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Encyclopedia > Motion picture
"Film" refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. This type of film here is 8 mm.
"Film" refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. This type of film here is 8 mm.

Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as — in metonymy — the field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures or "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and commonly movies. Download high resolution version (600x800, 284 KB)Film reel and film Photographer: Bubbels, a. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 284 KB)Film reel and film Photographer: Bubbels, a. ... 8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the filmstrip is eight millimeters wide. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (pronounced //) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... Undeveloped Arista black and white film, ISO 125. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ...


Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion; a psychological effect identified as beta movement. Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. ... A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without sound recording, such as with video cameras. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... Lasers were used in the 2005 Classical Spectacular concert Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to visualize scenes that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as space travel. ... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ... Beta movement is a perceptual illusion, described by Max Wertheimer in his 1912 Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion, whereby two or more still images are combined by the brain into surmised motion. ...


Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences. The visual elements of cinema need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... In filmmaking, dubbing refers to the recording of voices for a movie. ... A subtitle can refer to one of two things: an explanatory or alternate title of a book, play or film, in addition to its main title, or textual versions of a film or television programs dialogue that appear onscreen. ...

Contents


History of film

Main article: History of film

Mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motion were demonstrated as early as the 1860s, with devices such as the zoetrope and the praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally, the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect — and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. It has been suggested that Film industry#History of film be merged into this article or section. ... A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ... The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. ... The magic lantern or Laterna Magica was the ancestor of the modern slide projector. ... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ...


With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. Early versions of the technology sometimes required the viewer to look into a special device to see the pictures. By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures". Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... This movie film reel has film wrapped around it. ... 35mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... In film, a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film, created of a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. ... Film editing, also called montage, is the connecting of one or more shots together in a sequence. ...

A shot from Georges Méliès' Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film.

Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 1920s, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th Century, films began developing a narrative structure. Films began stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purposes, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. Image File history File links Voyage_dans_la_lune_(1902)_still03. ... Image File history File links Voyage_dans_la_lune_(1902)_still03. ... Le Voyage dans la lune is a 1902 French science fiction black and white silent film known in its English language release as A Trip to the Moon. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... In TV and movies a scene is a part of the action in a single location. ... In non-technical terms, no matter what the context (whether scientific, philosophical, legal, etc) a narrative is a story, an interpretation of some aspect of the world that is historically and culturally grounded and shaped by human personality (per Walter Fisher). ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... The Boston Pops orchestra performing on the Charles River Esplanade in Boston, Massachusetts. ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ...


The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of World War I while the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood. However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and F. W. Murnau continued to advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or talkies. ... Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet theatrical scenic designer-turned-film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, which vastly influenced early documentary... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... Soundtrack refers to the recorded sound accompanying a visual medium such as a motion picture, television show, or video game. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ...


The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... A schematic representation of hearing. ... Black-and-white (or variations including Black and White) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ...


The 1950s, 1960s and 1970s saw changes in the production and style of film. New Hollywood, French New Wave and the rise of film school educated, independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th Century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century. New Hollywood or post-classical Hollywood refers to the brief time between roughly 1967 (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) and 1980 (Heavens Gate) when a new generation of young, cinema-crazed filmmakers came to prominence in America, drastically changing not only the way Hollywood films were produced and marketed... François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ...


Film theory

Main article: Film theory

Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. More recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... In film theory, narrativity refers to the proceses by which a story is both presented by the filmmaker and interpreted by the viewer. ... In diegesis the author tells the story. ... A genre is a division of a particular form of art or utterance according to criteria particular to that form. ...


Film criticism

Main article: Film criticism

Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general this can be divided into academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ...


Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact of films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. A collection of magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... Even in the early days of film history, the audience appetite for new content was voracious. ... Action movies usually involve a fairly straightforward story of good guys versus bad guys, where most disputes are resolved by using physical force. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... Airplane! is considered by some critics to be one of the funniest movies of all time. ... A drama film is a film that depends mostly on in-depth character development, interaction, and highly emotional themes. ...


The impact of reviewer on a film's box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies that were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ... Movie marketing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics try to come to understand why film works, how it works, and what effects it has on people. Rather than write for newspaper or appear on television their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. ...


