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Encyclopedia > Mossad
The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations
המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים
Seal of The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations
Seal of The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations
Agency overview
Formed December 13, 1949 as the Central Institute for Coordination
Employees 1,200 (est)
Agency Executive Meir Dagan, Director
Parent agency Office of the Prime Minister
Website
www.mossad.gov.il

The Mossad (HaMossad leModi'in v'leTafkidim Meyuhadim) (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים‎ - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is the national intelligence agency of the State of Israel. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Mossad_seal. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is the Hebrew name of Meir Klugeman, the current Director of the Mossad. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Contents

Prior to Israel's statehood

The "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet" was a small, unorthodox Zionist organization whose mission in 1938 was to bring Jews to Palestine. This was done to subvert the British quotas on Jewish immigration. The Mossad's modes of operation, its ideology, and politics resulted in the creation of the intelligence agency for the Israeli government once it was established in 1948. The agency consisted of several of the existing members that had worked to establish Israel as a nation and to bring the Jewish people to it. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ...


The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities and assassinations, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. It is one of the main Intelligence Community entities in Israel (along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security)), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister. Its role and function is similar to that of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), the Research and Analysis Wing and the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) in their respective countries. Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... A covert operation is a military or political activity carried out in such a way that the parties responsible for the action can be an open secret, but cannot be proved. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין), Israels central, overarching military intelligence. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Shabak emblem Defender who shall not be seen The   (‎, an acronym for Sherut Bitahon Klali (‎), lit. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... R. G. Casey House, the headquarters of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is the Australian government intelligence agency responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, undertaking counter-intelligence activities and cooperation with other intelligence agencies overseas. ...


Organization

Executive offices

From its headquarters in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, the Mossad oversees a staff estimated at 1200 personnel, although it may have numbered up to 2000 in the late 1980s.[1] The Mossad is a civilian service, and does not use military ranks, although most of its staff have served in the Israel Defense Forces as part of Israel's compulsory draft system, and many of them are officers. It is assumed to consist of eight different departments. Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ...


The largest is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] Their field intelligence officers, called katsas, are similar to case officers of the CIA. Thirty to forty operate at a time, mainly in Europe and the Middle East.[2] A katsa is a field intelligence officer of Mossad. ... Agent handler is a generic term common to many intelligence organizations which can be applied to Case Officers, those who aspire to be Case officers, controllers, contacts, couriers and other assorted trainees. ...


The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working both with allied foreign intelligence services, and with nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1]


Among the departments of the Mossad is the Special Operations Division or '"Metsada" (see Kidon), which is involved in assassination, paramilitary operations, sabotage, and psychological warfare.[1] Kidon (Hebrew: bayonet) is the name of a department within Israels Mossad that is responsible for assassination and kidnapping. ...


Psychological warfare is also a concern of the Lochamah Psichologit Department, which conducts propaganda and deception activities as well.[1]


Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[3]

Directors of Mossad

Reuven Shiloah (December 1909-1959) was the first Director of the Mossad from 1951 to 1952. ... Isser Harel (1912 — 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952 - 1963). ... Meir Amit was the Director of the Mossad from 1963 to 1968. ... Zvi Zamir (1925) was the Director of the Mossad from 1968 to 1974. ... Yitzhak Hofi was the director of the Mossad from 1974 to 1982. ... Nahum Admoni (1929) was the Director of the Mossad from 1982 to 1990. ... Shabtai Shavit (Hebrew: שבתי שביט) was the Director General of the Mossad from 1989 to 1996. ... Danny Yatom also Dani Yatom was the Director of the Mossad from 1996 to 1998. ... Ephraim Halevy (Hebrew: אפרים הלוי) (born: 1934) is an Israeli lawyer and intelligence expert. ... This is the Hebrew name of Meir Klugeman, the current Director of the Mossad. ...

