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Encyclopedia > Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa in 1988
Born August 26, 1910(1910-08-26)
Skopje, Ottoman Empire
Died September 5, 1997 (aged 87)
Kolkata, India
Occupation Roman Catholic nun, humanitarian[1]

Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: [ˈagnɛs gɔnˈʤa bɔˈjaʤiu]) (August 26, 1910September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. For over forty years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... This is a spelling-corrected version of Image:Mtheresa. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...


As the Missionaries of Charity grew under Mother Teresa's leadership, they expanded their ministry to other countries. By the 1970s she had become internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary, and book, Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. Following her death she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.[2][3] Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and Christian scholar. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...

Contents

Early life

Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born on 26 August 1910, in Skopje, which is now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia.[4] She was the youngest of the children of a family from Shkodër, Albania, born to Nikola and Drane Bojaxhiu. Nikola was involved in politics and devoted to the Albanian Cause. After a political meeting he fell ill and died when Agnes was about eight years old.[4] After her father's death, her mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, in her early years Agnes was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service, and by age 12 was convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life.[5] She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. She never again saw her mother or sister.[6] is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary are more commonly known as the Loreto (or Loretto) Sisters. ...


Agnes initially went to the Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland to learn English, the language the Sisters of Loreto used to teach school children in India.[7] She arrived in India in 1929, and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains.[8] She took her first religious vows as a nun on 24 May 1931. At that time she chose the name Teresa after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries.[9] She took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937, while serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school in eastern Calcutta.[10][11] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O144289 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 54 m Population (2006) 17,333  Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O144289 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 54 m Population (2006) 17,333  Website: www. ... A novitiate (also called a novice) is a member of a religious order who has not yet taken his/her vows. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ... Missionaries of Charity Religious vows are the public vows taken by members of religious communities of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other women with similar names, see Saint Teresa Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta.[12] A famine in 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of Hindu/Muslim violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror.[13]


Missionaries of Charity

On September 10, 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" while traveling to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling for her annual retreat. "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith."[14] She began her missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple white cotton chira decorated with a blue border and then venturing out into the slums."[15] Initially she started a school in Motijhil; soon she started tending to the needs of the destitute and starving.[16] Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the Prime Minister, who expressed his appreciation.[17] is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ...


Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulties. She had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months. She wrote in her diary:

Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then the comfort of Loreto [her former order] came to tempt me. 'You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again,' the Tempter kept on saying ... Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.[18]
Mother Teresa's Home for the Dying in Kolkata (Calcutta).

Teresa received Vatican permission on October 7, 1950 to start the diocesan congregation that would become the Missionaries of Charity.[19] Its mission was to care for, in her own words, "the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone." It began as a small order with 13 members in Calcutta; today it has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages, AIDS hospices, and charity centers worldwide, and caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, and victims of floods, epidemics, and famine.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... This article is about the institutions for orphans. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


In 1952 Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the City of Calcutta. With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday).[21] Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites.[22] "A beautiful death," she said, "is for people who lived like animals to die like angels — loved and wanted."[22] Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffering from Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (City of Peace).[23] The Missionaries of Charity also established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Kalighat Home for the Dying is a hospital for the poor and sick in Calcutta, India, founded by Mother Teresa. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ...


As the Missionaries of Charity took in increasing numbers of lost children, Mother Teresa felt the need to create a home for them. In 1955 she opened the Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children's Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth.[24] Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ...


The order soon began to attract both recruits and charitable donations, and by the 1960s had opened hospices, orphanages, and leper houses all over India. Mother Teresa then expanded the order throughout the globe. Its first house outside India opened in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters.[25] Others followed in Rome, Tanzania, and Austria in 1968; during the 1970s the order opened houses and foundations in dozens of countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the United States.[26] Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... This article is about the institutions for orphans. ... Hansens disease, commonly known as leprosy, is an infectious disease caused by infection by Mycobacterium leprae. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Her philosophy and implementation have faced some criticism. While noting how little evidence Mother Teresa's critics were able to find against her, David Scott wrote that Mother Teresa limited herself to keeping people alive rather than tackling poverty itself.[27] She has also been criticized for her view on suffering: According to an article in the Alberta Report, she felt that suffering would bring people closer to Jesus.[28] The quality of care offered to terminally ill patients in the Homes for the Dying has been criticised in The Lancet and the British Medical Journal, which reported poor living conditions, such as using cold baths for all patients, reusing hypodermic needles, and taking an anti-materialist approach that precluded the use of systematic diagnosis.[29] David Scott is an author with a special interest in religion and culture. ... Cover of the August 26, 1997 edition of Alberta Report Alberta Report was a Canadian right-of-center magazine which has now ceased to exist. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached color-coded luer lock on right. ...


