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Encyclopedia > Mosquito
Mosquito
A female Culiseta longiareolata
A female Culiseta longiareolata
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Nematocera
Infraorder: Culicomorpha
Superfamily: Culicoidea
Family: Culicidae
Diversity
41 genera
Genera

See text. Mosquito may refer to the following: Mosquito, insect de Havilland Mosquito, WWII aircraft Mosquito, an ultralight helicopter Mosquito, a Powered hang glider harness The Mosquito, a machine that emits a high-pitched sound to discourage loitering Mosquito Ringtone, a high-pitched ringtone used by school kids to avoid getting caught... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes & Orders Class Insecta (insects) Class Entognatha The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest (in terms of number of species) grouping of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Infraorders Axymyiomorpha Culicomorpha Blephariceromorpha Bibionomorpha Psychodomorpha Ptychopteromorpha Tipulomorpha Nematocera are generally primitive flies, typically recognized by filamentous, multi-segmented antennae which may be plumose in some males. ... Superfamilies Culicoidea Chironomoidea See text for families. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...

Mosquitoes are insects which make up the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings , a pair of halteres, a slender body, and long legs. The females of most mosquito species suck blood (hematophagy) from other animals, which has made them the most deadly disease vectors known to man, killing millions of people over thousands of years and continuing to kill millions per year by the spread of diseases.[1][2] Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Halteres, (singular halter or haltere) from the Greek word for dumbbells, are small knobbed structures homologous to wings and flapped to maintain stability when flying. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... An Anopheles stephensi mosquito obtaining a blood meal from a human host through its pointed proboscis. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


Length varies but is rarely greater than 16 mm (0.6 inch)[3], and weight up to 2.5 mg (0.04 grain). A mosquito can fly for 1 to 4 hours continuously at up to 1–2 km/h[4] travelling up to 10 km in a night. Most species are nocturnal or crepuscular (dawn or evening) feeders. During the heat of the day most mosquitoes rest in a cool place and wait for the evenings. They may still bite if disturbed.[5] An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ...

Contents

Feeding habits

Both male and female mosquitoes are nectar feeders, but the female of many species is also capable of haematophagy (drinking blood). Females do not require blood for survival, but they do need supplemental substances (like protein and iron) for the development and laying of their eggs. Prior to and during blood feeding, they inject saliva. The Toxorhynchites species of mosquito never drink blood.[6] This genus includes the largest of the extant mosquitoes, the larvae of which are predatory on the larvae of other mosquitoes. These mosquito eaters have been used in the past as mosquito control agents and have varying success.[7] -- see Discussion -- // Northern nectar sources for honeybees The nectar source in a given area depends on the type of vegetation present and the length of their bloom period. ... Fluid feeders are organisms that feed on the fluids of other animals or even plants. ... An Anopheles stephensi mosquito obtaining a blood meal from a human host through its pointed proboscis. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...


Mosquitoes hunt their host by detecting CO2 being breathed out from a distance. When they get closer they can also pick up on the infrared heat being emitted which identifies the host as a warm blooded animal.


Mosquito saliva

In order for a mosquito to obtain a blood meal it must surmount the vertebrate physiological responses. The mosquito, as with all blood-feeding arthropods, has evolved mechanisms to effectively block the hemostasis system with their saliva - a complex concoction of secreted proteins. Mosquito saliva is a pharmacologic cocktail that can affect vascular constriction, blood clotting, platelet aggregation, inflammation, immunity, and angiogenesis.[8] Universally, hematophagous arthropod saliva contains at least one anticlotting, one anti-platelet, and one vasodilatory substance. Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding[9] and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in the sugar meal.[10] The composition of mosquito saliva is relatively simple as it usually contains fewer than 20 dominant proteins.[11] Despite the great strides in knowledge of these molecules and their role in bloodfeeding achieved recently, scientists still cannot ascribe functions to more than half of the molecules found in arthropod saliva.[12] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Hemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Immunity may refer to: Immunity (medical), a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, and is related to the functions of the immune system Immunity (legal), conferring a status on a person or body that makes that person or body free from... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