Organizational history

The Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949 as the "Central Institute for Coordination", at the recommendation of Reuven Shiloah to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. Shiloah wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services — the army's intelligence department (AMAN), the General Security Service (GSS or "Shin Bet") and the foreign office's "political department". In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's office, reporting directly to the prime minister. Its current staff is estimated at 1,200. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuven Shiloah (December 1909-1959) was the first Director of the Mossad from 1951 to 1952. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ...


Mossad's former motto: be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh (Hebrew: בתחבולות תעשה לך מלחמה‎, "For by wise counsel thou shalt wage thy war." - Proverbs XXIV,6. Hebrew redirects here. ...


The motto was changed recently as part of the Mossad's public 'coming out' to another Proverbs passage: be-'éyn tachbūlōt yippol `ām; ū-teshū`āh be-rov yō'éts (Hebrew: באין תחבולות יפול עם, ותשועה ברוב יועץ‎, "Where no counsel is, the people fall, but in the multitude of counselors there is safety." - Proverbs XI, 14). [4] Hebrew redirects here. ...


Activities

North America

United States of America

The Mossad informed the FBI and CIA in August 2001 that as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning "a major assault on the United States." The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned that it had picked up indications of a "large-scale target" in the United States and that Americans would be "very vulnerable." [5]


South America

Argentina

In 1960, the Mossad discovered that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina and through surveillance, they confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was captured by a team of Mossad agents on May 11, 1960, and subsequently smuggled to Israel where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that "repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace[.]"[6][7] A second plan to capture Josef Mengele was aborted. National Socialism redirects here. ... Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Adolf Eichmann, Germany 1940. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ...


Western Europe

France

The theft of French Mirage 5 plans, which led to the development of the Kfir in the 1960s. The Dassault Mirage 5 is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1960s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (Hebrew: כפיר, Lion Cub) is an Israeli-built all-weather, multi-role combat aircraft based on a modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-made version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine. ...


Germany

  • Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem- Mossad that was undertaken in support of the Israeli nuclear weapons effort. The German freighter "Scheersberg A", disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of some 200 tons of uranium oxide (Yellowcake). When the freighter reappeared in the Turkish port of İskenderun, the cargo was missing; it had been transferred at sea to an Israeli ship.
  • The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal, although their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[8]

The Plumbat Operation (1968) was an alleged operation by Lekem-Mossad that was undertaken in support of the Israeli nuclear weapons effort. ... Lekem or Leshkat Kesher Madao (English; Bureau of Scientific Relations) collected scientific and technical intelligence abroad from both open and covert sources. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... A mailbomb (or mail bomb), also called parcel bomb or letter bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, and designed to explode when opened, injuring or killing the recipient, usually someone the sender has a personal grudge against, or more indiscriminately as part of a terrorist campaign. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... Alois Brunner, born April 8, 1912 in Nádkút, Hungary (now: Rohrbrunn, Burgenland, Austria), reports of death contested, is an alleged Austrian Nazi war criminal who was Adolf Eichmanns assistant, who called him his best man. ...

Italy

The abduction of nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986 after American-Israeli agent Cheryl Bentov lured him from the United Kingdom.[9] Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ... American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Jews who are American citizens or resident aliens. ... Cheryl Ben Tov, née Cheryl Hanin (1960-) was an Israeli Mossad agent who became well-known in 1986 when, under the name Cindy, she persuaded Mordechai Vanunu to go with her to Rome, where he was captured, drugged, and transported to Israel. ...


Malta

The assassination of Fathi Shiqaqi, a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, in 1995.[10] The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ...


Norway

Lillehammer affair. On July 21, 1973, Mossad agents in Lillehammer murdered Moroccan busboy, Ahmed Bouchikhi, whom they mistakenly believed to have been involved in the Munich Olympics massacre.[11] The Lillehammer affair refers to the murder by Mossad agents of a Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Bouchiki, in Lillehammer, Norway on July 21, 1973. ... One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich assassination occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September, a group with...


Balkans

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Assisted in air and overland evacuations of the Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...