International charity

In 1982, at the height of the Siege of Beirut, Mother Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas.[30] Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she traveled through the war zone to the devastated hospital to evacuate the young patients.[31] Combatants Israel Defense Forces Palestinian Liberation Organization Commanders Ariel Sharon Yasir Arafat Strength 30,000 15,000 Casualties 368 soldiers killed, 2,383 wounded 1000 PLO guerillas killed, 6000 captured. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


When the walls of Eastern Europe collapsed, she expanded her efforts to Communist countries that had previously rejected the Missionaries of Charity, embarking on dozens of projects. She was undeterred by criticism about her firm stand against abortion and divorce stating, "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work." Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


Mother Teresa traveled to assist and minister to the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia.[32][33][34] In 1991, Mother Teresa returned for the first time to her homeland and opened a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana, Albania. This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ...


By 1996, she was operating 517 missions in more than 100 countries.[35] Over the years, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centers around the world. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx, New York; by 1984 the order operated 19 establishments throughout the country.[36] For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ...


The spending of the charity money received has been criticized by some. Christopher Hitchens and the Stern have said that money that was donated with the intention of it being spent on the keeping of the poor was spent on other projects instead. [37] Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Stern (English Star) is a weekly news magazine published in Germany. ...


Deteriorating health and death

Mother Teresa suffered a heart attack in Rome in 1983, while visiting Pope John Paul II. After a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a battle with pneumonia while in Mexico, she suffered further heart problems. She offered to resign her position as head of the Missionaries of Charity. But the nuns of the order, in a secret ballot, voted for her to stay. Mother Teresa agreed to continue her work as head of the order. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


In April 1996, Mother Teresa fell and broke her collar bone. In August she suffered from malaria and failure of the left heart ventricle. She had heart surgery, but it was clear that her health was declining. On March 13, 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity and died on September 5, 1997, nine days after her 87th birthday. In anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone is a bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to correct congenital heart disease or the complications of ischaemic heart disease or valve problems caused by endocarditis. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


The Archbishop of Calcutta, Henry Sebastian D'Souza, said he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism on Mother Teresa with her permission when she was first hospitalized with cardiac problems because he thought she may be under attack by the devil.[38] Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ...


At the time of her death, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters, an associated brotherhood of 300 members, and over 100,000 lay volunteers, operating 610 missions in 123 countries. These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A soup kitchen is a place where food is offered to the poor for free or at a reasonably low price. ...


Global recognition and awards

Reception in India and Asia

Mother Teresa was granted a state funeral by the Indian Government in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India.[39] In tribute, Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of Pakistan said that she was "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity."[40] Mother Teresa had first been officially recognised in the region long before her death. In 1962, she was awarded the Padma Shri by the Indian government. That same year she received the Philippines-based Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia. The citation said that "the Board of Trustees recognizes her merciful cognizance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation".[41] She continued to receive major Indian rewards in successive decades including, in 1972, the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding and, in 1980, India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.[42] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Padma Shri (also spelt Padma Shree, Padmashree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India generally to Indian citizens to recognize their distinguished contribution in various spheres of activity including the Arts, Education, Industry, Literature, Science, Sports, Social Service and public life. ... The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Bharat Ratna is Indias highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. ...


