(M).[7] The Great Britain road numbering scheme is a numbering system used to classify and identify all major roads in Great Britain. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... There are also M2 motorways in Northern Ireland and Australia The M2 motorway is a motorway in England. ... M3 is also the name of the motorway that connects the capitals of two largest states in Europe, Moscow and Kiev. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... The M5 near J28, Devon This article concerns the M5 motorway in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The M6 near Carnforth, 2005 This article concerns the M6 motorway in England. ... This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ...


In Scotland, where the Scottish Office rather than the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation had the decision, there is no zonal pattern, but rather the A-road rule is strictly enforced. It was decided to reserve the numbers 7, 8 & 9 for Scotland.[8] The M8 follows the route of the A8, and the M85 became part of the M90 when the A90 was re-routed along the path of the A85.[specify] Categories: Stub | Scotland | Departments of the United Kingdom Government ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... Kingston Bridge M8 running alongside the Clyde This Stub in the Tradeston area, popularly known as the ski-ramp, is the abandoned interchange for the southern flank of the Glasgow Inner Ring Road For the highway connecting Moscow to Arkhangelsk, see M8 motorway (Russia). ... The A8 is a major road in Scotland, connecting Edinburgh to Greenock via Glasgow. ... The M90 motorway is a major road in Scotland. ... The A90 is a major road in Scotland. ... The A85 is a major road in Scotland. ...


In Northern Ireland a separate numbering system was used. There is no known explanation for it.[9] Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Ireland

Signage on the N6 near Kinnegad in Ireland, where the designation M6 is used for a short section of motorway.
Signage on the N6 near Kinnegad in Ireland, where the designation M6 is used for a short section of motorway.

In Ireland, motorway and national road numbering is quite different to the UK convention. Since the passage of the Roads Act 1993, all motorways are part of, or form, national primary roads. These routes are numbered in series, (usually, radiating anti-clockwise from Dublin, starting with the N1/M1) using numbers from 1 to 33 (and, separately from the series, 50). Motorways use the number of the route of which they form part, with an M prefix rather than N for national road (or in theory, rather than R for regional road).[10] In most cases, the motorway has been built as a bypass of a road previously forming the national road (e.g. M7 bypassing roads previously forming the N7) - the bypassed roads are reclassified as regional roads, although updated signposting may not be provided for some time, and adherence to signage colour conventions is lax (regional roads have black-on-white directional signage, national routes use white-on-green). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1125 KB) Summary M6 January 2006 at Kinnegad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1125 KB) Summary M6 January 2006 at Kinnegad. ... The N6 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin to Galway (by connecting from the M4 motorway at Kinnegad) across the midlands of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 112m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   1149  included above Website: www. ... A typical Irish road sign in Mullingar, County Westmeath Ireland, both north and south of the border, has an extensive network of roads. ... The N7 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin and Limerick. ... A Regional Road in the Republic of Ireland is a class of road not forming a major route (such as a National Primary Route, or National Secondary Route), but nevertheless forming a link in the national road network. ...


Under the previous legislation, the Local Government (Roads and Motorways) Act 1974, motorways theoretically existed independently to national roads, however the short sections of motorway opened during this act, except for the M50, always took their number from the national road which they were bypassing. The older road was not downgraded at this point (indeed, regional roads were not legislated for at this stage). Older signage at certain junctions on the M7 and M11 can be seen reflecting this earlier scheme, where for example "N11" and "M11" can be seen coexisting.


The M50, an entirely new national road, is an exception to the normal inheritance process, as it does not replace a road previously carrying an "N" number. The M50 was nevertheless legislated in 1994 as the "N50" route (despite having no non-motorway sections). The M50's designation was chosen as a recognisable unique number. As of 2008 the N34 is the next unused national primary road designation. In theory, a motorway in Ireland could form part of a regional road.[10] The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ...


Elsewhere

In Hungary, similar to Ireland, motorway numbers can be derived from the original national highway numbers (1-7), with an "M" prefix attached, eg. M7 is on the route of the old Highway 7 from Budapest towards Lake Balaton and Croatia. New motorways not following the original Budapest-centered radial highway system get numbers M8, M9, etc., or M0 in the case of the ring road around Budapest. Schematic path of Motorway M7 The M7 motorway connects Budapest, the capital city of Hungary with the south-western regions of the country, including Lake Balaton. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ...


