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Encyclopedia > Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn's glasses, in the Berlin Jewish Museum
Moses Mendelssohn's glasses, in the Berlin Jewish Museum

Moses Mendelssohn (Dessau, September 6, 1729January 4, 1786 in Berlin) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah, (the Jewish enlightenment) is indebted. For some he was the third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) heralding a new era in the history of the Jewish people. For others, his ideas led towards assimilation, loss of identity for Jews and the dilution of traditional Judaism. He was also the grandfather of the composers Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catefory:Moses Mendelson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catefory:Moses Mendelson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 723 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catefory:Moses Mendelson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 723 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Catefory:Moses Mendelson File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Look up Fanny, fanny in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...

Contents

Youth

He was born in Dessau. His father's name was Mendel and he later took the surname Mendelssohn ("Mendel's son"). Mendel Dessau was a poor scribe—a writer of scrolls—and his son Moses in his boyhood developed curvature of the spine. His early education was cared for by his father and by the local rabbi, David Fränkel, who besides teaching him the Bible and Talmud, introduced to him the philosophy of Maimonides. Fränkel received a call to Berlin in 1743. A few months later Moses followed him. Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... David ben Naphtali Fränkel, or David (Hirschel) Fränkel (born at Berlin about 1704; died there April 4, 1762) was the German rabbi. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


His life was a struggle against crushing poverty, but his scholarly ambition never relaxed. A refugee Pole, Zamoscz, taught him mathematics, and a young Jewish physician taught him Latin. He was, however, mainly self-taught. He learned to spell and to philosophize at the same time (according to the historian Graetz). With his scanty earnings he bought a Latin copy of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and mastered it with the aid of a Latin dictionary. He then made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him basic French and English. In 1750, a wealthy silk-merchant, Isaac Bernhard, appointed him to teach his children. Mendelssohn soon won the confidence of Bernhard, who made the young student successively his book-keeper and his partner. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex...


Gumperz or Hess rendered a conspicuous service to Mendelssohn and to the cause of enlightenment by introducing him to Lessing in 1754. Mendelssohn actually met Lessing over the chessboard, just as the latter afterwards makes Nathan the Wise, in his play of that name, and Saladin meet over the chess-board. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Chessboard Chessboard with Staunton chess pieces A chessboard is often painted or engraved on a chess table. ... Recha Welcoming Her Father, 1877 illustration by Maurycy Gottlieb Nathan the Wise (original German title Nathan der Weise) is a play by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, published in 1779. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...


The Berlin of the day—the day of Frederick the Great—was in a moral and intellectual ferment. Lessing had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character. This notion was then generally ridiculed as untrue. Lessing found in Mendelssohn the realization of his dream. Within a few months of the same age, the two became brothers in intellectual and artistic camaraderie. Mendelssohn owed his first introduction to the public to Lessing's admiration. The former had written in lucid German an attack on the national neglect of native philosophers (principally Gottfried Leibniz), and lent the manuscript to Lessing. Without consulting the author, Lessing published Mendelssohn's Philosophical Conversations (Philosophische Gespräche) anonymously in 1755. In the same year there appeared in Danzig (Gdańsk) an anonymous satire, Pope a Metaphysician (Pope ein Metaphysiker), which turned out to be the joint work of Lessing and Mendelssohn. Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Leibniz redirects here. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Prominence as philosopher and critic

From this time Mendelssohn's career was one of ever-increasing brilliance. He became (17561759) the leading spirit of Friedrich Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature mitigated) by criticizing the poems of the King of Prussia. In 1762 he married Fromet Guggenheim, who survived him by twenty-six years. In the year following his marriage Mendelssohn won the prize offered by the Berlin Academy for an essay on the application of mathematical proofs to metaphysics; among the competitors were Thomas Abbt and Immanuel Kant. In October 1763 the king granted Mendelssohn the privilege of Protected Jew (Schutz-Jude)—which assured his right to undisturbed residence in Berlin. 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Christoph Friedrich Nicolai (18 March 1733 - 11 January 1811) was a German writer and bookseller. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Abbt (born 25 November 1738 in Ulm - died 3 November 1766 in Bückeburg) was a mathematician and German writer. ... Kant redirects here. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Schutz-Jude, means Protected Jew, a status for German Jews granted by the royal courts. ...


