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Encyclopedia > Mosquito Coast
The article is about the Central American area. For the film and novel see The Mosquito Coast.

The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native Miskito Indians and long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast was incorporated into Nicaragua in 1894, however, in 1960 the northern part was granted to Honduras by the International Court of Justice.[1] Image File history File links Mapa_Miskito. ... The Mosquito Coast is a 1986 film, directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford and Helen Mirren. ... For the insect, see mosquito The Miskito are a Native American people in Central America. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...

Contents

History

Although its name sometimes applies to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua — and even to La Mosquitia in Honduras, i.e. the coast region as far west as the Río Negro or Tinto – the Mosquito Coast more accurately consisted of a narrow strip of territory, fronting the Caribbean Sea, and extending from about 11°45’ to 14°10’ N. It stretched inland for an average distance of 40 miles (60 km), and measured about 225 miles (360 km) from north to south. In the north, its boundary skirted the river Wawa; in the west, it corresponded with the eastern limit of the Nicaraguan highlands; in the south, it followed the Río Rama. The chief towns were Bluefields or Blewfields (the largest town, which has a good harbour and is the capital of Nicaragua's Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur), Magdala on Pearl Cay, Prinzapolka on the river of that name, Wounta near the mouth of the Kukalaya, and Carata near the mouth of the Wawa River. The La Mosquitia region contains the whole northeastern part of Honduras. ... Río Negro divides the countries of Honduras and Nicaragua, covering a large part of the border between the 2 countries. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean Caribbean Sea from space (top left). ... Wawa Food Markets is a convenience store and filling station chain in the Delaware Valley of the United States Wawa, Ontario is a town in Ontario Wawa, Pennsylvania is a town in Pennsylvania Wawa of Mataram was a Javanese king Wawa is a popular musician from Madagascar. ... Bluefields, is a city in Nicaragua, capital of the autonomous region called Atlántico Sur (R.A.A.S.). Its population is about 45,931 (2000) inhabitants. ... Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, sometimes shortened to RAAS, is an autonomous region in Nicaragua. ... Prinzapolka is a municipality in the Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte department of Nicaragua. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas. ...


The Mosquito Coast is so called from its principal inhabitants, the Miskito Indians, whose name was corrupted into Mosquito by European settlers. The Miskito Indians, of whom there are several tribes, are short of stature and very dark-skinned. Their colour is said to be due to intermarriage with shipwrecked slaves. For the insect, see mosquito The Miskito are a Native American people in Central America. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Slave redirects here. ...

Mosquito Coast, Honduras/Nicaragua

The first European settlement in the Mosquito country started in 1630, when the agents of the English chartered Providence Company — of which the Earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer — occupied two small cays and established friendly relations with the local inhabitants. Image File history File links Mosquito_coast. ... Image File history File links Mosquito_coast. ... Languages English Religions Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. ... Robert Rich Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1587 - 1658) was an English colonial administrator and admiral. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


From 1655 to 1860 Britain claimed a protectorate over the Miskito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavors to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States. The opposition of the United States was due very largely to the fear that Britain would acquire a privileged position in regard to the proposed interoceanic canal. In 1848, the seizure of Greytown (San Juan del Norte), by the Miskito Indians, with British support, aroused great excitement in the United States, and even involved the risk of war. In 1854, the American ship USS Cyane bombarded Greytown after failing to receive compensation for violence which had been directed against Solon Borland, an American diplomat, and other US citizens. But by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 both powers pledged themselves not to fortify, colonise or exercise dominion over any part of Central America; and in November 1859 Britain delegated its protectorate to Honduras. Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... San Juan del Norte is a municipality in the Río San Juan department of Nicaragua. ... The second USS Cyane was a sloop in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War. ... Solon Borland (21 September 1808 - 1 January 1864) was a Democratic United States Senator from the State of Arkansas and Confederate Brigadier General. ... Signed in 1850 by the United States and the United Kingdom, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was an agreement that both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians, who shortly afterwards revolted; and on 28 January 1860 Britain and Nicaragua concluded the treaty of Managua, which transferred to Nicaragua the suzerainty over the entire Caribbean coast from Cabo Gracias a Dios to Greytown (now San Juan del Norte) but granted autonomy to the Indians in the more limited Mosquito Reserve (the area described above). The local chief accepted this change on condition that he should retain his local authority, and receive a yearly subvention of £1000 until 1870. But on his death in 1864 Nicaragua refused to recognize his successor. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Coordinates: Country Nicaragua Department Managua Municipality Managua Founded 1819 Seat of the Government 1852 Capital of the Nation 1857  - Mayor Dionisio Marenco Area    - City 544 km²  - Urban 173. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Cabo Gracias a Dios is a cape located in northeastern Nicaragua, on the Caribbean coast near the border with Honduras. ... San Juan del Norte is a municipality in the Río San Juan department of Nicaragua. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


