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Encyclopedia > Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. On rare occasions, it may also be put on the parliamentary order paper by an erstwhile supporter who has lost confidence in the government. The motion is passed or rejected by means of a parliamentary vote (a vote of no confidence). In the British Parliament it generally first appears as an early day motion although the vote on the Queen's Speech also constitutes a Confidence Motion. [1] A parliamentary procedure is the individual process used for decision making by a deliberative assembly. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... Early day motion is a phrase used in the Westminster system for motions tabled by Members of Parliament for debate on an early day. In practice, they are never debated but are mostly used for MPs to publicise and express support for their own pet projects. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the...


Governments often respond to a motion of no confidence by proposing a motion of confidence which, according to parliamentary procedure in the Westminster system, takes precedence and so replaces the motion of no confidence. A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... Parliamentary procedure is the name given to the set of rules governing the decision-making process used by a deliberative assembly. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


In presidential systems, the legislature may occasionally pass motions of no confidence, as was done against United States Secretary of State Dean Acheson in the 1950s and was recently contemplated against Attorney General Alberto Gonzalez, but these motions are of symbolic effect only. Presidential systems also usually have the procedure of impeachment by which an executive or judicial officer can be removed, but these procedures generally require a super-majority and the standard for impeachment generally requires some crime to have been committed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955 in San Antonio, Texas, USA) is the current United States. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


In certain parts of the United States, Canada, and Venezuela, the recall election fills a similar role of removing an unpopular government, but in contrast to the motion of no confidence this vote involves the entire electorate. A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ...


The first motion of no confidence occurred in March 1782 when following the defeat of the British army at Yorktown in the American Revolutionary War, the Parliament of Great Britain voted that they "can no longer repose confidence in the present ministers." The then Prime Minister, Lord North, responded by asking King George III to accept his resignation. This did not immediately create a constitutional convention; however, during the early 19th century, attempts by Prime Ministers to govern in the absence of a parliamentary majority proved unsuccessful, and by the mid 19th century, the ability of a motion of no confidence to break a government was firmly established in the UK. Combatants Britain Colonial America France Commanders Charles Cornwallis George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Strength 7,500 8,845 Americans 7,800 French Casualties 156 killed 326 wounded 7,018 captured Americans: 20 killed, 56 wounded French: 52 killed, 134 wounded The Battle of Yorktown (1781) was a victory by a... This article is about military actions only. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... “George III” redirects here. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Typically, when parliament votes no confidence, or where it fails to vote confidence, a government must either:

  1. resign, or
  2. seek a parliamentary dissolution and request a general election.

This procedure is either formalised through constitutional convention as is the case with the United Kingdom or explicitly stated in the constitutional law as is the case with Germany and Spain. A resignation occurs when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. ... ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ...


Where a government has lost the confidence of the responsible house (i.e., the directly elected lower chamber which can select and dismiss it, as in Spain; in some states both houses of parliament are responsible), a head of state may have the constitutional right to refuse a request for a parliamentary dissolution, so forcing an immediate resignation. A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Variations

There are a number of variations in this procedure.


For example, in Germany, Spain, and Israel, a vote of No Confidence requires that the opposition, on the same ballot, propose a candidate of their own whom they want to be appointed as successor by the respective head of state. Thus the Motion of No Confidence is required to be at the same time a Motion of Confidence for a new candidate (this variation is called a Constructive Vote of No Confidence). The idea was to prevent crises of the state by ensuring that whoever is head of government has enough support to govern. Unlike the British system, the German Chancellor does not have to resign in response to the failure of a vote of Confidence, provided it has been initiated by himself and not by the parliamentary opposition, but rather may ask the Federal President to call General Elections - a request the President may or may not fulfill. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ...


A Motion of No Confidence can be proposed in the government collectively or by any individual member, including the Prime Minister. In Spain it is presented by the Prime Minister after consultation. Sometimes Motions of No Confidence are proposed, even though they have no likelihood of passage, simply to pressure a government or to embarrass its own critics who nevertheless for political reasons dare not vote against it. In many parliamentary democracies, strict time limits exist as to the proposing of a No Confidence motion, with a vote only allowed once every three, four or six months. Thus knowing when to use a Motion of No Confidence is a matter of political judgement; using a Motion of No Confidence on a relatively trivial matter may prove counterproductive to its proposer if a more important issue suddenly arises which warrants a Motion of No Confidence, because a motion cannot be proposed if one had been voted on recently and cannot be proposed again for a number of months. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


In modern times, passage of a Motion of No Confidence is a relatively rare event in two party democracies. In almost all cases, party discipline is sufficient to allow a majority party to defeat a Motion of No Confidence, and if faced with possible defections in the government party, the government is likely to change its policies rather than lose a vote of No Confidence. The cases in which a Motion of No Confidence have passed are generally those in which the government party has a slim majority which is eliminated by either by-elections or defections. Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ...


Often, important bills serve as Motions of Confidence, when so declared by the government. This may be used to prevent dissident members of parliament from voting against it. Sometimes a government may lose a vote because the opposition ends debate prematurely when too many government members are away on business, pleasure or lunch.


In the Westminster system, the defeat of a supply bill (one that concerns the spending of money) automatically requires the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a no-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung. This is called loss of supply. The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... In the Westminster system, a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law. ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ...


Motions of No Confidence are far more common in multi-party systems in which a minority party must form coalition government. This can result in the situation in which there are many short-lived governments because the party structure allows small parties to break a government without means to create a government. This has widely been regarded as the cause of instability for the French Fourth Republic and the German Weimar Republic. More recent examples of this phenomenon have been in Italy between the 1950s and 1990s, Israel, and Japan. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


To deal with this situation, the French placed large amount of executive power in the office of President of France, which is immune from Motions of No Confidence. The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ...


See also

This is a list of Prime Ministers defeated by a parliamentary motion of no confidence. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/M07.pdf]


  Results from FactBites:
 
Motion of no confidence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1020 words)
A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, or a no-confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government.
The motion is passed or rejected by means of a parliamentary vote (a vote of no confidence).
Thus the Motion of No Confidence is required to be at the same time a Motion of Confidence for a new candidate (this variation is called a Constructive Vote of No Confidence).
Motion of Confidence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1035 words)
A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government.
A Motion of Confidence may also be used tactically to humiliate critics of a government (often from the inside of the governing party or parties) who nevertheless dare not vote against the government.
However, tactical Motions of Confidence are dangerous, as they may backfire catastrophically against those who use them, if they have misjudged the willingness of their opponents to call the proposer's bluff and vote against the motion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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