As a result of his correspondence with Abbt, Mendelssohn resolved to write on the Immortality of the Soul. Materialistic views were at the time rampant and fashionable, and faith in immortality was at a low ebb. At this favourable juncture appeared the Phädon oder über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (Phädon or about soul's immortality; 1767). Modelled on Plato's dialogue of the same name, Mendelssohn's work possessed some of the charm of its Greek exemplar and impressed the German world was its beauty and lucidity of style. The Phädon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English. The author was hailed as the "German Plato," or the "German Socrates"; royal and other aristocratic friends showered attentions on him, and it was said that "no stranger who came to Berlin failed to pay his personal respects to the German Socrates." In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Platos Phaedo (IPA: , Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidon) is one of the great dialogues of his middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Support for Judaism

Medal honoring Menselssohn.
Medal honoring Menselssohn.

So far, Mendelssohn had devoted his talents to philosophy and criticism; now, however, an incident turned the current of his life in the direction of the cause of Judaism. In April 1763, Johann Kaspar Lavater, then a young theology-student from Zurich, made a trip to Berlin, where he visited the already famous Jewish philosopher with some companions. They insisted on Mendelssohn telling them his views on Jesus and managed to get from him the statement, that, provided the historical Jesus had kept himself and his theology strictly within limits of orthodox Judaism, Mendelssohn "respected the morality of Jesus' character"[1]. Six years later, in October 1769, Lavater sent Mendelssohn his German translation of Charles Bonnet's essay on Christian Evidences, with a preface where he publicly challenged Mendelssohn to refute Bonnet or if he could not then to "do what wisdom, the love of truth and honesty must bid him, what a Socrates would have done if he had read the book and found it unanswerable". Mendelssohn answered in an open letter in December 1769: "Suppose there were living among my contemporaries a Confucius or a Solon, I could, according to the principles of my faith, love and admire the great man without falling into the ridiculous idea that I must convert a Solon or a Confucius." The ongoing public controversy cost Mendelssohn a lot of time, energy and strength. In March 1771 Mendelssohn's health deteriorated so badly that Marcus Elieser Bloch, his doctor, decided his patient had to give up philosophy, at least temporarily.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Johann Kaspar Lavater (November 15, 1741 - January 2, 1801), was a poet and physiognomist. ... Bonnet Charles Bonnet (March 13, 1720 – May 20, 1793), Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into Switzerland by the religious persecution in the 16th century. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Marcus Elieser Bloch (1723 - 1799) was a German medical doctor and naturalist. ...


Lavater later described Mendelssohn in his book on physiognomy, "Physiognomische Fragmente zur Beförderung der Menschenkenntnis und Menschenliebe" (1775-1778), as "a companionable, brilliant soul, with piercing eyes, the body of an Aesop—a man of keen insight, exquisite taste and wide erudition [...] frank and open-hearted" - ending his public praise with the wish of Mendelssohn recognizing, "together with Plato and Moses... the crucified glory of Christ". When, in 1775 the Swiss-German Jews, faced with the threat of expulsion, turned to Mendelssohn and asked him to intervene on their behalf with "his friend" Lavater, Lavater, after receiving Mendelssohn's letter, promptly and effectively secured their stay. Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ...


It was after the breakdown of his health that Mendelssohn decided to "dedicate the remains of my strength for the benefit of my children or a goodly portion of my nation"[3] - which he did by trying to bring the Jews closer to "culture, from which my nation, alas! is kept in such a distance, that one might well despair of ever overcoming it" [3]. One of the means of doing his was by "giving them a better translation of the holy books than they previously had" [3]. A great chapter in the history of culture is filled by the influence of translations of the Bible. Mendelssohn added a new section to this chapter by his German translation of the Pentateuch and other parts of the Bible. This work called was called the Bi'ur (1783)–the explanation–and also contained a commentary, only the volume on Exodus having been written by Mendelssohn himself. The transliteration was in an elegant High German, designed to allow Jews to learn the language faster. Most of the German Jews in that period spoke Yiddish and many were literate in Hebrew (the original language of the scripture). The commentary, which was only partly written by Mendelssohn, was also thoroughly rabbinic, quoting mainly from medieval exegetes but also from Talmud-era midrashim. He is also believed to be behind the foundation of the first modern public school for Jewish boys, "Freyschule für Knaben", in Berlin in 1778 by one of his most ardent pupils, David Friedländer, where both religious and worldly subjects were taught. Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... David Friedländer (Born 16 December 1750 in Königsberg, died 25 December 1834, Berlin) was a German German writer and Jewish communal leader. ...


