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Encyclopedia > Mosul

Coordinates: 36°22′0″N, 43°07′0″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Mosul
الموصل
Tigris River and bridge in Mosul
Mosul (Iraq)
Mosul
Coordinates: 36°02′N 43°07′E / 36.033, 43.117
Country Iraq
Governorate Ninawa
District Mosul
Population
 - Urban 3,000,000 (2,008)
Time zone GMT +4 (UTC)

Mosul (Arabic: الموصل‎, Al Mūṣul),(Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa),(Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some 396 km (250 miles) northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial areas on both banks, with five bridges linking the two sides. Despite having an amount of Kurdish population, it does not form part of the area controlled by the Kurdistan Regional Government. Image File history File links Tigris_river_Mosul. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa, in Assyrian: Nineveh) is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... Arabic redirects here. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ninawa (in Arabic: نینوا ,in kurdish: Neynewa, in Assyrian: Nineveh) is a governorate (province) in Iraq, and the Arabic name for the biblical city of Nineveh in Assyria. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970 following...


The fabric Muslin, long manufactured here, is named for this city. Another historically important product of the area is Mosul marble. Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ... -1...


In 1987, the city's population was 664,221 people; the 2004 population estimate was 2,339,800, and by 2008, population was estimated to be 3,000,000.[1] It is Iraq's second largest city after Baghdad, and substantially larger than Basra, the third largest city of Iraq. This article is about the city of Basra. ...


The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul, one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East.[2] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The city is also a historic center for the Nestorian Christianity of the Assyrians, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah and Nahum. The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ...

Contents

Name

The name of the city is an Arabic-language name with many meanings, one of which is "the linking point". Another Arabic name for the city is Um Al-Rabi'ain (The City of Two Springs), because autumn and spring are very much alike there. The Assyrians call the city by its ancient name, Nineveh. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ...


It is also named Al-Faiha (The Paradise), Al-Khadhra (The Green), and Al-Hadba (The Humped), and sometimes described as "The Pearl of the North".[3]


People

A souk (traditional market) in Mosul city northern Iraq, 1932
A souk (traditional market) in Mosul city northern Iraq, 1932

This city is indicative of the mingling ethnic and religious cultures of Iraq, where people lived in harmony for centuries. There is a clear Arab majority in urban areas, such as downtown Mosul on the Tigris. Across the Tigris and further north in the suburban areas, thousands of Kurds, Assyrians and Turkomans make up the rest of Mosul's population.[4] The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ...


The population of Mosul has progressively become a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, and Turkomans, since 1958 when Iraqi Prime minister Abd al-Karim Qasim encouraged Kurds and other minorities to resettle inside Mosul as part of a plan to integrate other ethnic groups into the major cosmopolitan areas of Iraq. These plans were counteracted in the 1980s by former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein and his Baath party, which forced some of those minorities to move outside the city, back into Kurdish regions. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in Damascus in the 1940s as the original secular Arab nationalist movement, to combat Western colonial rule. ...


The city is close to the Kurdish regions of Iraq and is considered by some Kurdish officials to be traditionally Kurdish, and situated in what was historically the Kurdistan region. There have been some demands from Kurdish parties that Mosul should be included in the Kurdish regional government. Kurdish fighters have been moving into the city since the fall of the Ba'ath government, causing some tensions with the Sunni Arabs of the city. Clashes erupted in recent months, between Sunni Arabs in Mosul and Kurdish fighters entering the city from the Kurdish regional governorates.[5] Anthem Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The majority of people in Mosul are Muslims, though Mosul does have the highest proportion of Christians of all Iraqi cities. Other religions, such as Yazidi, also call Mosul home.[6][7] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ...


Long before the Muslim conquest of the 7th century, the old city Nineveh Christianized when the Assyrians converted to Christianity during the 1st and 2nd centuries. The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Despite institutional ethnic persecution by various political powers, including the Ba'ath Party regime, Mosul has maintained a multi-cultural and multi-religious mosaic. The difficult history of Mosul, however, still contributes to tensions among its modern inhabitants. Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...