The reserve nevertheless continued to be governed by an elected chief, aided by an administrative council, which met in Bluefields; and the Indians denied that the suzerainty of Nicaragua connoted any right of interference with their internal affairs. The question was referred for arbitration to the Habsburg emperor of Austria, whose award (published in 1880) upheld the contention of the Indians, and affirmed that the suzerainty of Nicaragua was limited by their right of self-government. After enjoying almost complete autonomy for fourteen years, the Indians voluntarily surrendered their privileged position, and on 20 November 1894 their territory formally became incorporated in that of the republic of Nicaragua by Nicaraguan president José Santos Zelaya. The former Mosquito Coast was established as the Nicaraguan department of Zelaya. During the 1980s, the department disappeared, substituted by RAAN (Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte) and RAAS (región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur), autonomous regions with a certain degree of self-government. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... José Santos Zelaya (November 1, 1853 - May 17, 1919) was president of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909. ... A department is geographic area of a centralized country which functions as an administrative unit. ... Zelaya is a former department in Nicaragua. ... Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, sometimes shortened to RAAN, is an autonomous region in Nicaragua. ...


The first version of the Mosquito Coast flag was adopted 1834. The second was adopted in 1860 when the Nicaraguan flag replaced the Union Flag in the canton. It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack and Butchers Apron) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


Inhabitants of the Mosquito Coast

The Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua has a population of 118,000 inhabitants, consisted of 57% Miskito, 22% Creoles (Afro-European) 15% Ladinos, 4% Sumu (amerindian), 1% Garifuna (Afro-Indians), .5% Chinese and .5% Rama (amerindian). [1] For the insect, see mosquito The Miskito are a Native American people in Central America. ... The word Creole is an adaptation of the Castillian-Spanish word criollo, which came into English from French between 1595 and 1605. ... The Spanish term ladino is used to describe various socio-ethnic categories in Latin America, and principally in Central America. ... The Sumo (also known as Sumu) are a people that live on the eastern coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras, an area commonly known as the Mosquito Coast. ... Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ...

Miskito Creole Ladino Sumo Garifuna Chinese Rama
57% 22% 15% 4% 1% .5% .5%

Mosquito Coast in popular culture

There is also a novel by Paul Theroux called The Mosquito Coast, which was later made into a movie starring Harrison Ford, Helen Mirren, and a young River Phoenix. The tale tells the story of an inventor who, displeased with the way things are changing in the United States, chooses to bring his family to live in an extremely small village in Honduras. Paul Edward Theroux (born April 10, 1941) is an American travel writer and novelist, whose best known work is The Great Railway Bazaar (1975), a travelogue about a trip he made by train from Great Britain through Europe and South Asia, then South-East Asia, up through East Asia, as... The Mosquito Coast is a 1986 film, directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford and Helen Mirren. ... Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor. ... Dame Helen Mirren DBE (born on July 26, 1945) is an Academy Award-winning English stage, television and film actress. ... River Jude Phoenix (August 23, 1970 – October 31, 1993) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe- nominated American film actor. ...


See also

Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ... For the insect, see mosquito The Miskito are a Native American people in Central America. ... The La Mosquitia region contains the whole northeastern part of Honduras. ...

Sources and references

  • A Bibliography of the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua by Courtney de Kalb, in Bulletin of the American Geog. Soc., vol. xxvi. (1894)
  • Studies of the Mosquito Shore in 1892 by the same author, and in the same publication, vol. xxv. (I893)
  • A Forgotten Puritan Colony in No. 165 of Blackwood's Magazine (Edinburgh, 1898), described the attempt at colonization made in 1630.
  • See also Der Streit um die Mosquito-Küste by J. Richter, in Zeitschrift f. Gesellschaft d. Erdkunde, No. 30 (Berlin, 1895).
  • Mitla: A Narrative of Incidents and Personal Adventures on a Journey in Mexico, Guatemala and Salvador in the years 1853 to 1855 by G. F. Von Tempsky (London, 1858)
  • The War in Nicaragua by W. Walker (New York, 1860)
  • http://www.flag.de/FOTW/flags/ni-mc.html - Mosquito Coast flag
  • RoyalArk-Mosquitos

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Blackwoods Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Major Gustavus Ferdinand von Tempsky (15 February 1828 - 7 September 1868) was an East Prussian adventurer, artist, newspaper correspondent and soldier in New Zealand, Australia, California, Mexico and the Mosquito Coast of Central America. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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