On the other hand Mendelssohn tried to better the Jews situation in general by furthering their rights and acceptance. It was he who induced CW Dohm to publish in 1781 his work, On the Civil Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews, which played a significant part in the rise of tolerance. Mendelssohn himself published a German translation of the Vindiciae Judaeorum by Menasseh Ben Israel. Christian Wilhelm von Dohm (born in Lemgo on December 11, 1751; died on his estate which is near Nordhausen on May 29, 1820) was a German historian and political writer. ... Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-1657), Jewish rabbi, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in 1626. ...


The excitement caused by these proceedings led Mendelssohn to publish his most important contribution to the problems connected with the position of Judaism in relation to the general life. This was Jerusalem (1783; Eng. trans. 1838 and 1852). It is a forcible plea for freedom of conscience, described by Kant as "an irrefutable book". Its basic thrust is that the state has no right to interfere with the religion of its citizens, Jews included. While it proclaims the mandatory character of Jewish law for all Jews (including, based on Mendelssohn's understanding of the New Testament, those converted to Christianity), it does not grant the rabbinate the right to punish Jews for deviating from it. He maintained that Judaism was less a "divine need, than a revealed life". "Jerusalem" concludes with the cry "Love truth, love peace!" - in a quote from Zacharias 8:19, where messianic hope for all mankind is prophesied. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Kant called this "the proclamation of a great reform, which, however, will be slow in manifestation and in progress, and which will affect not only your people but others as well." Mendelssohn asserted the pragmatic principle of the possible plurality of truths: that just as various nations need different constitutions—to one a monarchy, to another a republic, may be the most congenial to the national genius—so individuals may need different religions. The test of religion is its effect on conduct. This is the moral of Lessing's Nathan the Wise (Nathan der Weise), the hero of which is undoubtedly Mendelssohn, and in which the parable of the three rings is the epitome of the pragmatic position. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Recha Welcoming Her Father, 1877 illustration by Maurycy Gottlieb Nathan the Wise (original German title Nathan der Weise) is a play by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, published in 1779. ...


To Mendelssohn his theory represented a strengthening bond to Judaism. But in the first part of the 19th century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living. Reason was applied to beliefs, the historic consciousness to life. Modern reform in Judaism has parted to some extent from this conception. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ...

  • [1] Moses Mendelssohn: Public Letter to Lavater, December 12th 1769 (Berlin 1770)
  • [2] M[arcus] E[lieser] Bloch: Medicinische Bemerkungen. Nebst einer Abhandlung vom Pyrmonter-Augenbrunnen. Berlin 1774, p. 60-71
  • [3] Moses Mendelssohn, private letter to August Hennings, July 29th 1779

Later years and legacy

Moses Mendelssohn's grave
Moses Mendelssohn's grave
Mendelssohn's signature
Mendelssohn's signature

Mendelssohn grew ever more famous, and counted among his friends many of the great figures of his time. But his final years where overshadowed and saddened by the so called pantheism controversy. Ever since his friend Lessing had died, he had wanted to write an essay or a book about his character. When Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, an acquaintance of both men, heard of Mendelssohn's project, he stated that he had confidential information about Lessing being a "spinozist", which, in these years, was regarded as being more or less synonymous with "atheist" - something which Lessing was accused of being anyway by religious circles[1]. This led to an exchange of letters between Jacobi and Mendelssohn which showed they had hardly any common ground. Mendelssohn then published his Morgenstunden oder Vorlesungen über das Dasein Gottes (Morning hours or lectures about God's existence), seemingly a series of lectures to his oldest son, his son-in-law and a young friend, usually held "in the morning hours", in which he explained his personal philosophical world-view, his own understanding of Spinoza and Lessing's "purified" ("geläutert") pantheism. But almost simultaneously with the publication of this book in 1785, Jacobi published extracts of his and Mendelssohn's letters as "Briefe über die Lehre Spinozas", stating publicly that Lessing was a self confessed "pantheist" in the sense of "atheist". Mendelssohn was thus drawn into a poisonous literary controversy, and found himself attacked from all sides, including former friends or acquaintances such as Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Georg Hamann. Mendelssohn wrote a reply addressed "To Lessing's Friends" (An die Freunde Lessings) and died on January 4, 1786 as the result of a cold contracted while carrying this manuscript to his publishers on New Year's Eve. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 792 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jüdischer Friedhof Berlin-Mitte File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 792 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jüdischer Friedhof Berlin-Mitte File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Mendelssohn-signature. ... Image File history File links Mendelssohn-signature. ... The pantheism controversy was an event in German cultural history which had an impact throughout Europe. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (January 25, 1743 - March 10, 1819), was a German philosopher who made his mark on philosophy by coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought and Kantianism. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Basque: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... Johann Georg Hamann Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was an important philosopher of the German (Counter-)Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang movement. ...