It is now well recognized that the feeding ticks, sandflies, and, more recently, mosquitoes have an ability to modulate the immune response of the animals (hosts) they feed on.[13] The presence of this activity in vector saliva is a reflection of the inherent overlapping and interconnected nature of the host hemostatic and inflammatory/immunological responses and the intrinsic need to prevent these host defenses from disrupting successful feeding. The mechanism for mosquito saliva-induced alteration of the host immune response is unclear, but the data has become increasingly convincing that such an effect occurs. Early work described a factor in saliva that directly suppresses TNF-α release, but not antigen-induced histamine secretion, from activated mast cells.[14] Experiments by Cross et al. (1994) demonstrated that the inclusion of Ae. aegypti mosquito saliva into naïve cultures led to a suppression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-γ production, while the cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 are unaffected by mosquito saliva.[15] Cellular proliferation in response to IL-2 is clearly reduced by prior treatment of cells with SGE.[16] Correspondingly, activated splenocytes isolated from mice fed upon by either Ae. aegypti or Cx. pipiens mosquitoes produce markedly higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 concurrent with suppressed IFN-γ production.[17] Unexpectedly, this shift in cytokine expression is observed in splenocytes up to 10 days after mosquito exposure, suggesting that natural feeding of mosquitoes can have a profound, enduring, and systemic effect on the immune response.[18] A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Styptic pencil A styptic or hemostatic pencil is a short stick of medication, usually aluminum sulfate anhydrous, which is used for stanching blood by causing blood vessels to contract at the site of the wound. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... The Ilyushin Il-4 was a Soviet World War II bomber aircraft, widely used by the VVS although not well known. ... ... Ilyushin Il-10 was a ground attack aircraft that was an upgrade from the Ilyushin Il-2 developed past the second world war. ...


T cell populations are decidedly susceptible to the suppressive effect of mosquito saliva, showing enhanced mortality and decreased division rates.[19] Parallel work by Wasserman et al. (2004) demonstrated that T- and B-cell proliferation was inhibited in a dose dependent manner with concentrations as low as 1/7th of the saliva in a single mosquito.[20] Depinay et al. (2005) observed a suppression of antibody-specific T cell responses mediated by mosquito saliva and dependent on mast cells and IL-10 expression.[21] A recent study suggests that mosquito saliva can also decrease expression of interferon−α/β during early mosquito-borne virus infection.[22] The contribution of type I interferons (IFN) in recovery from infection with viruses has been demonstrated in vivo by the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of administration of IFN-inducers or IFN,[23] and recent research suggests that mosquito saliva exacerbates West Nile virus infection,[24] as well as other mosquito-transmitted viruses.[25] T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... The abbreviation B comes from bursa of Fabricius that is an organ in birds in which avian B cells mature. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ...


Origin of the name "mosquito"

In English, the word mosquito is recorded since 1538[26]. In the Spanish language, the word mosquito dates back to about 1400[26]. In Spanish, the word can be interpreted as "little fly" but Corominas thinks that the -ito suffix is an analog of that of cabrito < Latin CAPRĪTUS. The word was adopted in English to replace the term "biting flies" to prevent confusion with the house fly. It is derived from the word fly (Latin musca, cf. Skt maksh) and is related to the Italian moschetta and the French moustique. Mosquitoes were originally called "les moucherons" or "les cousins" by French writers, "Stechmücken" or "Schnaken" by Germans, "mygg" and "mygga" by Scandinavians, and "κώνωψ" (konops) by the ancient Greeks. The Scandinavian word is related to the Modern Greek word "μύγα" (myga) for the housefly, and to the English "midge". The Icelandic "mý" mostly stands for biting midges or non-biting chironomids, as there are no mosquitoes in Iceland.[27] Aristotle referred to mosquitoes in 300 B.C. as "empis". In Newfoundland, mosquitoes are better known as nippers, and in the Southern US as "skeeters". Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Joan Coromines i Vigneaux, in Spanish Joan Corominas (Barcelona, 1905 - Pineda de Mar, Catalonia, 1997), was a linguist who made important contributions to the study of Catalan, Spanish and other Romance languages. ... Binomial name Musca domestica The housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) is the most common fly occurring in homes and indeed one of the most widely distributed animals and the most familiar of all flies; it is a pest that can facilitate serious diseases. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Midge (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Forcipomyiinae Dasyheleinae Ceratopogoninae Leptoconopinae Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges (or, in the United States, no-see-ums, sand flies, punkies, and others), are a family of small flies (1-4 mm long) in the order Diptera. ... Genera See text Chironomidae larva, about 1 cm long, the head is right. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Biology

Anatomy

The mosquito is composed of a head, thorax, and abdomen. The head contains two compound eyes and proboscis. The proboscis is a piercing mouthpart used to suck blood from its prey. The mosquito's head is mostly eye. Each eye is made up of many tiny lenses forming a compound eye. This type of eye allows a very big field of vision that easily detects movement. Next is the thorax. The thorax has one pair of wings and one pair of halteres. The thorax also has markings that are used in the identification of the mosquito. The abdomen, or gut, expands as it ingests its prey's blood. The abdomen also has many markings that are used to identify the mosquito species.