The motion picture industry

Main article: Film industry

The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898 was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ... By tradition, in 1633 the inhabitants of the village of Oberammergau in Bavaria, now in Germany, vowed that if God were to spare them from the effects of the bubonic plague ravaging the region, they would perform a play every ten years depicting the life and death of Jesus. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, California). ... Celebrities often have a symbiotic relationship with photographers. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, Jr, KBE, (April 16, 1889 – December 25, 1977), better known as Charlie Chaplin, was a British comedy actor, becoming the most famous actor in the early to mid Hollywood cinema era, and also a notable director. ...


In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, and the Indian film industry (primarily centered around "Bollywood") annually produces the largest number of films in the world. Whether the ten thousand-plus features a year produced by the Valley porn industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world (877 feature films and 1177 short films made in India were released in the year 2003 alone)(Central Board of Film Certification of India) [1]. Correspondingly, only 473 movies were released in the US in 2003 (MPAA U.S. Theatrical... Movie poster of one of the most popular films—Sholay (1975) Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالیوُڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. ... San Fernando Valley The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in southern California, lying mostly within the city limits of Los Angeles. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (from Greek πορνη prostitute and γραφία written material) (more informally referred to as porn or porno) is the representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ...


Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly nature of filmmaking; yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as The Oscars) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. Also, film quickly came to be used in education, in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ...


Stages of filmmaking

Main article: Filmmaking

The nature of the film determines the size and type of crew required during filmmaking. Many Hollywood adventure films need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators, rotoscopers and compositors. However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system. Filmmaking is the process of making a film. ... ... The quintessential adventure film. ... The seawater creature in The Abyss marked CGIs acceptance in the visual effects industry. ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated cartoons. ... The studio system was a means of film production and distribution popular in Hollywood from the end of the silent era in 1927 to 1948. ...


A typical Hollywood-style filmmaking Production cycle comprises five main stages: A Production Cycle is the stages in which a film is made, usually in the US Film Industry. ...

  1. Development
  2. Preproduction
  3. Production
  4. Post-production
  5. Distribution

This production cycle typically takes three years. The first year is taken up with development. The second year comprises preproduction and production. The third year, post-production and distribution.


Film crew

Main article: Film crew

A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. Film crew and equipment on a location shoot. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without sound recording, such as with video cameras. ...


Independent filmmaking

Main article: Independent film

Independent filmmaking takes place outside of the Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The studio system was a means of film production and distribution popular in Hollywood from the end of the silent era in 1927 to 1948. ... This is a list of Hollywood movie studios. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Creatively, it was becoming increasingly difficult to get studio backing for experimental films. Experimental elements in theme and style are inhibitors for the big studios.


On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. The problem is exacerbated by the trend towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987). An unproven director is almost never given the opportunity to get his or her big break with the studios unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. They also rarely produce films with unknown actors, particularly in lead roles. The WB Shield used from 2003 to present day Warner Bros. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Until the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio film. The cost of 35 mm film is outpacing inflation: in 2002 alone, film negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety. Film requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities. Digital film refers to cinema production and performance systems which work by using a digital representation of the brightness and colour of each pixel of the image. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks - The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Variety is a daily magazine for the entertainment industry. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer. Technologies such as DVDs, FireWire connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro and Apple's Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Apple's Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the year. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, representation of the video signal. ... See also 1990s, the band Seinfeld was a pop cultural phenomenon during the 90s and became one of the most popular TV programs ever. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... FireWire (also known as i. ... Note: Please see National Latin Examination for the standardized test that is also abbreviated NLE. A non-linear editing system (abbreviated NLE) is a video editing or audio editing system that can perform random access on the source material. ... Adobe Premiere Pro, produced by Adobe is a realtime, timeline based video editing software targeted at prosumer and professional video editors. ... Final Cut Pro is a non-linear editing system created by Apple Computer that allows users to edit video. ... Final Cut Express is a non linear video editing application created by Apple Computer. ... iMovie is video editing software, created by Apple Computer as part of their iLife suite of applications for the Macintosh, that allows users to edit their own home movies. ...


Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. A MiniDV tape For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ...


Animation

Main article: Animation

Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Generating such a film is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process. 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... The term Claymation is a registered trademark created by Will Vinton Studios to describe their clay animated movies; the more generic term is clay animation, but the portmanteau claymation has entered the English language as a genericized trademark. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... A motion picture camera specially adapted for frame-by-frame shooting animation or stop motion, also called a rostrum camera. ... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ... Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ...


Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG, SVG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet. See also Category:Graphics file formats Here is a summary of the most common graphics file formats: Some file formats, e. ... With pictures like this you can see the restriction of 256 colours. ... This page is about MNG, the animated image file format. ... Static image generated from an SVG example. ... // == Macromedia Flash == ==]] Using Macromedia Flash 8 (bundled in Studio 8) in Windows XP. Maintainer: Adobe Systems (formerly Macromedia) Latest release: 8 / September 30th, 2005 OS: Windows (no native Windows XP Professional x64 Edition support), Mac OS X, Linux (i386 only, via wine [1]) Use: Multimedia Content Creator License: Proprietary Website...


Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry. Idiot box redirects here. ... Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... The 1950s were the decade that spanned the years 1950 through 1959, although some sources say from 1951 through 1960. ...


Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized (some say exploited) by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... The UPA opening title card from How Now Boing Boing (1954) The legacy of the United Productions of America animation studio, better known as UPA, has largely been forgotten in the wake of the animation renaissance of the 1990s; it has been overshadowed by the commercialization of Warner Bros. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, California). ...


Film venues

When it is initially produced, a film is normally shown to audiences in a movie theater or cinema. The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1905. Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. In the United States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents). A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, California). ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Steel City Location Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Pennsylvania Allegheny County Founded 1758 Mayor Bob OConnor (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 151. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nickelodeon is an early 20th century form of small, neighborhood movie theaters in which admission was obtained for a nickel. ...


Typically, one film is the featured presentation (or feature film). There were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts. Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature film (those in theaters) consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Theatrical trailers are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, on whose screen they are shown; they are commonly known as previews of coming attractions. ... The Twenty is the mixture of paid advertisements, movie trailers, and theater chain branding that has become commonplace in American movie theaters. ...


Originally, all films were made to be shown in movie theaters. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on video tape or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision — see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. These are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases. And indeed, some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are dumped into these markets. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pioneers LaserDisc Logo Laserdisc certification mark The laserdisc (LD) was the first commercial optical disc storage medium, and was used primarily for the presentation of movies. ... Video CD or VCD, or Compact Disc digital video, is a standard digital format for storing video on a Compact Disc. ... SelectaVision was originally the name for a video playback system developed by RCA using specialized disc-based media, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV using a special analog needle and groove system similar to phonograph records. ... Video disc is a general term for a laser- or stylus-readable random-access circular disc that contains both audio and video forms of multimedia. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... A television movie (also known as a TV film, TV movie, TV-movie, feature-length drama, made-for-TV movie, movie of the week (MOTW or MOW), single drama, telemovie, telefilm, or two-hour-long drama) is a film that is produced for and originally distributed by a television network. ... A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ...


The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as film rental fees. The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view). A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... ABN AMRO (Euronext: AAB, (NYSE: ABN)) is the largest bank in the Netherlands and has operations all over the world, its history going back to 1824. ... Top view VHS cassette with U.S. 25c coin for scale Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS or simply as Video, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Development of film technology

Film stock consists of a transparent celluloid, polyester, or acetate base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Acetate, or ethanoate, is the anion of a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... // Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm Polavision 9,5 mm film 17. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks - The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ...


Originally moving picture film was shot and projected at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras and projectors; though 16 frames per second is generally cited as a standard silent speed, research indicates most films were shot between 16-23 fps and projected from 18 fps on up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should be shown) [1]. When sound film was introduced in the late 1920s, a constant speed was required for the sound head. 24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras — allowing them to record at a consistent speed, quiet camera design — allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... 35mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... A lens. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ...