Indian views on Mother Teresa were not uniformly favourable. Her critic Aroup Chatterjee, who was born and bred in Calcutta but lived in London, reports that "she was not a significant entity in Calcutta in her lifetime". Chatterjee blames Mother Teresa for promoting a negative image of his home city.[43] Her presence and profile grated in parts of the Indian political world, as she often opposed the Hindu Right. The Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with her over the Christian Dalits, but praised her in death, sending a representative to her funeral. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad, on the other hand, opposed the Government's decision to grant her a state funeral. Its secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental" and accused her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying. But Parvathi Menon, writing the front page tribute for the Indian fortnightly Frontline, dismissed these charges as "patently false" and said that they had "made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta". Although praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, Menon was critical of Mother Teresa's public campaigning against abortion and that she claimed to be non-political when doing so.[42] More recently, the Indian daily The Telegraph referred to her as "the Saint of the Gutters", also mentioning calls for "Rome to investigate whether she did anything to alleviate the condition of the poor or just took care of the sick and dying and needed them to further a sentimentally-moral cause".[44] Dr. Aroup Chatterjee is the author of the book Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict which seeks to challenge the claim to fame of Mother Teresa as a symbol of selfless service. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable,or an outcaste, is a person who according to traditional Hindu belief does not have any varnas. Varna refers to the Hindu belief that most humans were supposedly created from different parts of the body of the divinity Purusha. ... The Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP; World Hindu Council in Hindi), is a Hindu nationalist organisation in Bharat, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... Acharya Giriraj Kishore is an Indian activist and politician. ... Frontline (ISSN 0970-1710)is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ...


Reception in the rest of the world

By the early 1970s, Mother Teresa had become an international celebrity. Her fame can be in large part attributed to the 1969 documentary Something Beautiful for God, which was filmed by Malcolm Muggeridge and his 1971 book of the same title. Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time.[45] During the filming of the documentary, footage taken in poor lighting conditions, particularly the Home for the Dying, was thought unlikely to be of usable quality by the crew. After returning from India, however, the footage was found to be extremely well lit. Muggeridge claimed this was a miracle of "divine light" from Mother Teresa herself.[46] Others in the crew thought it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film.[47] Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and Christian scholar. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ...

President Ronald Reagan presents Mother Teresa with the Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony, 1985.
President Ronald Reagan presents Mother Teresa with the Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony, 1985.

Around this time, the Catholic world began to honor Mother Teresa publicly. In 1971, Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, commending her for her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace.[48] She later received the Pacem in Terris Award (1976).[49] Since her death, Mother Teresa has progressed rapidly along the steps towards sainthood, currently having reached the stage of having been beatified. Image File history File links President_Reagan_presents_Mother_Teresa_with_the_Medal_of_Freedom_1985. ... Image File history File links President_Reagan_presents_Mother_Teresa_with_the_Medal_of_Freedom_1985. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the highest civilian award in the United States. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Enrica Antonia Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), served as Pope from 1963 to 1978. ... Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award has been awarded annually since 1964 in commemoration of the 1963 Encyclical Pacem in Terris of Pope John XXIII. It was created by the Davenport Catholic Interracial Council of the Diocese of Davenport in the U.S. state of Iowa. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Mother Teresa was honored by both governments and civilian organizations. The United Kingdom and the United States each repeatedly granted awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983, and honorary citizenship of the United States received on November 16, 1996. Mother Teresa's Albanian homeland granted her the Golden Honor of the Nation in 1994.[42] Her acceptance of this and another honour granted by the Haitian government proved controversial. Mother Teresa attracted criticism, particularly from the left, for implicitly giving support to the Duvaliers, to corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell and even to mainstream politicians on the right wing of Western politics, such as Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. In Keating's case she wrote to the judge of his trial asking for clemency to be shown.[29] [42] For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Duvalier can refer to either of the following: François Duvalier (nicknamed Papa Doc), President of Haiti from 1957-1971 Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc), President of Haiti from 1971-1986 Category: ... For other persons named Charles Keating, see Charles Keating (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Universities in both the West and in India granted her honorary degrees.[42] Other civilian awards include the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978),[50] and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).[51] An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... The International Balzan Prize Foundation awards four annual monetary prizes to people or organisations who have made outstanding achievements in the fields of humanities, natural sciences, culture, as well as for endeavours for peace and the brotherhood of man. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965), was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ...

Mother Teresa received great attention from the media, such as Time Magazine.

In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitute a threat to peace." She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $192,000 funds be given to the poor in India,[52] stating that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her help the world's needy. When Mother Teresa received the prize, she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family." Building on this theme in her Nobel Lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society - that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult." More specifically, she singled out abortion as 'the greatest destroyer of peace in the world'. [53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 527 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Time Magazine - Topic: Mother Teresa: A Living Saint. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 527 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Time Magazine - Topic: Mother Teresa: A Living Saint. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Her death was mourned in both secular and religious communities. The former U.N. Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, for example, said: "She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world."[40] During her lifetime and after her death, Mother Teresa was consistently found by Gallup to be the single most widely admired person in the US, and in 1999 was ranked as the "most admired person of the 20th century" by a poll in the US. She out-polled all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was in first place in all major demographic categories except the very young. The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...