Life cycle and feeding habits

Culex mosquito larvae
Culex mosquito larvae

In its life cycle the mosquito undergoes complete metamorphosis, going through four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult, first described by the Greek philosopher Aristotle.[28] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1370x834, 1567 KB) Unknown larvae of Culicidae File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mosquito ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1370x834, 1567 KB) Unknown larvae of Culicidae File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mosquito ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Egg

Female mosquitoes lay their eggs one at a time or together in rafts of fifty or more eggs on the surface in fresh or any stagnant water. Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes do not make egg rafts but lay their eggs separately. Culex, Culiseta, and Anopheles lay their eggs on water while Aedes lay their eggs on damp soil that is periodically flooded by water. Most eggs hatch into larvae in about 48 hours. A female mosquito may lay a raft of eggs every third night during its life span if it can find enough blood to develop the eggs. Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ...


Larval stage

The hatching eggs turn into larvae that live in the water, coming to the surface to breathe. The first larval stage is known as the first instar. As they grow, they shed or moult their skin about four times, growing larger after each moulting. After the first molt they are second instars, then third, then fourth. Most larvae use siphon tubes going to the water surface for breathing and hang on or near the water surface. Anopheles larvae do not have a siphon and typically lie parallel to the water surface. The larvae eat micro-organisms and organic matter in the water for food. Mosquito larvae, commonly called "wigglers" or "wrigglers", must live in water from 7 to 14 days depending on the water's temperature. At their last moult they may be up to 1 cm or 1/2 inch long. In each stage they may be eaten by other insects or fish. Mosquito larvae in the genus Toxorhynchites eat other mosquito larvae. Species See text. ...


The length of the first three stages (or instars) is dependent on the species and temperature, with lower temperatures increasing the length of the development stage.[29] Culex tarsalis may complete its life cycle in 14 days at 20 C (68 F) and only ten days at 25 C (77 F). Some species have a life cycle of as little as four days, whereas in other species some adult females can live through the winter, laying their eggs in the spring. Many species of mosquito live their adult stage in roughly two weeks to two months. The larvae are the "wrigglers" found in puddles or water-filled containers. These breathe air through a siphon at the tail end. The pupae, or "tumblers", are nearly as active as the larvae, but breathe through thoracic "horns" attached to the thoracic spiracles. Most larvae feed on micro-organisms, but a few are predatory on other mosquito larvae. Some mosquito larvae, such as those of Wyeomyia live in unusual situations. These mosquito wigglers live either in the water collected in epiphytic bromeliads or inside water stored in carnivorous pitcher plants. Larvae of the genus Deinocerites live in crab holes along the edge of the ocean. On the fourth molt the larva changes into a pupa. Genera See text Bromeliads include epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, and ground plants, such as the Pineapple. ... Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. ...


Pupa

The pupae are lighter than water and float on the surface as the mosquito larva metamorphoses (changes) into an adult mosquito in about two days. Pupae do not have mouths and therefore do not feed. This is important to know from a larviciding point of view because most larvicide has to be ingested by the mosquito. A surface oil or mmf (monomolecular film) should be applied to the breeding site as a means of suffocating the pupa.


Adult

The newly emerged adult must rest on the surface of the water for a short time to allow itself to dry and all its parts to harden before it can fly. This requires still water: mosquitoes do not breed in fast-moving water.


The total time to go through all four stages depends on the temperature and the type of mosquito, but typically takes 14 days or less in warmer weather. In various species the time varies from 4 to 30 days.


Most mosquito species outside of the tropics overwinter as eggs, but many overwinter as larvae or adults. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex (a vector for St. Louis encephalitis) overwinter as mated adult females. Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... St. ...


Most mosquitoes stay fairly close to the ground and do not range too far from where they were born, but may be dispersed long distances by wind. Mosquitoes are not strong flyers, making only 1-2 km/h (1-1.5 mph); therefore, an electric fan may suffice as an effective mosquito screen. They feed mostly in the mornings and evenings and occasionally at night, avoiding the heat of the day. During the day they usually find somewhere cool to rest. Mosquitoes can tend to live over puddled water or grassy areas.