As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation. However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films. Some studios save color films through the use of separation masters — three B&W negatives each exposed through red, green, or blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process). Digital methods have also been used to restore films, although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice for long-term preservation. Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). Preservation is generally a higher-concern for nitrate and single-strip color films, due to their high decay rates; black and white films on safety bases and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better, assuming proper handling and storage. Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. ... Multimedia is the use of several different media (e. ... Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary. ... The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ...


Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... Video is the technology of capturing, recording, processing, transmitting, and reconstructing moving pictures, typically using celluloid film, electronic signals, or digital media, primarily for viewing on television or computer monitors. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, representation of the video signal. ... A digital projector is an electro-optical machine which converts image data from a computer or video source to a bright image which is then imaged on a distant wall or screen using a lens system. ...


Endurance of films

Films have been around for more than a century; however this is not long when one considers it in relation to other arts like painting and sculpture. There was a perceived "threat" by television during the early 1950's, especially when the FCC expanded television during its 1952 TV license expansion. Trade magazines were publishing articles on the "death' of local theatres. Nonetheless, many at present believe that film will be a long enduring art form because motion pictures appeal to diverse human emotions.


Apart from societal norms and cultural changes, there are still close resemblances between theatrical plays throughout the ages and films of today. Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. all involve plots with common threads that existed in books, plays and other venues.


See also

Wikibooks

  • Movie making manual
  • Movie making directory

Basic types of film

The narrative film uses chronological reality to tell a fictional story. ... In film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ... A film made with the medium of the Internet and its constraints in mind. ...

Lists

Here is a structured list of movie lists: // By year By letter List of films: numbers List of films: A-D List of films: E-I List of films: J-R List of films: S-Z By genre List of comedy films List of United States comedy films List of... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... While it is impossible to objectively determine the greatest film of all time, it is possible to discuss the films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... This is a list of character-based movie franchises, in which many movies are made about the same main character, who may be played by different actors. ... A film genre is a rough categorization of films into genres, which describe the typical subject matter—what the film is about: Western films are about the American West, love stories are about love, and so on. ... This is a list of feature-length films that are entirely computer-animated. ... Main article: Disaster film See also: Doomsday film This is a list of disaster or end-of-the-world films. ... List of fantasy films is a chronological listing of films in the fantasy genre. ... . ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... Classic examples of the film noir style include: // 1940s 1940 The Letter Rebecca Stranger on the Third Floor 1941 High Sierra The Maltese Falcon Suspicion The Shanghai Gesture 1942 Casablanca The Falcon Takes Over Journey Into Fear The Glass Key This Gun for Hire Street of Chance 1943 Shadow of... This is a list of film-related topics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cinematic techniques. ... // Books Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) Evil Dead Trilogy Evil Dead (1981) Evil Dead 2 (1987) Army of Darkness (1993) Buildings Monster House (2006) Rose Red (2002) The Shining (1980) The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer (2003) The House on Haunted Hill Computers 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968... The following list of films with single syllable titles includes only major motion pictures whose primary title in English only has only one syllable. ... The following are two non-definitive lists of the all-time highest-grossing films. ... This is a chronological list of horror films. ... This is a list of the some of the longest movies ever released. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of movie series that have more than two or three pictures in the series (i. ... This is a list of science fiction films organised chronologically. ... Although conventional wisdom is that movie sequels are generally inferior to the originals, there are some notable exceptions to this rule. ... A New Hope by blink-182 about Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Bad Education by Tilly and the Wall about Bad Education The Battle of Evermore by Led Zeppelin about the Lord of the Rings Trilogy Gifts and Curses by Yellowcard about Spiderman How I Go by Yellowcard... These are lists of movie source material: List of movies based on Arthurian legend List of movies based on the Bible List of movies based on classical operas List of movies based on comic books List of movies based on comic strips List of movies based on Greco-Roman mythology...