Middle East

Egypt

  • Directed missions for Israeli spy Wolfgang Lotz in Egypt 1957-1965.
  • Directed missions for Israeli spy Eli Cohen(was born and worked in his youth in Egypt but spied on Syria) in 1964, who provided vast amounts of valuable intelligence. Eli Cohen was, however, caught in 1965 in Syria while he was monitoring radio frequencies.

‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... This article is about the Israeli spy Eli Cohen. ... The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (Arabic: , ), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. ... Operation Focus (Hebrew: מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening pre-emptive airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War of 1967. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Operation Bulmus 6, also known as the Green Island Raid, was a military raid conducted by special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) against an Egyptian early warning radar and ELINT station located on a small island in the Gulf of Suez on the night of July 19... Green Island is a small artificial island in the Red Sea at the southern mouth of the Suez Canal. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ...

Iran

Iran 1979

Mossad Chief Eliezer Tsafrir, accompanied by Israeli military attaché Yitzhak Segev, standing in Azadi Square, cheered the return of Ruhollah Khomeini to Iran, chanting "Allahu Akbar, Khomeini Rahbar".[12] The Azadi Tower (Persian: , Borj-e Azadi meaning in English: ) (previously known as the Shahyād Ä€ryāmehr Persian: , English: ) is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to this large metropolitan city. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian politician and religious figure, and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran...


Iran 2007

It was alleged by private intelligence agency Stratfor, based on "sources close to Israeli intelligence", that Dr. Ardeshir Hosseinpour, a scientist involved in the Iranian nuclear program, was killed by the Mossad on January 15, 2007.[13] Strategic Forecasting, Inc. ... Ardeshir Hosseinpour (1962-January 15, 2007) was an Iranian junior scientist and authority on electromagnetism. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[14] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari has been a Mossad source since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[15] The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Ali-Reza Asgari (Persian: ‎ ) is a retired[1] Iranian general of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, former deputy defense minister, and former cabinet member of President Mohammad Khatami. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Mark Regev is the Spokesman of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ...


Iraq

Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG 21 to Israel in 1966. In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... Munir Redfa is an Israeli citizen of Iraqi origin, who defected to Israel in 1966 by flying a MiG 21 belonging to the Iraqi Air Force to Israel. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Fishbed), and popularly nicknamed balalaika, from the aircrafts planform-view resemblance to the famous Russian stringed musical instrument, is a supersonic jet fighter aircraft, designed and built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ...


Operation Sphinx [2] - Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France. On April 5, 1979, the Mossad destroyed 60 percent of the Iraqi reactor components being built in France; "[An] environmental organization named Groupe des écologistes français, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast."[2] The reactor was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[2][16]. The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear...


The alleged assassination of Canadian scientist Gerald Bull, developer of the Iraqi supergun, in 1990. The most common theory is that the Mossad was responsible, and its representatives have all but claimed responsibility for his assassination. Others, including Bull's son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[17] Gerald Vincent Bull (March 9, 1928 - March 22, 1990) was a Canadian engineer who developed long range artillery. ... A SuperGun (or super gun) is a device used to play arcade games in lieu of requiring a full arcade cabinet. ...


Palestinian territories

  • In 1997, two Mossad agents were caught in Jordan, which had signed a peace treaty with Israel, on a mission to assassinate Sheikh Khaled Mashal, a leader of Hamas, by spraying him with poison at a pro-Hamas rally in Amman. Again, they were using fake Canadian passports. This led to a diplomatic row with Canada and Jordan. Israel was forced to provide the antidote to the poison and to release around 70 Palestinian prisoners, in particular the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, in exchange for the Mossad agents, who would otherwise have faced the death penalty for attempted murder.
  • In March 2004, 7 years after he was released, Ahmed Yassin was killed in an Israeli helicopter airstrike.
  • The assassination of Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil in Damascus in 2004.