Language

The language of the Arab people in Mosul is a special dialect of Arabic, partially influenced by the Syrian dialect, due to the proximity of Mosul to Syria. This dialect is sometimes described as the feminine version of the Iraqi dialect (see Syrian Arabic). It puts more emphasis on "gh" (replacing "r"), and more emphasis is laid on the "qa" (replacing the "gh"). The Kurds of Mosul speak the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish, known as Behdini in the region. There is a substantial Azeri-speaking Turkoman population. Other languages such as Armenian and Assyrian (Syriac) are also spoken among their communities. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Syrian Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Syria, classified as a Levantine dialect. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Arabic is the primary language of communication, education, business and official work, known to the majority of the city's residents.


Maslawi

The term "Maslawi" may refer to a person who is from the city of Mosul. Maslawi does not indicate one's ethnicity or religion. Maslawi also refers to the particular dialect of Arabic spoken in the Mosul area.


History

Ancient and Ottoman Mosul

a coffee house in Mosul, 1914
a coffee house in Mosul, 1914

The area around Mosul has been continuously inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Built on the site of an earlier Mitanni-Kurdish fortress, Mosul succeeded Nineveh which was founded by the Mitannis as an outpost or citadel located on the hill of Q'leat on the right bank of the Tigris, across from the ancient city of Nineveh (now the town of Ninewa) on the left bank. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ...


In approximately 850 BC, King Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria chose the city of Nimrud to build his capital city where present day Mosul is located. In approximately 700 BC, King Sennacherib made Nineveh the new capital of Assyria. The mound of Kuyunjik in Mosul is the site of the palaces of King Sennacherib and his grandson Ashurbanipal, who established the Library of Ashurbanipal. Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashurnasirpal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashurnasirpal succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to the growing Assyrian empire. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... One of the most remarkable archaeological discoveries of all times, credited to Austen Henry Layard. ...


Mosul later succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with Median Empire. In 612 BC, the Mede emperor Cyaxares, together with the alliance of Nabopolassar the Chaldean, conquered Nineveh. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Hvakhshathra or Cyaxares (r. ... Nabopolassar (Akkadian:Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ...


Mosul became an important commercial center of the Median Empire and Persian Empire in the 6th century BC. It became part of the Seleucid Empire after Alexander's conquests in 332 BC before being re-taken by indegenous Iranians under the Parthian Empire in 224 BC. The Parthian capital of Ctesiphon was sacked and conquered by the Roman Empire under Emperor Trajan, but quickly reverted back to the Parthian Iranians.[8] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Emperor Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53-August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


The city changed hands once again with the rise of Sassanid Persia in 225 AD.In 637AD, the city was conquered by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami in 637 AD during the period of the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami was a General under Muslim Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Mosul was promoted to the status of capital of Mesopotamia under the Umayyads in the 8th century, during which it reached a peak of prosperity. During the Abbassid era it was an important trading centre because of its strategic location, astride the trade routes to India, Persia and the Mediterranean. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


In 1127 it became the centre of power of the Zengid dynasty. Saladin besieged the city unsuccessfully in 1182 but in the 13th century it was conquered and destroyed by the Mongols; although it was later rebuilt under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and remained important, it did not regain its earlier grandeur. The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... á¹¢alāḥ ad-DÄ«n YÅ«suf ibn AyyÅ«b (Arabic: ‎), known in English as Saladin, was a 12th-century Kurd who became Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and a major Muslim political and military leader. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


It remained under Ottoman control until 1918, with a brief break in 1623 when Persia seized the city for a short time, and was the capital of Mosul Vilayet one of the three vilayets (provinces) of Ottoman Iraq. In 1879 Mosul Vilayet (province) was separated from Baghdad Vilayet. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


Mosul in the 20th century

The biggest Mosque in Mosul now under construction originally planned and founded by Saddam Hussein

Mosul's importance as a strategic trading centre declined after the opening of the Suez Canal, which enabled goods to travel to and from India by sea rather than by land across Iraq and through Mosul. However, the city's fortunes revived greatly with the discovery of oil in the area, from the late 1920s onwards. It became a nexus for the movement of oil via truck and pipeline to both Turkey and Syria. Qyuarrah Refinery was built within about an hour's drive from the city and was used to process oil for road-building projects. It was damaged but not destroyed during the Iran-Iraq War. Mosul provides a key portion of the country's electrical needs via Mosul Dam and several neighbouring thermal turbine facilities. Image File history File links Saddam_Mosque_Mosul. ... Image File history File links Saddam_Mosque_Mosul. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Mosul Dam (Arabic,سد الموصل), formerly known as Saddam Dam (Arabic,سد صدام), is the largest dam in Iraq. ...