Towards the end of her life, Mother Teresa attracted some negative attention in the Western media. The author Christopher Hitchens has been one of her most active critics in both the United Kingdom and the United States. He was commissioned to co-write and narrate the documentary Hell's Angel about her for Channel 4 after Aroup Chatterjee encouraged the making of such a program, although Chatterjee was unhappy with the "sensationalist approach" of the final product.[43] Hitchens expanded his criticism in a 1995 book, The Missionary Position.[54] Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949, in Portsmouth, England) is an Anglo-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Dr. Aroup Chatterjee is the author of the book Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict which seeks to challenge the claim to fame of Mother Teresa as a symbol of selfless service. ... The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice (ISBN 185984054X) is a book by Christopher Hitchens about Mother Teresas life and work. ...


Chatterjee writes that while she was alive Mother Teresa and her official biographers refused to collaborate with his own investigations and that she failed to defend herself against critical coverage in the Western press. He gives as examples a report in The Guardian in Britain whose "stringent (and quite detailed) attack on conditions in her orphanages ... [include] charges of gross neglect and physical and emotional abuse", and another documentary Mother Teresa: Time for Change? broadcast in several European countries.[43] Both Chatterjee and Hitchens have themselves been subject to criticism for their stance. The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


The German magazine Stern published a hostile article on the first anniversary of Mother Teresa's death. The medical press has also published criticism of her, arising from very different outlooks and priorities on patients' needs.[29] Other critics include Tariq Ali, a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review, and the Irish-born investigative journalist Donal MacIntyre.[54] Stern (English Star) is a weekly news magazine published in Germany. ... Tariq Ali Tariq Ali (Urdu: طارق علی) (born October 21, 1943) is a British-Pakistani writer and filmmaker [1]. He is a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review, and regularly contributes to The Guardian, Counterpunch, and the London Review of Books, He is the author of Pirates Of... In 1960 in the UK, the editors of the New Reasoner and the Universities and Left Review merged their boards and formed the New Left Review. ... Donal MacIntyre (born 1966 in Dublin) is an Irish investigative journalist, specialising in undercover operations and television exposes. ...


Spiritual life

Analyzing her deeds and achievements, John Paul II asked: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart."[55] Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Typical illustration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Sacred Heart is a religious devotion to Jesus physical heart. ...


In his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est, Benedict XVI mentioned Teresa of Calcutta three times and he also used her life to clarify one of his main points of the encyclical. "In the example of Blessed Teresa of Calcutta we have a clear illustration of the fact that time devoted to God in prayer not only does not detract from effective and loving service to our neighbour but is in fact the inexhaustible source of that service."[56] Mother Teresa specified that "It is only by mental prayer and spiritual reading that we can cultivate the gift of prayer."[57] For other uses, see Deus Caritas Est (disambiguation). ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... Mental prayer is the most effective means of assuring ones salvation (Alphonse Tanquerey) Mental prayer is a form of prayer whereby one loves God through meditation and contemplation. ... Confessions of St. ...


Although there was no direct connection between Mother Teresa's order and the Franciscan orders, she was known as a great admirer of St. Francis of Assisi.[58] Accordingly, her influence and life show influences of Franciscan spirituality. The Sisters of Charity recite the peace prayer of St. Francis every morning during thanksgiving after Communion and many of the vows and emphasis of her ministry are similar.[58] St. Francis emphasized poverty, chastity, obedience and submission to Christ. He also devoted much of his own life to service of the poor, especially lepers in the area where he lived. Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ... Benedict XVI:The precious time of thanksgiving after communion should not be neglected. ...


Mother Teresa wrote numerous letters to her confessors and superiors over a 66-year period. She had asked that her letters be destroyed, concerned that "people will think more of me -- less of Jesus."[59] However, despite this request, the correspondences have been compiled in Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light (Doubleday).[60][45] In one publicly released letter to a spiritual confidant, the Rev. Michael van der Peet, she wrote, "Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me, the silence and the emptiness is so great, that I look and do not see, — Listen and do not hear — the tongue moves [in prayer] but does not speak ... I want you to pray for me — that I let Him have [a] free hand."