Mosquito biting finger
Mosquito biting finger

Only female mosquitoes bite animals to get blood needed to produce eggs. Male mosquitoes do not bite, but both the male and female feed on the nectar of flowers for food. In most female mosquitoes, the mouth parts form a long proboscis for piercing the skin of mammals (or in some cases birds or even reptiles and amphibians) to suck their blood. As opposed to a syringe's typically smooth needle, the mosquito proboscis is highly serrated, which leaves a minimal number of points of contact with the skin being pierced — this reduces nerve stimulation to the point where the "bite" is typically not felt at all. (See the Mosquitoes and health section below for an explanation on the swelling). The females require protein for egg development and laying, and since the normal mosquito diet consists of nectar and fruit juice, which has no protein, most females must drink blood to lay eggs. Males differ from females, with mouth parts not suitable for blood-sucking. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Closeup image of the Cairns Birdwing, showing its large proboscis A syrphid fly using its proboscis to reach the nectar of a flower In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... The word serration has several meanings: A serrated edge is one with a running pattern of regular, triangular teeth. ...


The female mosquitoes locate their next blood donor victims primarily through scent. They are extremely sensitive to the carbon dioxide in exhaled breath, as well as to substances found in sweat and various body odours such as 1-octen-3-ol. They are believed to be able to track potential prey for tens of meters. Some people attract more mosquitoes than others, apparently based on how they "smell" to a mosquito. Mosquitoes can also detect heat, so they can find warm-blooded mammals and birds very easily once they get close enough. Repellents like DEET work by disorienting the mosquito as it gets close to its potential next meal but do not kill mosquitoes. This works about 95% of the time.[citation needed] Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ...


Male mosquitoes may tend to be smaller than females, with features such as feathered antennae and conspicuous external genitalia.


Mosquitoes and humans

Mosquitoes and health

Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)
Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)
Endemic range of yellow fever in South America (2005)
Endemic range of yellow fever in South America (2005)

Mosquitoes are a vector agent that carries disease-causing viruses and parasites from person to person without catching the disease themselves. Female mosquitoes suck blood from people and other animals as part of their eating and breeding habits. When a mosquito bites, she also injects saliva and anti-coagulants into the blood which may also contain disease-causing viruses or other parasites. This cycle can be interrupted by killing the mosquitoes, isolating infected people from all mosquitoes while they are infectious or vaccinating the exposed population. All three techniques have been used, often in combination, to control mosquito transmitted diseases. Window screens, introduced in the 1880s, were called "the most humane contribution the 19th century made to the preservation of sanity and good temper."[30] Image File history File links Yellow_fever_Africa_2005. ... Image File history File links Yellow_fever_Africa_2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (532x699, 52 KB)Yellow fever: Endemic zones in South America, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (532x699, 52 KB)Yellow fever: Endemic zones in South America, 2005. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


Mosquitoes are estimated to transmit disease to more than 700 million people annually in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and much of Asia with millions of resulting deaths. In Europe, Russia, Greenland, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other temperate and developed countries, mosquito bites are now mostly an irritating nuisance; but still cause some deaths each year.[31] Historically, before mosquito transmitted diseases were brought under control, they caused tens of thousands of deaths in these countries and hundreds of thousands of infections.[32] Mosquitoes were shown to be the method by which yellow fever and malaria were transmitted from person to person by Walter Reed, William C. Gorgas and associates in the U.S. Army Medical Corps first in Cuba and then around the Panama Canal in the early 1900s.[33][34] Since then other diseases have been shown to be transmitted the same way. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Major Walter Reed, M.D., (September 13, 1851 - November 23, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, rather than by direct contact. ... Major General William Crawford Gorgas (October 3, 1854, in Mobile, Alabama -- July 3, 1920, in London) was a United States physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914-18). ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ...


The mosquito genus Anopheles carries the malaria parasite (see Plasmodium). Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality, particularly in children under the age of five, with around 5.3 million deaths annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Some species of mosquito can carry the filariasis worm, a parasite that causes a disfiguring condition (often referred to as elephantiasis) characterized by a great swelling of several parts of the body; worldwide, around 40 million people are living with a filariasis disability. The viral diseases yellow fever and dengue fever are transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis, Rift Valley fever, Ross River Fever, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitis type diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occurs in the United States where it causes disease in humans, horses, and some bird species. Because of the high mortality rate, EEE and WEE are regarded as two of the most serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death.[35] Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to almost every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Species Plasmodium accipiteris Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium alloelongatum Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, the elephant) is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Polyarthritis is any type of arthritis which involves more than one joint. ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Ross River Virus or Ross River Fever also referred to as epidemic polyarthritis, is a mosquito-transmitted Alphavirus. ... St. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... La Crosse Encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector (Aedes triseriatus). ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), commonly called sleeping sickness or Triple E, is a zoonotic alphavirus and arbovirus present in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Arbovirus box is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, or arthropod-borne viruses [1]. Some Arboviruses are able to cause emergent diseases. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ...