The construction of University of Mosul in 1967 enabled the education of many in the city and surrounding areas, and it features excellent engineering and linguistics departments among its many other academic offerings.


The region had been part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534 until the end of World War I in 1918.[9] The possibility of dissolving this Empire became real with the Great War, since Germany was the ally of the Ottoman Empire. Secret agreements between the French and the British government (known as the Sykes-Picot Agreement) decided in 1916 to draw a straight line from the Jordan heights to Iran: where the northern zone (Syria, and later the upcoming Lebanon) would be under French influence, and the southern zone (Jordan, Iraq, and later, after renegotiations in 1917, Palestine) would be under British influence. Mosul was in the northern zone, and would have become a Syrian city; but early discoveries of oil in the region just before the end of the war (1918), pushed the British government to yet another negotiation with the French; to include the region of Mosul into the southern zone (or the British zone). The border line that divides the two sides has not changed since 1918, but it has set the fate of the modern Middle East for the coming century with the raising of different countries from the Ottoman Empire. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


At the end of World War I in October 1918, British forces occupied Mosul. After the war, the city and the surrounding area became part of the British mandate of Iraq. However, this mandate was contested by Turkey which continued to claim the area. Iraq's possession of Mosul was confirmed by the League of Nations in 1926 and the Treaty of Lausanne between Great Britain, Iraq and Turkey. 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the...


Some of the villages and towns around Mosul with its large Kurdish population were significantly affected by the 1991 rebellion suppression by the deposed former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, during the 1991 Kurdish-mounted, unsuccessful revolt against the regime. In the wake of the revolt's failure, a swathe of Kurdish-populated territory in the north and northeast of Iraq fell under the control of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and Kurdistan Democratic Party, which established autonomous (and de facto independent) rule in the region. Mosul did not fall within the Kurdish-ruled area, but it was included in the no-fly zones imposed and patrolled by the United States and Britain between 1991 and 2003. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP; Kurdish: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê or PDK) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... A no-fly zone is a territory over which aircraft (or unauthorized aircraft) are not permitted to fly. ...


Although this prevented Saddam's forces from mounting large-scale military operations again in the region, it did not stop the regime from implementing a steady policy of "Arabisation" by which the demography of some areas of Ninawa Governorate were gradually changed. Despite the program Mosul and its surrounding villages remained home to a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Syriacs, Turkomans, a few Jews, and isolated populations of Yazidis. Saddam was however able to garrison portions of the 5th Army within the Mosul city, had the international flight capable airport under military control, and recruited heavily from the city for his military's officer corps; this may be due to the fact that most of the officers and generals of the Iraqi Army were from Mosul long before the Saddam regime era. Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ...


Mosul after Saddam

When the 2003 invasion of Iraq was being planned, the United States had originally intended to base troops in Turkey and mount a thrust into northern Iraq to capture Mosul and the strategically vital oilfields there. However, the Turkish parliament refused to grant permission for the operation. When the war did break out in March 2003, US military activity in the area was confined to strategic bombing with airdropped special forces operating in the vicinity. The city fell on April 11, 2003, when the Saddam-loyal Iraqi Army 5th Corps, abandoned it and eventually surrendered, two days after the fall of Baghdad. Kurdish fighters took civil control of the city, and started what eventually became a widespread looting before agreeing to cede control to US forces. This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 22, 2003, Saddam Hussein's sons, Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein, were attacked and killed by Coalition forces in Mosul. The brothers were killed in a gunbattle that ensued after a failed attempt at their apprehension.[10] The city also served as the operational base for the US Army's 101st Airborne Division during the occupational phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its tenure, the 101st Airborne Division was able to extensively survey the city and, advised by the 431st Civil Affairs Battalion, non governmental organizations, and the people of Mosul, began reconstruction work by employing the people of Mosul in the arenas of security, electricity, local governance, drinking water, wastewater, trash, roads, bridges, and environmental concerns[11]. Other U.S. Army units to have occupied the city have been the 172nd Stryker Brigade, 3rd Brigade-2nd Infantry Division, 1st Brigade-25th Infantry Division, and company-size units from Reserve components. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