A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were celebrated in Munich, in what was then West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, an Algerian-born Moroccan citizen working as a waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Israeli agents of the Mossad intelligence agency. ... County Oppland District Gudbrandsdal Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Ali Hassan Salameh (Arabic: , transliteration: ) (‎) (died January 22, 1979) was the chief of operations — code name Abu Hassan - for Black September, the organization responsible for the Munich massacre (1972) and other attacks; he was also the founder of Force 17. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... Cover of a Canadian Passport Passport Canada is an independent operating agency of the Government of Canada and Foreign Affairs Canada. ... The Lillehammer affair refers to the murder by Mossad agents of a Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Bouchiki, in Lillehammer, Norway on July 21, 1973. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic Al-Jabhah al-Shabiyyah Li-Tahrir Filastin الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian organization, founded after the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations (PFLP-EO) was an organizational name used by Palestinian radical Wadie Haddad when engaging in international terrorism. ... Wadie Haddad (1927–1978), a. ... As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... Zuheir Mohsen (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Abu_Jihad#Assassination. ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Fathi Shaqaqi, alternatively spelled Fathi Shqaqi or Fathi Shiqaqi, (1951-1995) was the Palestinian who founded and led the Palestinian Islamic Jihad organisation and the initiator of suicide bombings. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... Izz El-Deen Sobhi Sheikh Khalil (alternately Ezzeddine) (Arabic: عز الدين الشيخ خليل) (circa 1962/1964 - September 26, 2004), from the Shajaiyeh district of Gaza City, presently a Hamas stronghold, was a senior member of the military wing of the Palestinian Islamist guerrilla group Hamas when he was blown apart in an automobile booby... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... A mailbomb (or mail bomb), also called parcel bomb or letter bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, and designed to explode when opened, injuring or killing the recipient, usually someone the sender has a personal grudge against, or more indiscriminately as part of a terrorist campaign. ... Bassam Abu Sharif Bassam Abu Sharif (born 1946) is a former senior adviser to the late Yasser Arafat and press officer of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ...

Lebanon

The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in 1973's Operation Spring of Youth. Operation Spring of Youth took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973. ...


Africa

Ethiopia

Assistance in Operation Moses, the immigration of Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1984. Operation Moses, named after the biblical figure Moses, was the covert removal of Ethiopian Jews (known as Beta Israel) from Sudan during a famine in 1984. ...


Morocco

According to Time Magazine, the Mossad was involved in what is known as the Ben Barka Affair (see Mehdi Ben Barka). (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Mehdi Ben Barka (1920 in Rabat – disappeared 1965 in Paris) was a Moroccan politician. ...


Uganda

The provision of intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport and grant of refueling rights in Kenya for Operation Entebbe in 1976. Entebbe International Airport is the main international airport of Uganda. ... Belligerents Israel PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen Uganda Commanders Yekutiel Kuti Adam Dan Shomron Yonatan Netanyahu† Moshe Muki Betser Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse† Idi Amin Strength Approximately 100 Commandos, plus air crew and support personnel Unknown Casualties and losses Yonatan Netanyahu killed 5 commandos wounded 7 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan...


Oceania

New Zealand

Further information: Israel-New Zealand relations

In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for the Mossad (Israel denied it), attempted to obtain New Zealand passports fraudulently by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[22] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their 6 month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze'ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and 4th men involved in the passport affair but managed to leave New Zealand before being traced. Israel-New Zealand relations, which soured in 2004 amid allegations of clandestine Israeli spying in New Zealand, recovered in 2005 after the Israeli Foreign Minister apologized to the New Zealand government for the actions of several Israeli citizens who were suspected of working for Mossad. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ... Prime Minister Helen Clark On July 15, 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions against Israel and suspended high-level contacts between the two countries in July of 2005 after two Israeli citizens, Uriel Zosha Kelman and Eli Cara, were convicted of passport fraud in Auckland. ... Silvan Shalom Silvan Shalom ▶(?) (Hebrew סילבן שלום) (born 1958) is an Israeli politician and current Foreign Minister of Israel, having been appointed in 2003 by the current Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ...


See also

The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Shabak emblem Defender who shall not be seen The   (‎, an acronym for Sherut Bitahon Klali (‎), lit. ...