A mosquito's period of feeding is often undetected; the bite only becomes apparent because of the immune reaction it provokes. When a mosquito bites a human, she injects saliva and anti-coagulants. For any given individual, with the initial bite there is no reaction but with subsequent bites the body's immune system develops antibodies and a bite becomes inflamed and itchy within 24 hours. This is the usual reaction in young children. With more bites, the sensitivity of the human immune system increases, and an itchy red hive appears in minutes where the immune response has broken capillary blood vessels and fluid has collected under the skin. This type of reaction is common in older children and adults. Some adults can become desensitized to mosquitoes and have little or no reaction to their bites, while others can become hyper-sensitive with bites causing blistering, bruising, and large inflammatory reactions, a response known as Skeeter Syndrome. An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hives redirects here. ...


Mosquito control and integrated mosquito management

Dragonflies are natural predators of mosquitoes.
Dragonflies are natural predators of mosquitoes.
Main article: Mosquito control

There are two kinds of mosquito control: large, organized programs to reduce mosquito populations over a wide area, and actions individuals can take to control or exclude mosquitoes with respect to themselves and their own property. Image File history File links Aeshnid-ovipositing-800x600. ... Image File history File links Aeshnid-ovipositing-800x600. ... This article is about the insect. ... Mosquito control is the task of managing the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment of mosquito-ridden areas. ...


Organized mosquito control programs today draw on the principles of integrated pest management. An integrated mosquito control program typically includes the following measures, all guided by surveillance of mosquito populations and knowledge of the mosquito life cycle:[36] IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ...

  • source reduction - the removal of mosquito breeding habitats
  • habitat modification - manipulating habitats to reduce breeding or access
  • biocontrol - introducing natural predators of mosquitoes
  • larvicide - using pesticides to reduce larval populations
  • adulticide - using pesticides to reduce adult populations

Some solutions for malaria control efforts in the third world are: mosquito nets (klamboe), mosquito nets treated with insecticide (often permethrin), and DDT.[37] Nets are treated with insecticide because mosquitoes can sometimes get past an imperfect net. Insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are estimated to be twice as effective as untreated nets in preventing mosquito bites.[38] Untreated mosquito nets are less expensive, and they are effective in protecting humans when the nets do not have any holes and are tightly sealed around the edges. Insecticide free nets do not adversely affect the health of natural predators such as dragonflies. Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Biological control of pests and diseases Overview A key belief of the organic gardener is that diversity furthers health. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ... This article is about the insect. ...


The role of DDT in combating mosquitoes has been the subject of considerable controversy. While some argue that DDT deeply damages biodiversity, others argue that DDT is the most effective weapon in combating mosquitoes and hence malaria. While some of this disagreement is based on differences in the extent to which disease control is valued as opposed to the value of biodiversity, there is also genuine disagreement amongst experts about the costs and benefits of using DDT. Moreover, DDT-resistant mosquitoes have started to increase in numbers, especially in tropics due to mutations, reducing the effectiveness of this chemical.


Mosquito repellents and personal mosquito control

A mosquito net
A mosquito net
Main article: Insect repellent

One of the main, non-chemical ways to prevent mosquito bites is the mosquito net. Mosquito netting if properly used and maintained (no holes), provides the maximum possible personal protection against biting insects. In many areas of the world, mosquitoes are not only a nuisance, but also pose a serious health threat. Sleeping under a bednet is highly recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO)[39] and the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC)[40] if staying in these areas. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 548 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Mosquito net Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 548 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Mosquito net Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... WHO redirects here. ...


One of the most popular chemical treatments is N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, commonly known as DEET. It has been used widely since its invention by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1945. DEET products have been widely used for many years but these products have occasionally been associated with some minor to moderate adverse reactions. DEET concentrations in repellents range from 5% up to 100%. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ...