In November 2004, concurrently with the US and Iraqi attack on the city of Fallujah, the Battle of Mosul (2004) began. On the 10th, insurgents conducted coordinated attacks on the police stations. The policemen that weren't killed in the fighting fled the city, leaving Mosul without any civil police force for about a month. However, soon after the insurgents' campaign to overrun the city had begun, elements from the 25th Infantry Division and components from the Multinational force comprised mainly of Albanian forces, took the offensive and began to maneuver into the most dangerous parts of the city. Fighting continued well into the 11th with the insurgents on the defensive and U.S. forces scouring neighborhoods for any resistance. Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle Fallujah (Arabic: ; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... Combatants United States, Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi insurgents Strength 2,000 Unknown Casualties 4 killed (U.S.) 116 killed and 5,000 deserted (Iraqi forces)[1] 5 civilians killed 1 British security contractor killed 1 Turkish contractor killed 71 killed The Battle for Mosul was a battle fought during the...

The memorial that stands outside the entrance to the Dining Hall on FOB Marez where the December 21, 2004 suicide attack occurred.
The memorial that stands outside the entrance to the Dining Hall on FOB Marez where the December 21, 2004 suicide attack occurred.

On December 21, 2004, fourteen U.S. soldiers, four American employees of Halliburton, and four Iraqi soldiers were killed in a suicide attack on a dining hall at the Forward Operating Base Marez next to the main U.S. military airfield at Mosul. The Pentagon reported that 72 other personnel were injured in the attack carried out by a suicide bomber wearing an explosive vest and the uniform of the Iraqi security services. The Islamic terrorist group Army of Ansar al-Sunna (partly evolved from Ansar al-Islam) declared responsibility for the attack in an Internet statement. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Haliburton. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Jaish Ansar al-Sunna or Army of the Protectors of the Sunna (faith), is an Iraq fighting US_led occupation and US_backed interim government of Iyad Allawi. ... This article is about the Kurdish Islamist organization. ...


In early 2005, the head of Mosul's anti-corruption unit Gen. Waleed Kashmoula was killed by a bomb which exploded outside his office. In October 2005, the Iraq Interior Department attempted to fire the police chief of Mosul. Mosul Sunni leaders saw it as a Kurdish grab for control over the police. In the end the police chief was replaced by a Sunni Arab, MG Wathiq Al Hamdani, who is a city resident.


In December 2007, Iraq reopened the airport in Mosul. An Iraqi Airways flight carried 152 Hajj pilgrims to Baghdad, the first commercial flight since US forces declared a no-fly zone in 1993, although further commercial flight remained prohibited.[12] On January 23, 2008, an explosion in an apartment building killed 36 people. The following day, a suicide bomber dressed as a police officer assassinated the local police chief, Brig. Gen. Salah Mohammed al-Jubouri, the director of police for Ninevah province, as he toured the site of the blast.[13] is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since November 2004 and until now the city of Mosul suffered tremendously due to deteriorated security conditions (including military actions as well threats and killing of innocent civilians by Terrorists and criminals), unprecedented violence levels (especially on ethnic bases), continuous destruction of the main infrastructures of the city and neglect and mismanagement by the the occupation forces, Nineveh Governerate Council, multiple political parties as well as the central Iraqi Government in Baghdad.


All these factors depraved the city of its historical scientific and intellectual foundations in the last 4 years when a large number of scientists, professors, academics, doctors, health professionals, engineers, lawyers, journalists, religious clergy (both Muslims and Christians), historians, as well the professionals and artists in all walks of life, were either killed or forced to leave the city under the threat of guns, exactly as it happens else were in Iraq in the years following 2003.[14] [15] [16] [17]


In May 10, 2008 a military offensive launched by US-backed Iraqi Army Forces led by Maj. Gen. Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq, the commander of military operations in Mosul in the hope of bringing back stability and security to the city [1]. Even though the representatives of Mosul in the Iraqi Parliament as well as the intellectuals of the city and other concerned humanitarian groups agreed on the essential urge for a solution to the unbearable conditions of the city, yet they still believe that the solution is merely political and administrative, they are also questioning whether such a large scale military offensive will spare the lives of innocent lives.[18] is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite all the odds, the citizens of Mosul are vowed to bring stability and prosperity to Mosul and to rebuild the city and regain its historical and cultural rules as one of the three major cities in Iraq and one of the first historic metropolitans of the World.