Books

Juval Aviv was the source of the book by George Jonas, on which Spielbergs film is based Yuval Aviv (sometimes Juval Aviv), born 1947 in the British Mandate of Palestine (now Israel), is a world renowned security and counter-terrorism expert. ... Ari Ben-Menashe Ari Ben-Menashe is a former arms dealer and the author of , a book purporting to describe his involvement in Iran-Contra and other intelligence operations. ... Victor Ostrovsky (born on November 28, 1949 in Edmonton, Alberta) is a Canadian-born, Israel-raised former Mossad officer and author of 2 non-fiction books on the Mossad and two fictional spy novels. ... By way of deception – The making and unmaking of a Mossad Officer (ISBN 0-9717595-0-2) is a book written by Victor Ostrovsky and Claire Hoy and published by St. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Mossad profile, Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d Ostrovsky, Victor. By Way of Deception-The making and unmaking of a Mossad Officer. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. ISBN 0-9717595-0-2
  3. ^ the Mossad profile, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
  4. ^ About Us, Official Mossad Website. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
  5. ^ Mossad Warned U.S. Of Impending Attack.
  6. ^ Argentinian protest, violation of Argentinian sovereignty:

    Today, international lawyers generally frown on the abduction.
    [...]
    Argentina claimed, quite plausibly, that the "illicit and clandestine transfer of Eichmann from Argentine territory constitutes a flagrant violation of the Argentine State's right of sovereignty[.]" is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

    Bass, Gary J. (2004.) The Adolf Eichmann Case: Universal and National Jurisdiction. In Stephen Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.4) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press.

    In Eichmann's case, the most salient feature from the perspective of international law was the fact of Israeli law enforcement action in another state's territory without consent; the human element includes the dramatic circumstances of the capture by Mossad agents and the ensuing custody and transfer to Israel[.]

    Damrosch, Lori F. (2004.) Connecting the Threads in the Fabric of International Law. In Stephen Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.5) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press.

    The principle of territorial integrity (in Art. 2(4) UN Charter)

    At its most obvious level this means that the exercise of enforcement jurisdiction within the territory of another state will be a violation of territorial integrity 32
    Note 32: E.g. after Adolf Eichmann [...] was abducted from Argentina by a group of Israelis, now known to be from the Israeli Secret Service (Mossad), the Argentine Government lodged a complaint with the UN Security Council [...] It is however unclear whether as a matter of international law the obligation to make reparation for a violation of territorial sovereignty such as that involved in the Eichmann case includes an obligation to return the offender.

    Higgins, Rosalyn and Maurice Floy. (1997). Terrorism and International Law. UK: Routledge. (p. 48)
  7. ^ Security Council Resolution 138, "Question Relating to the Case of Adolf Eichmann"
  8. ^ Henley, Jon. "French court strikes blow against fugitive Nazi", The Guardian, March 3, 2001. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
  9. ^ Martin, Susan Taylor. "The spy - and the man she busted", St. Petersburg Times, March 21, 2004. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
  10. ^ Military.com Resources
  11. ^ Israelis to Compensate Family of Slain Waiter - New York Times
  12. ^ Trita Parsi, "Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S." (Yale University Press 2007), pp. 79-81
  13. ^ Geopolitical Diary: Israeli Covert Operations in Iran (HTML) (English). Stratfor (2007-02-02). Retrieved on 2007-02-04. (requires premium subscription)
  14. ^ Linzer, Dafna. "Former Iranian Defense Official Talks to Western Intelligence", The Washington Post, March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  15. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi. "Defector spied on Iran for years", The Sunday Times, March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2007.
  16. ^ "FRANCE PROTESTS TO ISRAEL ON RAID", The New York Times, June 10, 1981. Retrieved November 16, 2006.
  17. ^ Dr. Gerald Bull: Scientist, Weapons Maker, Dreamer at CBC.ca
  18. ^ The Jewish Chronicle
  19. ^ Fatal Error
  20. ^ Canadian Press Calls for Inquiry into Allegations Regarding Mossad Use of Passports
  21. ^ Guerin, Orla. "Arafat: On borrowed time", BBC News, June 29, 2002. Retrieved October 27, 2006.
  22. ^ Israeli government apologises to New Zealand - 26 Jun 2005 - NZ Herald: New Zealand National news