Other less commonly used mosquito repellents include: catnip oil extract, nepetalactone (no known credible tests), citronella 10% solution (84% effective for about 1 hour), or eucalyptus oil extract.[41] A soybean oil-based product worked for about 1.5 hours[citation needed] and a lemon eucalyptus-based solution worked for about 3 hours[citation needed]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nepeta. ... Structural formula of nepetalactone Nepetalactone is a lactone chemical compound first isolated in the plant catnip, Nepeta cataria (apparently named after the Italian town of Nepete). ... Citronella is a word used for several things, including: One of several Cymbopogon grasses The insect-repelling Citronella oil a species of geranium known as the mosquito plant or citronella plant Category: ... [[Link title]] This article is about the plant genus. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... Binomial name (Hook. ...


Oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (makaen), widely used essential oils for dental caries or flavoring of food in Thailand, were prepared as 10 experimental repellent products in gel or cream form against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles dirus under laboratory conditions, using the human-arm-in-cage method. Two products that gave the longest-lasting complete protection were selected to examine their repellency against a variety of mosquito species under field conditions. In laboratory tests, 0.1 g of each product was applied to 3x10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm, while in field trials, 1.0 g was applied to each volunteer's leg (from knee to ankle). In the laboratory, the gel dosage form contained 20% clove oil (Gel B) or 10% clove plus 10% makaen oil mixture (Gel E) were promising plant-based repellents against three mosquito species and gave significantly longer complete protection times of 4-5 hours than all other developing products. Therefore, their efficacy in the field was evaluated. Under field conditions, Gel E showed complete protection for 4 hours and gave 95.7% repellency after 5 hours application, whereas Gel B and 20% deet (di-methyl benzamide) provided only 86.8 and 82.7% repellency after treatment, respectively against Ae. aegypti, daytime-biting mosquitoes. For nighttime-biting, the 3 repellents under development yielded equally excellent (average 97.1%) repellency for 5 hours against the predominant Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis, but they gave 89.0% repellency against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. This finding demonstrated the effectiveness of Gel B and Gel E products for possible use by low-income rural communities against various mosquito species.


Picaridin, first used in Europe in 2001, has been reported to be effective by Consumer Reports (7% solution)[42] and the Australian Army (20% solution).[43] Consumer Report retests in 2006 show that a 7% solution of picaridin now has a protection time of about 0 minutes[citation needed] and a 15% solution was only good for about one hour.[44] So far DEET is the champion effective repellent against mosquitoes, especially when worn in conjunction with light coloured clothing, long sleeved pants and shirts and a hat. Picaridin is an insect repellent manufactured by Bayer AG, with formula C12H23NO3. ... N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ...


Mosquitoes use carbon dioxide (CO2) and 1-octen-3-ol from human and animal breath and sweat as odor cues and DEET inhibits the detection of the latter in insects.[45] Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Aroma redirects here. ...


Other commercial products offered for household mosquito "control" include small electrical mats, mosquito repellent vapor, DEET-impregnated wrist bands, and mosquito coils containing a form of the chemical allethrin. Mosquito-repellent candles containing citronella oil are sold widely in the U.S. All of these have been used with mixed reports of success and failure. Some claim that plants like wormwood or sagewort, lemon balm, lemon grass, lemon thyme and the mosquito plant (Pelargonium) will act against mosquitoes. However, scientists have determined that these plants are “effective” for a limited time only when the leaves are crushed and applied directly to the skin.[46] Allethrin I (R = −CH3) Allethrin II (R = −COOCH3) The allethrins are a pair of related synthetic compounds used in insecticides. ... Look up Wormwood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Species About 200: Pelargonium radens Pelargonium scabrum Pelargonium triste et al. ...


There are several, widespread, unproven theories about mosquito control such as the assertion that Vitamin B, in particular B1 Thiamine, garlic, ultrasonic devices, incense, can be used to repel or control mosquitoes.[47] [48] Moreover, some manufacturers of "mosquito repelling" ultrasonic devices have been found to be fraudulent,[49] and their devices were deemed "useless" in tests by the UK Consumer magazine Which?[50] Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Which? is a product-testing and campaigning charity with a magazine and website run by Which? Ltd (formerly known as the Consumers Association, which is still the official name of the charity). ...


Bug zappers kill a wide range of flying insects including many beneficial insects that eat mosquitoes as well as some mosquitoes. Bug zappers have not been proven effective at controlling overall mosquito population. A Bug Zapper A bug zapper is a device that attracts and kills insects that are attracted by light. ...