In New Zealand, as well as in the Scandinavian countries, motorway numbers are also derived from the state highway route which they form a part of, but unlike Hungary and Ireland they are not distinguished from non motorway sections of the same state highway route. In the cases where a motorway acts as a bypass of a state highway route, the original state highway is either stripped of that status or renumbered (as in the case of the Auckland Northern Motorway extension from Albany to Silverdale, north of Auckland, where the new motorway was designated as part of State Highway One, while the old state highway one route linking Albany to Silverdale was designated State Highway 17). For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Northern Motorway, part of SH 1 for most of its length, is the major northern route out of Auckland in New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... State Highway 1 is the most significant road in the New Zealand roading network. ...


Motorway service areas

Motorway service areas, motorway service stations or simply motorway services are, as in the rest of the world, places where drivers can leave a motorway to refuel, rest, or take refreshments. Almost all motorway services in the UK are owned by the Department for Transport and let on 50-year leases to private operating companies. In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ...


Food sold at motorway services is notoriously expensive (although discounts are frequently available; for instance, MOD (Ministry of Defence) and The AA breakdown members receive a little-publicised 20% discount on virtually all products at Moto service stations on production of their membership card). This is often attributed to the fact that, under the terms of their leases, motorway services must provide free short-term parking and free toilet facilities and adequate provision for the sale of food and fuel; also, the vast majority of motorway services in the UK are owned by one of three companies: Moto, Welcome Break or RoadChef. Another factor may be that, unlike in other countries, the companies must pay the full cost of constructing the entry and exit ramps and all other required features for safe access to motorway services, as well as the motorway services facility itself. In other countries, the authority responsible for the highway tends to subsidise these costs on the grounds that these areas are partly a public service to drivers. The leases provide that motorway services must operate 24 hours a day, and the costs of providing utilities and services are high. With very few customers in the early morning, they need to earn the money in other ways. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... The Automobile Association (The AA) is a former British motoring association that became a private limited company in 1999, currently owned by two large private equity firms. ... Moto Hospitality is a company which operates motorway service stations in the UK. It is owned by the Compass Group. ... Moto Hospitality is a company which operates motorway service stations in the UK. It is owned by the Compass Group. ... Welcome Break logo until Summer 2006 Welcome Break is a company which operates twenty-six motorway service stations in the UK. The company was originally owned by Hanson subsidiary Imperial however was sold to Trusthouse Forte in 1986. ... RoadChef is a company which operates motorway service stations in the UK. See also Category:RoadChef motorway service stations External links RoadChef Categories: Catering and food service companies of the United Kingdom | Corporation stubs ...


Services are prohibited from selling alcohol as this might encourage drink driving. However many now have video game areas and gambling areas with fruit machines and other electronic devices. Some service stations also have hotels next to them offering motorists cheap overnight accomodation. For other uses, see Under the influence. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ...


The Republic of Ireland does not yet have motorway service areas – initially the National Roads Authority opposed them on the grounds that it preferred to see traffic using existing businesses in bypassed towns, and that the motorway network was not large enough for them anyway. However in 2006 it changed its mind, and the Roads Bill 2007 makes provision for a Motorway Service Area Scheme to be made for proposed motorway service areas. The National Roads Authority (NRA) (Irish: An tÚdarás um Bóithre Náisiúnta) is a State body in the Republic of Ireland, responsible for the national road network. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Environmental effects

  • Roadway noise: Motorways generate more roadway noise than arterial streets due to the higher operating speeds. Therefore, considerable noise health effects are expected from highway systems. Noise mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive receptors. The idea that highway design could be influenced by acoustical engineering considerations first arose about 1973[11]
  • Air quality issues: Motorways may contribute fewer emissions than arterials carrying the same vehicle volumes. This is because high, constant-speed operation creates an emissions reduction compared to vehicular flows with stops and starts. However, concentrations of air pollutants near highways may be higher due to the substantial traffic volumes. Therefore, the risk of exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants from a motorway may be considerable, and further magnified when motorways have traffic congestion, although the presence of motorways will reduce the overall air pollution resulting from traffic in the region.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Motorways encourage individuals to choose private car travel between cities instead of public transport such as trains. This is because the consumer cost of using the motorway is subsidised to a much greater degree than the consumer cost of taking the train is.[citation needed] Motor vehicle use causes the emission of up to twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide per passenger kilometre than using the train.

Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce unwanted environmental sound. ... The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...