Many news outlets have referred to Mother Teresa's writings as an indication of a "crisis of faith." [61] However, others have drawn comparisons to the 16th century mystic St. John of the Cross, who coined the term the "dark night" of the soul to describe a particular stage in the growth of some spiritual masters.[45] The Vatican has indicated that the letters would not affect her path to sainthood. [62] In fact, the book is edited by the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, her postulator, the official responsible for gathering the evidence for her sanctification.[45] Saint John of the Cross (Juan de la Cruz) was a Spanish Carmelite friar, born on June 24, 1542 at Fontiveros, a small village near Avila. ... Dark Night is an award winning film by writer/director, Daniel Grant. ... Headline text In the Roman Catholic Church, a postulator is a church official who presents a plea for canonization or beatification of a person they think should become a saint. ...


Influence in the world

The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in 1976. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa, the Sick and Suffering Co-Workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity. In answer to the requests of many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa also began the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests,[63] and in 1984 founded with Fr. Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers[64] to combine the beauty of the vocation of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the ministerial priesthood. Today, over one million workers worldwide volunteer for the Missionaries of Charity.[citation needed]


Miracle and beatification

Following Mother Teresa's death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification, the second step towards possible canonization. This process requires the documentation of a miracle performed from the intercession of Mother Teresa. In 2002, the Vatican recognized as a miracle the healing of a tumor in the abdomen of an Indian woman, Monica Besra, following the application of a locket containing Mother Teresa's picture. Monica Besra said that a beam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor. Some of Besra's medical staff and, initially, Besra's husband insist that conventional medical treatment eradicated the tumor.[65] Unless dispensed by the Pope, a second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonization. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Icon of St. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Icon of St. ...


Christopher Hitchens, a British-born American author, journalist and literary critic, was the only witness called by the Vatican to give evidence against Mother Teresa's beatification and canonization process, as the Vatican had abolished the traditional "devil's advocate" role that filled a similar purpose.[66] Hitchens has written that Mother Teresa's own words on poverty proved that "her intention was not to help people", and he alleged that she lied to donors about the use of their contributions. “It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn't working to alleviate poverty,” says Hitchens. “She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, ‘I'm not a social worker. I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.’"[67] In the process of examining Teresa's suitability for beatification and canonization, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) pored over a great deal of documentation of published and unpublished criticisms against her life and work. Vatican officials say Hitchens' allegations have been investigated by the agency charged with such matters, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, and they found no obstacle to Mother Teresa's beatification. Due to the attacks she has received, some Catholic writers have called her a sign of contradiction.[68] Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Icon of St. ... For other uses, see Devils advocate (disambiguation). ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ... Christ crucified. ...


Commemoration

Memorial plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa at a building in Václavské náměstí in Olomouc, Czech Republic.
Memorial plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa at a building in Václavské náměstí in Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Mother Teresa inspired a variety of commemorations. She has been memorialized through museums, been named patroness of various churches, and had various structures and roads named after her. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1548x1548, 461 KB) en: Memorial plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa at building in Václavské náměstí square in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1548x1548, 461 KB) en: Memorial plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa at building in Václavské náměstí square in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Wenceslas Square Wenceslas Square (Czech: Václavské náměstí) is one of the main city squares and the centre of the business and cultural communities in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic. ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish Ołomuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Mother Teresa of Calcutta has been memorialized throughout the throughout the world in honor of her selfishness and unswerving devotion to the poor. ...


10th anniversary of her death

On September 5, 2007, Mother Teresa's feast day, Calcutta's Archbishop Lucas Sirkar said Mass for thousands of devotees to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the death of Mother Teresa (attended by nuns and volunteers at Mother House, the headquarters of the Missionaries of Charity).[69] This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ...


See also

Missionaries of Charity is a Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Nobel Peace Prize (1979) laureate Mother Teresa to tend to the poorest of the poor. ... Kalighat Home for the Dying is a hospital for the poor and sick in Calcutta, India, founded by Mother Teresa. ...

External links

General

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

Criticism

Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949, in Portsmouth, England) is an Anglo-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Salon. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stern (English Star) is a weekly news magazine published in Germany. ...