Other

The term African cinema usually refers to the film production in countries south of the Sahara since they gained formal independence, which for many countries happened in the 1960s. ... The history of Chinese-language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... The cinema of Canada has produced many people who have made an impact in the cinema of the world, despite the small scale of the Canadian film industry. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world (877 feature films and 1177 short films made in India were released in the year 2003 alone)(Central Board of Film Certification of India) [1]. Correspondingly, only 473 movies were released in the US in 2003 (MPAA U.S. Theatrical... The history of cinema in Québec started on June 27, 1896 when the French Louis Minier inaugurated the first movie projection in North America in a Montreal theatre room. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Filmmaking is the process of making a film. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A film festival is a mostly annual festival in one or more movie theaters with a special program showcasing many films. ... There have been a number of Manifestos related to film. ... Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. ... It has been suggested that Film industry#History of film be merged into this article or section. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... A movie star is a celebrity who is well known for his or her starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures. ... A sound stage is a hangar-like structure, building or room, that is soundproof for the production of theatrical motion pictures and television, usually inside a movie studio. ...

References

  • Paul Read. A Short History of Cinema Film Post-Production (1896 - 2006), in English; in: Joachim Polzer (editor). Zur Geschichte des Filmkopierwerks. (On Film Lab History). Weltwunder der Kinematographie. Beiträge zu einer Kulturgeschichte der Filmtechnik. Volume 8.2006. April 2006. 336 pages. (available through amazon.de) -- ISBN 3-934535-26-7
  • Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (ed.). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0198742428
  • Hagener, Malte, and Töteberg, Michael. Film: An International Bibliography. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2002. ISBN 3-476-01523-8
  • Vogel, Amos. Film As a Subversive Art. Weidenfeld & Nichols, 1974.
  • The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, 1999; Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ed.
  • Glorious Technicolor: The Movies' Magic Rainbow, Fred E. Basten. AS Barnes & Company, 1980
  • Reel Women. Pioneers of the Cinema. 1896 to the Present by Ally Acker, London: B.T.Batsford 1991
  • Reel Racism. Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture, Vincent F. Rocchio, Westview Press 2000
  • New Hollywood Cinema: An Introduction, Geoff King . Columbia University Press, 2002.
  • Notes on Film Noir Paul Schrader. Film Comment. '84?
  • Celluloid Mavericks: A History of American Independent Film by Greg Merritt; Thunder's Mouth Press 2001
  • Africa shoots back. Alternative perspectives in sub-saharan francophone african film by Melissa Thackway, Indiana University Press 2003
  • Glorious Technicolor; directed by Peter Jones. Based on the book (above); written by Basten & Jones. Documentary, (1998).
  • Francesco Casetti, Theories of Cinema, 1945-1990, Paperback Edition, University of Texas Press 1999
  • The Oxford Guide to Film Studies, Oxford University Press 1998
  • Walters Faber, Helen Walters, Algrant (Ed.), Animation Unlimited: Innovative Short Films Since 1940, HarperCollins Publishers 2004
  • Trish Ledoux, Doug Ranney, Fred Patten (Ed.), Complete Anime Guide: Japanese Animation Film Directory and Resource Guide, Tiger Mountain Press 1997
  • Steven Spielberg in The making of Jurassic Park

An Editor is a person who prepares text—typically language, but also images and sounds—for publication by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying it. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Amos Vogel (*1921 in Vienna, Austria) had to leave Austria in 1938. ... Film as a Subversive Art is a 1974 film history book by Amos Vogel with mini-essays on over 600 films. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

External links

Film Portal
  • The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) - Information on current and historical films and cast listings.
  • Wikia has a wiki about: The Film Guide
  • Open Directory Project: Movies
  • Rotten Tomatoes Film reviews
  • All Movie Guide - Information on films: actors, directors, biographies, reviews, cast and production credits, box office sales, and other movie data.
  • Film Site - Reviews of classic films
Look up Film in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Look up Film in Wikinews, the free news. Look up Film in Wikiquote, the free quotations. Look up Film in Wikibooks, the free books. Look up Film in Wikisource, the free source. Look up Film in Commons, the free repository.

Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikia logo, based on the old Wikicities logo by Christoph Struber. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as DMoz (from Directory. ... Image File history File links Wikimedia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Film - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3749 words)
Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 1920s, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination.
As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography.
Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. all involve plots with common threads that existed in books, plays and other venues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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