History

Italy

The first motorway built was the Autostrada dei laghi, inaugurated on September 21, 1921 in Milan. It linked Milan to Varese. Piero Puricelli, the engineer who designed this new type of road, decided to cover the expenses by introducing a toll to be paid by whoever used the motorway.[12][13] The A9 Motorway is a major road in Italy. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Varese is a city in north-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 55 km north of Milan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other motorways built before WWII in Italy were Padua-Venice, Milan-Turin and Rome-Ostia. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand's first motorway opened in December 1950 near Wellington. This 5 kilometre (3 mile) motorway now forms part of the Johnsonville-Porirua Motorway and State Highway 1.[14] Auckland's first stretch of motorway was opened in 1953 between Ellerslie and Mount Wellington (between present-day Exit 435 and Exit 438), and now forms part of the Southern Motorway.[15] For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Johnsonville is a large suburb in northern Wellington, New Zealand. ... Porirua is a city in New Zealand, 20 km north of Wellington. ... State Highway 1 State Highway 1 is the most significant single element of the New Zealand roading network State Highway 1 can be considered as a single highway running the length of both main islands, a total of 2027 km. ... The Auckland Southern Motorway, part of State Highway 1 is the major southern route out of Auckland in New Zealand. ...


United Kingdom

See also: Roads in the United Kingdom

In Great Britain motorways were introduced into law under the Special Roads Act 1949,[16] with the first motorway, the M6 Preston Bypass, opening in 1958.[17] The first major motorway to open was the M1 between Crick and Berrygrove.[17] From then onwards, motorways opened on a regular basis right into the 1980s;[18] by 1972 the first 1,000 miles (1,609 km) of motorway had been built.[19]Whilst roads outside of urban areas continued to be built throughout the 1970s, opposition to urban routes became more pronounced. Most notably, plans by the Greater London Council for a series of ringways were cancelled following extensive protests and a rise in costs.[20] The completed M25 London Orbital opened in 1986.[21] In 1996 the total length of motorways reached 2,000 miles (3,219 km).[22] The Great Britain road numbering scheme is a numbering system used to classify and identify all major roads in Great Britain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... Crick is a village in the Daventry district of the county of Northamptonshire in England. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The London Ringways were a series of four ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ...


Northern Ireland developed their own network of motorways. Legal authority existed in the Special Roads Act (Northern Ireland) 1963 similar to that in the 1949 Act.[23] The first motorway to open was the M1 motorway, though did so under temporary powers until the Special Roads Act had been passed.[24] Work on the motorways continued until the 1970s when the oil crisis and The Troubles both intervened causing the abandonment of many schemes.[25] The final scheme to open has been the M3.[26] Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The M1 motorway in Northern Ireland runs for 61 kilometres (38 miles) from Belfast to Dungannon, bypassing Lisburn, Lurgan, Craigavon and Portadown on the way. ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... The M3 is a short section of urban motorway 1. ...


Ireland

M9 Carlow Bypass under construction March 2008; the continuous yellow lines indicate a proposed Motorway rather than HQDC
M9 Carlow Bypass under construction March 2008; the continuous yellow lines indicate a proposed Motorway rather than HQDC

In the Republic of Ireland the Local Government (Roads and Motorways) Act 1974 made motorways possible, although the first section, the M7 Naas Bypass, did not open until 1983. The first section of the M50 opened in 1990, a part of which was Ireland's first toll motorway, the West-Link. However it would be the 1990s before substantial sections of motorway were opened in Ireland, with the first completed motorway - the 83km M1 motorway - being finished in 2005. The N9 road is a National Primary Road in the Republic of Ireland running from Junction 9 on the M7 motorway, located near Newbridge, County Kildare, to Waterford city. ... For Carlow in Germany, see Carlow, Germany. ... N2 Ashbourne bypass,County Meath,Ireland. ... The N7 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin and Limerick. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The M50 motorway is a motorway and National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland running in a C-shaped ring around the northern, western and southern sides of the capital city, Dublin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The West-Link is a toll bridge on the M50 motorway to the west of Dublin, Ireland. ... The N1 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, partly connecting Dublin and Belfast along the east of Ireland (mostly as the M1 motorway). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Under the Transport 21 infrastructural plan[27], motorways or high quality dual carriageways are being built between Dublin and the major cities of Cork, Galway, Limerick and Waterford by the end of 2010. Other shorter sections of motorway either have been or will be built on some other main routes. In 2007 legislation (the Roads Bill 2007) was proposed to allow existing roads be designated motorways by order. Current legislation only allows for new build roads to be designated motorways. It is now intended that all the HQDCs on the major inter-urbans - other than some sections near Dublin on the N4 and N7 which do not fully meet motorway standards - will be reclassified as motorway. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... For other uses, see Limerick (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... N2 Ashbourne bypass,County Meath,Ireland. ... The N7 road is a National Primary Route in the Republic of Ireland, connecting Dublin and Limerick. ...