Mendelssohn had six children, of whom only his second oldest daughter, Recha, and his eldest son, Joseph, (aged 16 at the time of his father's death) retained the Jewish faith. His sons were: Joseph (founder of the Mendelssohn banking house, and a friend and benefactor of Alexander Humboldt), and whose son Alexander (d. 1871) was the last male descendant of the philosopher to be a practising Jew; Abraham (who married Leah Salomon and was the father of Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn); and Nathan (a mechanical engineer of considerable repute). His daughters were Dorothea, the mother of Philipp Veit, Recha and Henriette, all gifted women. Recha's only grandson (son of Heinrich Beer, brother of the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer), was born and educated as a Jew, but died very young, together with his parents, apparently from an epidemic. An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy was a German Jewish banker and philanthropist, born Abraham Mendelssohn 10th December 1776 in Berlin, died there 19th December 1835. ... Fanny Mendelssohn Fanny Hensel, 1842, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim Fanny Cäcilie Mendelssohn (November 14, 1805 – May 14, 1847), later Fanny Hensel, was a German pianist and composer, and was the sister of Felix Mendelssohn; they were both the grandchildren of the distinguished Jewish philosopher, Moses Mendelssohn. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Philipp Veit (1793—1877) was a German Romantic painter. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ...

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This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • [1] Altmann, Alexander. Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study, p. 733 f.

Bibliography

  • Altmann, Alexander. Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study, 1973. ISBN 0-8173-6860-4.
  • (French) Bourel, Dominique. Moses Mendelssohn et la Naissance du judaïsme moderne Editions Gallimard, Paris 2004. ISBN 2070729982.
  • (German) Meyer Kayserling. Moses Mendelssohn, sein Leben und seine Werke. Nebst einem Anhange ungedruckter Briefe. Leipzig, 1862.
  • Moses Mendelssohn, tr. A. Arkush, intr. A. Altmann: Jerusalem, or, on religious power and Judaism, 1983. ISBN 0-87451-263-8.
  • (German) Tree, Stephen. Moses Mendelssohn. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek, 2007. ISBN 3-499-50671-8.
  • (German) Dominique Bourel: Moses Mendelssohn. Begründer des modernen Judentums. Eine Biographie. Aus dem Französischen von Horst Brühmann, Ammann Verlag, Zürich 2007, ISBN 978-3-250-10507-7

Alexander Altmann (1906–1987) Alexander Altmann (April 16, 1906–June 6, 1987) was an Orthodox Jewish scholar and rabbi born in Kassa, Hungary. ... Meyer Kayserling Meyer Kayserling (born in Hanover, June 17, 1829; died at Budapest, April 21, 1905) was a German rabbi and historian. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Moses Mendelssohn - LoveToKnow 1911 (1549 words)
MOSES MENDELSSOHN (1729-1786), Jewish philosopher, was born in Dessau in 1729.
Mendelssohn added a new section to this chapter by his German translation of the Pentateuch and other parts of the Bible.
Much general comment on Moses Mendelssohn appeared in the press of the world on occasion of the centenary of the birth of the composer Mendelssohn in 1909.
Moses Mendelssohn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1649 words)
Mendelssohn shared his pragmatism with Lessing; it is probable that the latter was indebted to Mendelssohn.
The consequences of Lavater's intrusion into Mendelssohn's affairs were that the latter resolved to devote the rest of his life to the emancipation of the Jews.
Although Mendelssohn was one of the first great champions of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century, he was a staunchly religious Jew in practice and in belief.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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