Notes

  1. ^ PBS Online Newshour (Sept. 5, 1997).Mother Teresa Dies, www.pbs.org. Retrieved August, 2007
  2. ^ Associate Press. (October 14, 2003). "Full house for Mother Teresa ceremony". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  3. ^ "Blessed Mother Teresa". (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Although she was born on August 26, 1910, she considered August 27, 1910, the day she was baptized, to be her "true birthday." (2002). "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910-1997)". Vatican News Service. Retrieved May 30, 2007. Although some sources state that she was 10 when her father died, in an interview with her brother, the Vatican documents her age at the time as "about eight".
  5. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 24. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  6. ^ Sharn, Lori (September 5, 1997). "Mother Teresa dies at 87". USA Today. Retrieved May 30, 2007
  7. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 28-29. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  8. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 31. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  9. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, p.35. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  10. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 32. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  11. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.16. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  12. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18-21. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  13. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18, 21-22. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  14. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 35. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  15. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 39. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  16. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 48-49. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  17. ^ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 57. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  18. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.37. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  19. ^ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 62. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  20. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.284. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  21. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 58–60. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  22. ^ a b Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.55. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  23. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 62-63. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  24. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 58-59. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  25. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.82. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  26. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.286-287. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  27. ^ Scott, David A Revolution of Love: The Meaning of Mother Teresa Chicago, Loyola Press, 2005. ISBN 0829420312 "She deals only with the disease (of poverty), but not with preventing it, but people in the West continue to give her money"
  28. ^ Byfield, Ted (October 20, 1997), "If the real world knew the real Mother Teresa there would be a lot less adulation", Alberta Report/Newsmagazine 24 (45)
  29. ^ a b c Loudon, Mary. (1996)The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, Book Review, BMJ vol.312, no.7022, 6 January 2006, pp.64-5. Retrieved August 2, 2007
  30. ^ CNN Staff, "Mother Teresa: A Profile", retrieved from CNN online on May 30, 2007
  31. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 17. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  32. ^ Cooper, Kenneth J. (September 14, 1997). "Mother Teresa Laid to Rest After Multi-Faith Tribute". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 30, 2007
  33. ^ (May 30, 2007) "A Vocation of Service". Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  34. ^ Embassy of India in Armenia Official Website. Describes how Mother Teresa journeyed to Armenia in December 1988 following the great earthquake. She and her order established an orphanage there. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  35. ^ Williams, Paul (2002).Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, pp. 199–204. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  36. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 104. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  37. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (20 October 2003). "Mommie Dearest". Slate Magazine. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  38. ^ Bindra, Satinder (September 7, 2001). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  39. ^ Associated Press (September 14, 1997). "India honors nun with state funeral". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  40. ^ a b (October 16, 2006) Online Memorial Tribute to Mother Teresa. ChristianMemorials.com. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  41. ^ Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (1962) Citation for Mother Teresa.[1]
  42. ^ a b c d e Parvathi Menon Cover story: A life of selfless caring, Frontline, Vol.14 :: No. 19 :: Sept.20 - Oct. 3,1997
  43. ^ a b c Chatterjee, Aroup, Introduction to The Final Verdict [2]
  44. ^ Victor Banerjee A Canopy most fatal, The Telegraph, Sunday, September 08, 2002.
  45. ^ a b c d Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith. Time. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  46. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997). Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 80–84. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  47. ^ Alpion, Gezmin (2007). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. Routledge Press, pp. 9. ISBN 0415392462.
  48. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 81-82. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  49. ^ Quad City Times staff (October 17, 2005). "Habitat official to receive Pacem in Terris honor". Peace Corps. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  50. ^ Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Fondazione Internazionale Balzan, 1978 Balzan Prize for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood among Peoples. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  51. ^ Jones, Alice & Brown, Jonathan (07 March 2007). "attract? When Robert Maxwell met Mother Teresa". The Independent. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  52. ^ Locke, Michelle for the Associated Press (March 22, 2007). "Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity". San Franscisco Gate. Retrieved May 26, 2007
  53. ^ Mother Teresa (11 December 1979). "Nobel Prize Lecture". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  54. ^ a b MacIntyre, Donal (August 22, 2005), New Statesman 134 (4754): 24-25[3]
  55. ^ John Paul II (October 20, 2003). Address Of John Paul II To The Pilgrims Who Had Come To Rome For The Beatification Of Mother Teresa. 'Vatican.va'. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  56. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (December 25, 2005). [www.usccb.org/pope/CARITAS-06-eng.pdf Deus Caritas Est]. (PDF). Vatican City, pp.10. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  57. ^ Mother Teresa (197). No Greater Love. Google Books. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  58. ^ a b "Mother Teresa of Calcutta Pays Tribute to St. Francis of Assisi" on the American Catholic website, retrieved May 30, 2007.
  59. ^ Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith. Sun Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  60. ^ [4] Brian Kolodiejchuk, Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light, Doubleday, 2007
  61. ^ Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  62. ^ Mother Teresa's canonisation not at risk. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  63. ^ God's People Yearn For Holy Priests, Founded by Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Corpus Christi Movement for Priests. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  64. ^ The Religious Community of priests founded by Mother Teresa. Missionaries of Charity Fathers. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  65. ^ Orr, David (May 10. 2003). "Medicine cured 'miracle' woman - not Mother Teresa, say doctors". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  66. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (January 6, 1996). "Less than Miraculous". Free Inquiry Magazine. Volume 24, Number 2.
  67. ^ The Debate Over Sainthood. (9 October 2003). CBS News. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  68. ^ Shaw, Russell. (September 1, 2005). Attacking a Saint, Catholic Herald. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
  69. ^ Yahoo.com,10 years later, Mother Teresa remembered