Historical places

Al-Hadba Minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in downtown Mosul
Al-Hadba Minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in downtown Mosul

Mosul is rich in old historical places and ancient buildings: mosques, castles, churches, monasteries, schools, most of which abound in architectural features and decorative works of significance. The town center is dominated by a maze of streets and attractive 19th century houses. There are old houses here of beauty. The markets are particularly interesting not simply for themselves alone but for the mixture of types who jostle there: Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians & Turkmen. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (842x589, 72 KB)[edit] Summary Al-Hadba (The Humped) Minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in Mosul near the Great (Nuriddin) Mosque in downtown Mosul is one of the main tourist attractions and a significant symbole of Mosul city. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (842x589, 72 KB)[edit] Summary Al-Hadba (The Humped) Minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in Mosul near the Great (Nuriddin) Mosque in downtown Mosul is one of the main tourist attractions and a significant symbole of Mosul city. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article describes the fortified buildings. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... This article is about the built environment. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Mosul Museum contains many interesting finds from the ancient sites of the old Assyrian capital cities Nineveh and Nimrud. The Mosul house is a beautiful, old-style building, constructed around a central courtyard and with an impressive facade of Mosul marble. It contains displays of Mosul life depicted in tableau form. Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ...


The famous English writer, Agatha Christie, lived in Mosul whilst her second husband, an archaeologist, was involved in the excavation in Nimrod. Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime writer of novels, short stories and plays. ... Look up Nimrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Mosques and shrines

  • Umayyad Mosque - The first ever in the city, built in 640 AD by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he conquered Mosul in the reign of Caliph umar ibn Al-Khattab. The only part still extant is the remarkably elaborate brickwork 52 m high minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa, called Al-Hadba (The Humped).
  • The Great (Nuriddin) Mosque - Built by Nuriddin Zangi in 1172 AD next door to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta (the great Tunisian traveller) found a marble fountain there and a mihrab (the niche that indicates the direction of Mecca) with a Kufic inscription.
Nabi Yunus (Prophet Jonah) Mosque on Al-Tawba Mountain in Mosul City
Nabi Yunus (Prophet Jonah) Mosque on Al-Tawba Mountain in Mosul City
  • Mosque of the Prophet Yunus or Younis (jonah) - On one of the two most prominent mounds of Nineveh ruins, rises the Mosque (an Nestorian-Assyrian Church before) of Prophet Younis "Biblical Jonah". Jonah the son of Amittai, from the 8th century BC, is believed to be buried here, and where King Esarhaddon had once built a palace. It is one of the most important mosques in Mosul and one of the few historic mosques that are found in the east side of the city.
  • Mujahidi Mosque - The mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is distinguished for its beautiful dome and elaborately wrought (mihrab).
  • Mosque of the Prophet Jerjis (Georges) - The mosque is believed to be the burial place of Prophet Jerjis. Built of marble with beautiful reliefs and renovated last in 1393 AD. It was mentioned by the explorer Ibn Jubair in the 12th century AD, and is believed also to embrace the tomb of Al-Hur bin Yousif.
  • Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem - On the right bank of Tigris, known for its conical dome, decorative brick-work and calligraphy engraved in Mosul blue marble, 13th century.
  • Bash Tapia Castle - Part of Mosul's old walls which has disappeared, with the exception of these imposing ruins rising high over Tigris.
  • Qara Serai (The Black Palace) - The remnants of the 13th century palace of Sultan Badruddin Lu'lu'.

This article concerns the mosques and shrines of Mosul. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Imad ad-Din Zengi (also Zangi or Zengui) (1087-1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. He became atabeg of Mosul in 1127, and of Aleppo in 1128, uniting the two cities under his personal rule, and was the founder of... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3507x2372, 917 KB)[edit] Summary Nabi Yunis (Prophet Jonah) Mosque on Al-Tawba Mountain in Mosul City [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3507x2372, 917 KB)[edit] Summary Nabi Yunis (Prophet Jonah) Mosque on Al-Tawba Mountain in Mosul City [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... Amittai (Hebrew: אֲמִתַּי, IPA English: æmɪtaɪ), a biblical character, was the father of Jonah the prophet. ... Georges - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Churches and monasteries

Mosul has the highest proportion of Christians of all the Iraqi cities, and contains several interesting old churches, some of which originally date back to the early centuries of Christianity. Its ancient churches are often hidden and their entrances in thick walls are not easy to find. Some of them have suffered from overmuch restoration. Churches and monasteries of Mosul. ...