Australia

Most of Australia's capital cities feature a significant motorway network within their urban areas. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth each feature extensive freeway and motorway systems, while Canberra, Adelaide, Hobart and the regional centres of Newcastle, Gold Coast, and Wollongong feature a selection of limited-access routes. Outside these areas traffic volumes do not generally demand motorway-standard access, although heavily-trafficked regional corridors such as Sydney-Newcastle, Brisbane-Gold Coast and Melbourne-Geelong that form part of major long-distance routes feature high-standard motorway links. While Sydney and Canberra are currently the only two Australian capitals connected by a continuous motorway-standard link, upgrades to full dual-highway of the heavy-use Sydney-Melbourne and Sydney-Brisbane interstate routes, a total length of more than 2000 kilometres, are currently underway. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Gold Coast redirects here. ... Wollongong is an industrial city located on the eastern coast of Australia in the state of New South Wales. ...


Pakistan

Motorway from Islamabad to Lahore in Pakistan
Motorway from Islamabad to Lahore in Pakistan
Main article: Motorways of Pakistan

Pakistan has its own network of motorways. The first one, the M2 was built in 1997 with the contract being awarded to the Korean firm Daewoo. It linked the federal capital Islamabad with Punjab's provincial capital Lahore and its length is 367 km. The network was then extended to Sargodha and then to Faisalabad with the M3. The M1 motorway from Islamaba to the NWFP's capital Peshawar has also been completed. M8 will link Gwadar with other central and South Asian countries. M9 links Hyderabad with Karachi. More motorways are being planned and some are also being built by local and foreign firms. Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Faizabad interchange: Gateway to the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan Motorways of Pakistan are a series of special highways in Pakistan. ... This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Sargodha (Urdu: ) is the capital city of Sargodha District in Punjab province, Pakistan, it is located in northeast Pakistan, to the west-northwest of Lahore on the lower Jhelum Canal. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...


Entry Restrictions On all the motorways in Pakistan, entry is restricted to fast moving wheelers only. Two wheelers (motorcycles and bicycles) and slow moving traffic modes are not allowed. However Motorway Police personnel use heavy motor bikes for patrolling purposes. Construction and agricultural machinery is also restricted.