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Further reading

  • Alpion, Gezim. Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. London: Routledge Press, 2007. ISBN 0-415-39247-0
  • Benenate, Becky and Joseph Durepos (eds). Mother Teresa: No Greater Love (Fine Communications, 2000) ISBN 1-56731-401-5
  • Bindra, Satinder. "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism", CNN.com World, 2001-09-07. Retrieved on 2006-10-23. 
  • Chatterjee, Aroup. Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict (Meteor Books, 2003). ISBN 81-88248-00-2, introduction and first three chapters on fourteen (without pictures). Critical examination of Agnes Bojaxhiu's life and work.
  • Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa.Rockport, Mass: Element Books, 1996. ISBN 1-85230-911-3
  • Clucas, Joan. Mother Teresa. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. ISBN 1-55546-855-1
  • Dwivedi, Brijal. Mother Teresa: Woman of the Century
  • Hitchens. Christopher. The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice. London: Verso, 1996. ISBN 1-85984-054-X
  • Le Joly, Edward. Mother Teresa of Calcutta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983. ISBN 0-06-065217-9
  • Muggeridge, Malcolm Something Beautiful for God. ISBN 0-06-066043-0
  • Muntaykkal, T.T. Blessed Mother Teresa: Her Journey to Your Heart. ISBN 1-903650-61-5. ISBN 0-7648-1110-X. Book Review.
  • Scott, David. A Revolution of Love: The Meaning of Mother Teresa. Chicago: Loyola Press, 2005. ISBN 0829420312
  • Sebba, Anne. Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-48952-8
  • Spink, Kathryn. Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. ISBN 0-06-250825-3
  • Teresa, Mother et al, Mother Teresa: In My Own Words. Gramercy Books, 1997. ISBN 0-517-20169-0
  • Teresa, Mother & Kolodiejchuk, Brian, Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light, New York: Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 0385520379
  • Williams, Paul. Mother Teresa. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002. ISBN 0-02-864278-3
  • Wüllenweber, Walter. "Nehmen ist seliger denn geben. Mutter Teresa — wo sind ihre Millionen?" Stern (illustrated German weekly), September 10, 1998. English translation.
Preceded by
Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity
1950–1997
Succeeded by
Nirmala Joshi
Persondata
NAME Mother Teresa
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu
SHORT DESCRIPTION Christian Blessed, international humanitarian, Nobel Laureate, Roman Catholic nun
DATE OF BIRTH August 27, 1910
PLACE OF BIRTH Üsküb, Ottoman Empire (now the city of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)
DATE OF DEATH September 5, 1997 (age 87)
PLACE OF DEATH Kolkata, India

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mother Teresa | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free ... (3077 words)
In 1979 Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitute a threat to peace." She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $6,000 funds would be diverted to the poor in Calcutta.
In 1982, Mother Teresa persuaded Israelis and Palestinians, who were in the midst of a skirmish, to cease fire long enough to rescue 37 mentally handicapped patients from a besieged hospital in Beirut.
Mother Teresa was granted a full state funeral by the Indian Government in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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