  • Shamoun Al-Safa (St. Peter) - The oldest church in Mosul, it dates from the 13th century and named after Shamoun Al-Safa or St. Peter. Previously, it had the name of the two Apostles, Peter and Paul and had previously been inhabited by the nuns of the Sacred Hearts.
  • Church of St. Thomas - One of the oldest historical churches, named after St. Thomas the Apostle who preached the Gospel in the East, including India. The exact time of its foundation is unknown, but it can be assumed that it dates prior to 770 AD, since reference tell that Al-Mahdi, the Abbasid Caliph, listened to a grievance concerning this church on his trip to Mosul.
  • Mar Petion Church - Mar Petion who was educated by his cousin in monastery, was martyred in 446 AD. It is the first Chaldean Catholic church in Mosul, after the union of the Assyro-Nestorians with Rome. It dates back prior to the 10th century, and lies 3 m below street level. This church suffered destruction, and it has been reconstructed many times. A hall has been built on one of its three parts in 1942. As a result to that, most of artistic features have been confused.
  • Ancient Tahira Church (The Immaculate) - Near Bash Tapia, considered one of the most ancient churches in Mosul. No evidence helps to determine its exact area. It could be either the remnants of the church of the Upper Monastery or the ruined Mar Zena Church. Al-Tahira Church dates back to the 7th century, and it lies 3 m below street level. Reconstructed last in 1743.
  • Mar Hudeni Church - It was named after Mar Ahudemmeh (Hudeni) Maphrian of Tikrit who martyred in 575 AD. Mar Hudeni is an old church of the Tikritans in Mosul. It dates back to the 10th century, and lies 7 m below street level. First reconstructed in 1970. People can get mineral water from the well in its yard. The chain, fixed in the wall, is thought to cure epileptics.
  • St. George's Monastery (Mar Gurguis) - One of the oldest churches in Mosul, named after St. George, located to the north of Mosul. Most probably built late in the 17th century. Pilgrims from different parts of the North visit it annually in the spring, when many people also go out to its environs on holiday. It is about 6 m below street level. A modern church was built over the old one in 1931 abolished much of its archeological significance. The only monuments left are a marble door-frame decorated with carved Estrangelo (Syriac) inscription, and two niches, which date back to the 13th or 14th century.
  • Mar Matte - This famous monastery is situated about 20 km east of Mosul on the top of a high mountain (Mount Maqloub). It was built by Mar Matte; a monk who fled with several other monks 362 AD from the Monastery of Zuknin near the City of Amid (Diyar Bakir) in the southern part of Asia Minor (Turkey nowadays) and the north of Iraq during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363 AD). It has a precious library containing Syrianic scriptures.
  • Monastery of Mar Behnam - Also called Deir Al-Jubb (The Cistern Monastery), in the Nineveh Plain near Nimrud about 32 km southwest of Mosul, 12th or 13th century. The monastery is a great fort-like building rises next to the tomb of Mar Behnam a prince who was killed by the Sassanians, perhaps during the 4th century AD. A legend made him a son of an Assyrian king.
  • St. Elijah's Monastery (Dair Mar Elia) - The oldest Christian Monastery in Iraq, it dates from the 6th Century.[19]

Other Christian historical buildings: Mar Matti Monastery (Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܕܡܪܝ ܡܬܝ Saint Matthews Monastery) is located atop Mount Maqloub in northern Iraq. ...

  • The Roman Catholic Church (Built by the Dominican Fathers in Nineveh Street in 1893).
  • Mar Michael
  • Mar Elias
  • Mar Oraha
  • Rabban Hormizd -- The monastery of Notre-Dame des Semences

Famous births

See also: Maslawi
  • Kathem Al Saher, famous Iraqi pop singer, songwriter, and musician
  • Paulos Faraj Rahho, Chaldean Archbishop of Mosul, assassinated, late February or early March 2008
  • Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer, Interim President of Iraq during 2004-2005
  • Munir Bashir, most famous musician in the Middle east during the 20th century
  • Asenath Barzani, first Jewish female rabbi
  • Taha Yassin Ramadan, former Vice President of Iraq
  • Hormuzd Rassam, assyriologist
  • Hawar Mulla Mohammed Iraqi soccer player for the national team