Some newer mosquito traps or known mosquito attractants emit a plume of carbon dioxide together with other mosquito attractants such as sugary scents, lactic acid, octenol, warmth, water vapor and sounds. By mimicking a mammal’s scent and outputs, female mosquitoes are drawn toward the trap, where they are typically sucked into a net or holder by an electric fan where they are collected. According to the American Mosquito Control Association,[51] "these devices will, indeed, trap and kill measurable numbers of mosquitoes," but their effectiveness in any particular case will depend on a number of factors such as the size and species of the mosquito population and the type and location of the breeding habitat. They are useful in specimen collection studies to determine the types of mosquitoes prevalent in an area but are typically far too inefficient to be useful in reducing mosquito populations. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Octenol (1-Octen-3-ol) is a chemical used to attract biting insects such as mosquitos. ...


Natural Predators

The Dragonfly eats mosquitoes at all stages of development and is quite effective in controlling populations[52]. Although bats and Purple Martins can be prodigious consumers of insects, many of which are pests, less than 1% of their diet typically consists of mosquitoes. Bats are known carriers of rabies, and neither they nor Purple Martins are known to control or even significantly reduce mosquito populations[53]. This article is about the insect. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Binomial name Progne subis (Linnaeus,, 1766) The Purple Martin, Progne subis, is the largest North American swallow at 20 cm length. ...


Treatment of mosquito bites

Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the mosquito's saliva. Some of the sensitizing antigens are common to all mosquito species, whereas others are specific to certain species. There are both immediate hypersensitivity reactions (Types I & III) and delayed hypersensitivity reactions (Type IV) to mosquito bites (see Clements, 2000). A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGE (Internet Gaming Entertainment) is the largest MMORPG services company world-wide, with offices in Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Miami. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ...


There are several commercially available anti-itch medications. These are usually orally or topically applied antihistamines and, for more severe cases, corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone and triamcinolone. Many home remedy and recipes exist, most of which are effective against itching, including calamine lotion, baking soda, rubbing alcohol, vinegar. Ammonia has been clinically demonstrated to be an effective treatment[54]. Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Hydrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which may be given by injection or by topical application. ... Triamcinolone (trade names Kenalog, Aristocort, Nasacort, Tri-Nasal, Triderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, Fougera;) is a synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream. ... A home remedy is a treatment or cure for a disease or other ailment that employs certain foods or other common household items. ... Calamine lotion is a zinc-based antipruritic typically used to treat sunburn, eczema, rashes and insect bites and stings. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... A bottle of isopropyl rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. (also known as Isopropyl alcohol) is a liquid prepared for topical application prepared from isopropyl alcohol (or denatured alcohol) and containing 68. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Scratching, cooling, and heat are effective but bring relief only during the application, although scratching a mosquito bite usually serves to irritate and inflame the area further and increase the risk of infection and scarring.


Cultural views

According to the “Mosquitoes” chapter in Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things, by Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904), mosquitoes are seen as reincarnations of the dead, condemned by the errors of their former lives to the condition of Jiki-ketsu-gaki, or "blood-drinking pretas".[55] Lafcadio Hearn, aka Koizumi Yakumo. ... A hungry ghost is a kind of ghost associated with hunger common to many religions. ...


The Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b) asserts that the Roman Emperor Titus was punished by God for having destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem by having a mosquito fly into Titus' nose, picking at his brain, ceaselessly buzzing, driving him crazy and eventually causing his death. No such account appears in any Roman source, but it is quite well known that Titus died prematurely, after only two years in power, from unclear causes. The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Systematics

  • Subfamily Anophelinae
  • Aedeomyia
  • Aedes (sometimes divided with Ochlerotatus).
  • Armigeres
  • Ayurakitia
  • Coquillettidia
  • Culex
  • Culiseta
  • Deinocerites
  • Eretmapodites
  • Ficalbia
  • Galindomyia
  • Haemagogus
  • Heizmannia
  • Hodgesia
  • Isostomyia
  • Johnbelkinia
  • Limatus
  • Lutzia
  • Malaya
  • Mansonia
  • Maorigoeldia
  • Mimomyia
  • Onirion
  • Opifex
  • Orthopodomyia
  • Psorophora
  • Runchomyia
  • Sabethes
  • Shannoniana
  • Topomyia
  • Trichoprosopon
  • Tripteroides
  • Udaya
  • Uranotaenia
  • Verrallina
  • Wyeomyia
  • Zeugnomyia
  • Subfamily Toxorhynchitinae

Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Culicinae (taxonomic serial no. ... Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ... Species 85: See text. ... Species See text. ...