References

  1. ^ New directions in speed management: a review of policy, pp 13, 23, DfT
  2. ^ "Tories blitz 'cash-maker' cameras", BBC, August 3, 2004. 
  3. ^ ARE YOU THINKING WHAT WE’RE THINKING? IT’S TIME FOR ACTION: CONSERVATIVE ELECTION MANIFESTO 2005.
  4. ^ Detailed Information. Go metric go safe. Ireland Department of Transport).
  5. ^ How the Motorways were numbered. Ministry of Transport memorandum. Pathetic Motorways (November 1961). Retrieved on 2007-12-28. “Mr Usborne explained that his proposal followed the principle of the sector system on which trunk and classified roads were already numbered, although the sectors themselves, which were six in number, were somewhat different.”
  6. ^ a b Wykes, C. H. (1959-07-07). How the Motorways were Numbered. Ministry of Transport Memorandum. Pathetic Motorways. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. “The result of applying such a system to current plans would be the appropriate numbering of the London - Yorkshire Motorway as M.1, with provision for extension still further north as required. M.2 would be reserved for any possible Channel Ports Motorway, the Medway Towns Bypass meanwhile becoming A.2(M) and the Maidstone Bypass A.20(M). M3 would be reserved for a motorway in the direction of Portsmouth - Southampton, starting with the Exeter Radial. M.4 would be applied to the South Wales Radial. The remaining single figure numbers would not be required for radials and could therefore, continuing clockwise, be applied to the Bristol - Birmingham Motorway - M.5 and the Penrith - Birmingham plus Dunchurch Bypass - M.6. The Preston Bypass was numbered M.6 in advance and although under these proposals it should initially have been A.6(M), I see no reason to make any change from M.6 pending the ultimate completion of the whole route.”
  7. ^ Wykes, C. H. (1959-09-30). How the Motorways were numbered. Ministry of Transport Memorandum. Pathetic Motorways. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. “Where, however, a motorway is merely a by-pass along an existing route such as the Doncaster Bypass along Route A.1, it will not be given a separate M number, but in order to make it clear that it is a motorway and that motorway Regulations apply to it, the letter M will be added in brackets to the existing route-number - e.g. A.1(M) for the Doncaster Bypass. This will preserve the continuity of the route-number of long-distance all-purpose roads. Generally speaking by-passes that are eventually linked to form a continuous motorway will preserve the existing route-number (plus M in brackets) until they are so linked.”
  8. ^ Payne, B. A. (1959-07-10). How the Motorways were Numbered. Ministry of Transport Memorandum. Pathetic Motorways. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. “1. The numbers 7, 8 and 9 which were used in Scotland should be reserved for the use of Scottish Motorways.”
  9. ^ Northern Ireland Assembly - WRITTEN ANSWERS Friday 15 December 2000. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
  10. ^ a b Department of Transport (Republic of Ireland) (2006). Roads Act 1993 (Classification of National Roads) Order 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  11. ^ Michael Hogan, Highway Noise, 3rd Environmental Pollution Symposium, sponsored by AIAA, ACS, ASME, SAE, held at SRI International, Menlo Park, Ca. April 17-18, 1973
  12. ^ German Myth 8: Hitler's Autobahn?. Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  13. ^ 1924 Mile Posts. Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
  14. ^ Transit New Zealand - FAQs. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  15. ^ CMI Transit. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  16. ^ Special Roads Act 1949 (PDF). Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  17. ^ a b Statistics. Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  18. ^ Opening dates for Motorways in the UK in chronological order. Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  19. ^ Porter, John; Ron Bridle (2002). The Motorway Achievement. Thomas Telford, Page 223. ISBN 0727731963. “...the construction industry was commissioned, in sequences of contracts spread over the years, to build 1000 miles of new motorway and duly so by 1972...” 
  20. ^ Post-war and beyond. cbrd. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  21. ^ M25 London Orbital Motorway (Junctions 13 to 30). Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  22. ^ Porter, John; Ron Bridle (2002). The Motorway Achievement. Thomas Telford, 189. ISBN 0727731963. “With 2000 miles of motorway completed and in operation by 1996...” 
  23. ^ Conceptions and early history of the motorways in Northern Ireland. Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  24. ^ M1 Belfast to Dungannon and M12 to Craigavon. Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  25. ^ Westlink (M1 to M2). Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  26. ^ M3 Dock Street to Bridge end and Sydenham By-pass. Motorway Archive. The Motorway Archive Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  27. ^ Transport 21 Infrastructure Plan, Ireland

DFT can have at least four meanings: Discrete Fourier transform Density Functional Theory Design For Test The UKs Department for Transport This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ACS is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: // American Cancer Society, an American medical organization American Chemical Society, an American professional association American Colonization Society American Community Survey, a project of the U.S. Census Bureau American Constitution Society for Law and Policy, or simply American Constitution Society... ASME redirects here. ... SAE may refer to: Soviet Antarctic Expeditions Scientific Audio Electronics Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Institute (formerly the School of Audio Engineering) Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity Stichting Academisch Erfgoed Standard American Equivalent (in relation to tool sizing see Standard and Imperial; different from Metric tool sizing but pertaining to same... SRI Internationals main campus on Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

List of motorways in A carriageway is a part of a road referring to the part that will technically carry the traffic. ...

List of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Motorway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2473 words)
Motorways are highways designed to carry a large volume of traffic where a normal road would not suffice or would be unsafe, usually between cities.
Motorway junctions are usually given a number, indicated in the UK and Republic of Ireland with a white number of a fl background in the corner of signs approaching that junction.
Motorways are also commonly used for ring roads around cities or bypasses of built-up areas.
M1 motorway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (859 words)
There are M1 motorways in Northern Ireland (see M1 motorway (Northern Ireland)), the Republic of Ireland (see N1 road), in Johannesburg, in Pakistan (see List of motorways and highways of Pakistan), and in Hungary (see M1).
The motorway is 193 miles (310 km) long and was constructed in stages between the 1950s and 1970s, with a further extension in the late 1990s.
Whilst the M1 is considered to be the first inter-urban motorway to be completed in the United Kingdom, [1] the first road to be built to motorway standard in the country was the Preston Bypass, which later became part of the M6.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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