Rosalyn Higgins, Baroness Higgins, DBE, QC (b. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Strategic Forecasting, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Shimron, Gad 2007, "Mossad Exodus; The Daring Undercover Rescue of the Lost Jewish Tribe", Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-9652294036
  • Thomas, Gordon 2007, "Gideon's Spies; The Secret History of the Mossad", Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-36152-5

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... Aman badge The Directorate of Military Intelligence (Hebrew: , Agaf HaModiin - lit. ... Shabak emblem Defender who shall not be seen The   (‎, an acronym for Sherut Bitahon Klali (‎), lit. ... Israeli Police logo The Israel Police (משטרת ישראל Mishteret Yisrael) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ... The Israeli Air Intelligence Directorate is a chief unit of the IDF Air Force. ... The Israeli Naval Intelligence Department is a chief unit of the IDF Sea Corps. ... Intelligence Corps The Israeli Intelligence Corps is an Israel Defense Forces corps which falls under the jurisdiction of IDF Directorate of Militray Intelligence (Aman) and is responsible for collecting, disseminating, and publishing intelligence information for the General Staff and the political branch. ... Modash tag & logo The Israeli Field Intelligence Corps is the newest of the IDF GOC Army Headquarters’ five corps, created in April 2000, and is tasked with collecting combat intelligence and is responsible for intelligence units from the battalion level and up to the entire force. ... Lishkat Hakesher or The Israeli Liaison Office, codenamed Nativ (נתיב-path), is an Israeli liasion organization that maintained contact with Jews living in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. ... Lekem or Leshkat Kesher Madao (English; Bureau of Scientific Relations) collected scientific and technical intelligence abroad from both open and covert sources. ... The following is a partial list of current intelligence agencies. ... R. G. Casey House, the headquarters of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is the Australian government intelligence agency responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, undertaking counter-intelligence activities and cooperation with other intelligence agencies overseas. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “CSIS” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Centro Nacional de Inteligencia is a Spanish official secret service agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Hellenic National Intelligence Service (NIS or EYP) (Greek: Ethniki Ypiresia Pliroforion, Εθνικη Υπηρεσια Πληροφοριων, ΕΥΠ) is the national intelligence service of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, under the control of the Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Algemene Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdienst (AIVD), formerly known as the BVD (Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst) is the General Intelligence and Security Office of the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (Persian: وزارت اطلاعات Ùˆ امنیت کشور) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... SISMI logo Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The External Assessments Bureau (EAB) is one of New Zealands intelligence agencies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Intelligence Coordinating Agency or NICA is the primary intelligence collection and analysis arm of the Philippine government in charge in carrying out overt, covert, and clandestine intelligence programs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Agencja Wywiadu (AW) - Polish intelligence agency, tasked with the gathering of public and secret information abroad, vital for the country of Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... The South African Secret Service (SASS) is a South African intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... The National Intelligence Service (NIS) is the chief intelligence agency of South Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... The Millî Ä°stihbarat TeÅŸkilatı (Turkish for National Intelligence Organization) is the central intelligence agency of the Republic of Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The National Security Bureau is the principal military intelligence gathering agency of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... CIA redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mossad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1110 words)
The Mossad was formed in December 1949 as the "Central Institute for Coordination", at the recommendation of Reuven Shiloah to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion.
In 1997, two Mossad agents were caught in Jordan, which had signed a peace treaty with Israel, on a mission to assassinate Sheikh Khaled Mashal, a leader of Hamas, by injecting him with poison at a pro-Hamas rally in Amman.
Mossad is a civilian service, and does not use military ranks, although most of its staff have served in the Israel Defense Forces as part of Israel's compulsory draft system, and many of them are officers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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