Identification

  • Brunhes, J.; Rhaim, A.; Geoffroy, B. Angel G. Hervy P. Les Moustiques de l'Afrique mediterranéenne French/English. Interactive identification guide to mosquitoes of North Africa, with database of information on morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and control. Mac/PC Numerous illustrations. IRD/IPT [12640] 2000 CD-ROM. ISBN 2-7099-1446-8 Mosquito species can also be identified through their DNA, however this is relatively expensive so it is not commonly performed. See the Use of DNA in forensic entomology.

See also

Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison...

References

  1. ^ Molavi, Afshin. "Africa's Malaria Death Toll Still "Outrageously High"", National Geographic, 2003-06-12. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  2. ^ Pest Control—Mosquitoes. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  3. ^ Mosquito. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  4. ^ http://www.sove.org/Journal%20PDF/journal%202004%20pdfs/Kaufmann.pdf
  5. ^ Rest boxes as mosquito surveillance tools
  6. ^ The carnivores, Toxorhynchites
  7. ^ http://www.pestscience.com/PDF/BNIra56.PDF
  8. ^ Ribeiro JM, Francischetti IM (2003). "Role of arthropod saliva in blood feeding: sialome and post-sialome perspectives". Annu. Rev. Entomol. 48: 73–88. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.48.060402.102812. PMID 12194906. 
  9. ^ Grossman GL, James AA (1993). "The salivary glands of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, express a novel member of the amylase gene family". Insect Mol. Biol. 1 (4): 223–32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2583.1993.tb00095.x. PMID 7505701. 
  10. ^ Rossignol PA, Lueders AM (1986). "Bacteriolytic factor in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti". Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B 83 (4): 819–22. doi:10.1016/0305-0491(86)90153-7. PMID 3519067. 
  11. ^ Valenzuela JG, Pham VM, Garfield MK, Francischetti IM, Ribeiro JM (2002). "Toward a description of the sialome of the adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti". Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32 (9): 1101–22. doi:10.1016/S0965-1748(02)00047-4. PMID 12213246. 
  12. ^ Valenzuela JG, Pham VM, Garfield MK, Francischetti IM, Ribeiro JM (2002). "Toward a description of the sialome of the adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti". Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32 (9): 1101–22. doi:10.1016/S0965-1748(02)00047-4. PMID 12213246. 
  13. ^ Ribeiro JM, Francischetti IM (2003). "Role of arthropod saliva in blood feeding: sialome and post-sialome perspectives". Annu. Rev. Entomol. 48: 73–88. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.48.060402.102812. PMID 12194906. 
  14. ^ Bissonnette EY, Rossignol PA, Befus AD (1993). "Extracts of mosquito salivary gland inhibit tumour necrosis factor alpha release from mast cells". Parasite Immunol. 15 (1): 27–33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.1993.tb00569.x. PMID 7679483. 
  15. ^ Cross ML, Cupp EW, Enriquez FJ (1994). "Differential modulation of murine cellular immune responses by salivary gland extract of Aedes aegypti". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51 (5): 690–6. PMID 7985763. 
  16. ^ Cross ML, Cupp EW, Enriquez FJ (1994). "Differential modulation of murine cellular immune responses by salivary gland extract of Aedes aegypti". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51 (5): 690–6. PMID 7985763. 
  17. ^ Zeidner NS, Higgs S, Happ CM, Beaty BJ, Miller BR (1999). "Mosquito feeding modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokines in flavivirus susceptible mice: an effect mimicked by injection of sialokinins, but not demonstrated in flavivirus resistant mice". Parasite Immunol. 21 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00199.x. PMID 10081770. 
  18. ^ Zeidner NS, Higgs S, Happ CM, Beaty BJ, Miller BR (1999). "Mosquito feeding modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokines in flavivirus susceptible mice: an effect mimicked by injection of sialokinins, but not demonstrated in flavivirus resistant mice". Parasite Immunol. 21 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00199.x. PMID 10081770. 
  19. ^ Wanasen N, Nussenzveig RH, Champagne DE, Soong L, Higgs S (2004). "Differential modulation of murine host immune response by salivary gland extracts from the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus". Med. Vet. Entomol. 18 (2): 191–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2004.00498.x. PMID 15189245. 
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Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Joan Coromines i Vigneaux, in Spanish Joan Corominas (Barcelona, 1905 - Pineda de Mar, Catalonia, 1997), was a linguist who made important contributions to the study of Catalan, Spanish and other Romance languages. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Lafcadio Hearn, aka Koizumi Yakumo. ...

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mosquitoes lay their eggs one at a time, sticking them together to form a raft of from 200- 300 eggs.
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