A Maslawi is a person who is from the city of Mosul, Iraq. ... Kadhim Jabbar Ibrahim Al Samarrai, known as Kadhim Al Saher, ( Arabic: كاظم الساهر ) (born September 12, 1959), is an Arab singer-songwriter. ... Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is a Vice-President of Iraq under the Iraqi Transitional Government of 2005, and was President of Iraq under the Iraqi Interim Government from 2004 to 2005. ... Munir Bashir (Arabic: ‎, Syriac: ܡܢܝܪ ܒܫܝܪ) He created different styles of the Arabian short scaled lute, the oud. ... // Tanna’it Asenath Barzani (1590–1670) was a renowned Jewish-Kurdish woman who lived in Mosul, Iraq. ... Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (February 22, 1938 – March 20, 2007) (Arabic: ‎) was the Vice President of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003. ... Hormuzd Rassam (1826-1910) was an Assyriologist and traveller, born at Mosul of Christian parents. ... Hawar Mulla Mohammed Taher (Kurdish: هاواری‌ مه‌لا محه‌مه‌د, Arabic: ) (born 12 September 1981 Mosul, Iraq) is an Iraqi-Kurdish football player, who plays the midfield position. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mosul

Al-Mishraq is a state run sulphur plant near Mosul, Iraq. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... This is a list of the rulers of the Iraqi city of Mosul . ... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Mosul International Airport is an airport to be reconstructed in its location in Mosul, Iraq. ... Map of Nineveh plains overlaid over the Ninawa Governorate map Nineveh plains (Mosul plains, Assyria among others, Assyrian: Deshta d- Ninwe) is a region in the Ninawa Governorate to the north and west of the city Mosul. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.library.uu.nl/wesp/populstat/Asia/iraqt.htm[dead link – history]
  2. ^ http://www.mosuluniversity.org/
  3. ^ Mosul, Iraq from AtlasTours.net
  4. ^ Mosul â€" FREE Mosul Information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information!
  5. ^ Seattle Times
  6. ^ ArabNet Mosul Entry ArabNet
  7. ^ 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 904
  8. ^ See Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanians.
  9. ^ Mosul from britannica.com
  10. ^ CNN.com - Pentagon: Saddam's sons killed in raid - July 22, 2003
  11. ^ Mosul
  12. ^ Forbes.com
  13. ^ Gamel, Kim: Provincial Police Chief Killed in Mosul, Associated Press, 25 January 2008.
  14. ^ http://www.iraqis.org.uk/Contents/HR/pia_ppp_605.pdf
  15. ^ Human Rights in Iraq
  16. ^ France 24 | Iraq's deadly brain drain | France 24
  17. ^ Losing Mosul? - TIME
  18. ^ http://www.almosul.org/Action4Mosul/Almosul_Dirk.pdf
  19. ^ NPR's Morning Edition, November 21, 2007

Parthias greatest extent in 60 BCE The Parthian Empire had grown from the decline of the Seleucid Empire and during the first century BCE it came into contact with Rome when the general Crassus attempted to invade the kingdom. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... The U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), before 2004 known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), was established October 1, 1996, by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency Act of 1996. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mosul - LoveToKnow 1911 (747 words)
In Mosul, as in Bagdad, only part of the space within the walls is covered with buildings and the rest is occupied by cemeteries; even the solid limestone walls of the ancient town are half in ruins, being serviceable only in the direction of the river, where they check inundations.
Mosul is the meetingpoint of roads from Aleppo, Diarbekr, Bitlis, north and west Persia and Bagdad; and it is on the projected line of railway from Constantinople to the Persian Gulf.
Mosul has for several centuries been a centre of Catholic missionary activity, the Dominicans especially, by the foundation of schools and printing-offices, having made a marked impression upon an intelligent and teachable population.
Mosul - MSN Encarta (211 words)
Mosul (Arabic : الموصل ‎, Al Mūṣul),(Kurdish : Mosul/Ninawa),(Turkish : Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some 396 km...
Mosul is an important trade and market center for the surrounding agricultural region in which fruits and grains are grown and livestock is raised.
Mosul lost more than half of its population between 1977 and the late 1980s, due in part to the conflict between resident Kurds and the Iraqi government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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