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Encyclopedia > Moses
Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt
Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt

Moses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה Moshe StandardTiberian Mōšeh; Arabic: موسى, Mūsā; Ge'ez: ሙሴ Musse) was an early Biblical Hebrew religious leader, lawgiver, prophet, military leader and historian. Moses is traditionally considered the transcriber of the Torah, or the first five books of the Bible, and is also an important prophet in Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2659, 688 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses mit den Gesetzestafeln Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 168,5 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2659, 688 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses mit den Gesetzestafeln Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 168,5 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Gemäldegalerie Other notes... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. ... Moses ben Amram Moses Alexander Moses Amayraut Moses Cordovero, rabbi Moses Ezekiel, artist Moses Hess Moses Hurvitz Moses ibn Ezra, rabbi Moses Isserles, rabbi, talmudist Moses Kimhi, rabbi Mose(s) de Leon, rabbi, cabbalist Moses Chaim Luzzatto, rabbi, poet Moses Maimonides, rabbi, philosoph Moses Mendelssohn, rabbi, philospoh Moses Sherman Moses... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


According to the Bible, Moses was born to a Hebrew mother who hid him when a Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed, and ended up being adopted into the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave master, he fled and became a shepherd, and was later commanded by God to deliver the Hebrews from slavery. After the Ten Plagues were unleashed upon Egypt, he led the Hebrew slaves out of Egypt, through the Red Sea, and in the desert for 40 years. Despite living to 120, he did not enter the Land of Israel, or the promised land, because he hit the rock twice instead of speaking to the rock, which according the bible was supposed to provide them with water. According to scripture, God never instructed Moses to smite the rock. In one verse Moses made it seem as though it was his ability to bring forth the water out of the rock and not the miraculous working power of God. And another, Moses' disobedience led to his denial into the promised land. (see Numbers 20:7-8, 9-10, and 11–12). Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


Some secular archaeologists believe Moses was a fictional character, since no physical evidence like pottery shards or stone tablets have been found to corroborate his existence.[1][2]

Contents

Moses in the Bible

Life of Moses

The Book of Exodus begins many years after the close of the Book of Genesis, at the end of which the Israelites were dwelling in relative harmony with the native Egyptians in the Land of Goshen, the eastern part of the Nile Delta. Sometime during the interval, the Egyptians became hostile to the Israelites and enslaved them. This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is the region around the city with the modern name Fakus in the eastern Nile delta in Egypt referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ...


According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was a son of Amram, a member of the Levite tribe of Israel, having descended from Jacob, and his wife Jochebed. Jochebed (also Yocheved) was also the sister of Amram's father Kohath. (Exodus vi 20) Aaron was Moses' elder brother. According to Genesis 46:11, Amram's father Kohath immigrated to Egypt with 70 of Jacob's household, making Moses part of the second generation of Israelites born during their time in Egypt. This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Amram (עַמְרָם Friend of the most high (God), or People are Exalted Standard Hebrew Ê¿Amram, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Amrām) is a Levite, a son of Kohath, the husband of Jochebed (Exodus 6:20 and Numbers 26:59) and father of Aaron, Miriam and Moses. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... According to the Hebrew Bible, Jochebed or Yochéved (יוֹכֶבֶד / יוֹכָבֶד The LORD is glory, Standard Hebrew Yoḫéved / Yoḫáved, Tiberian Hebrew Yôḵéḇeḏ / Yôḵāḇe&#7695... In the Old Testament, Kohath is both the name of one of the three sons of Levi and the name of one of the 3 subtribes of the tribe of Levi. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a...

Moses in front of Pharaoh by Haydar Hatemi
Moses in front of Pharaoh by Haydar Hatemi

In the Exodus account, the birth of Moses occurred at a time when the current Egyptian Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born be killed by drowning in the river Nile. The Torah and Flavius Josephus leave the identity of this Pharaoh unstated.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 525 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1316 × 1502 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Painting by Haydar Hatemi I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 525 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1316 × 1502 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Painting by Haydar Hatemi I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Haydar Hatemi was born in Alamdar, Iran on March 3, 1945. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The...

The finding of Moses, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
The finding of Moses, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a son and kept him concealed for three months.[4] When she could keep him hidden no longer, rather than deliver him to be killed, she set him adrift on the Nile river in a small craft of bulrushes coated in pitch. [5] In the Biblical account, Moses' sister Miriam observed the progress of the tiny boat until it reached a place where Pharaoh's daughter Thermuthis[6] was bathing with her handmaidens. It is said that she spotted the baby in the basket and had her handmaiden fetch it for her. After several women had unsuccessfully attempted to nurse the child,[7] Miriam came forward and asked Pharaoh's daughter if she would like a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby. Thereafter, Jochebed was employed as the child's nurse, and he grew and was brought to Pharaoh's daughter and became her son, as she had no other children at the time of her adoption of Moses.[8] Exodus and Flavius Josephus do not mention whether this daughter of Pharaoh was an only child or, if she was not an only child, whether she was an eldest child or an eldest daughter. Nor do they mention whether Thermuthis later had other natural or adopted children. If Rameses II is the Pharaoh of the Oppression as is traditionally thought, identifying her would be extremely difficult as Rameses II is thought to have fathered over a hundred children. The daughter of Pharaoh named him Mosheh, similar to the Hebrew word mashah, "to draw out". In the Greek translation, Mosheh was Hellenized as Moses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x912, 200 KB) Description: Title: de: Auffindung des Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 197 × 340 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other notes: Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x912, 200 KB) Description: Title: de: Auffindung des Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 197 × 340 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other notes: Source: The... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Miriam (Hebrew: מִרְיָם, Standard Tiberian  ; meaning either wished for child, bitter or rebellious) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Edwin Longs 1886 painting of Batya finding the baby Moses Bithiah, in Hebrew Batya (בִּתְיָה, literally daughter of God), is the name given to a character in the account of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt in Rabbinic Midrash, as she is not named in the text. ...

The finding of Moses, by Edwin Long
The finding of Moses, by Edwin Long

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1446, 167 KB) Description: Title: de: Pharaos Tochter-Die Auffindung Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 196,7 × 276,8 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Bristol Current location (gallery): de: City of Bristol... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1446, 167 KB) Description: Title: de: Pharaos Tochter-Die Auffindung Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 196,7 × 276,8 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Bristol Current location (gallery): de: City of Bristol... The Babylonian Marriage Market Edwin Long was a British painter who was born in Bath in 1829 and died in 1891 of pneumonia. ...

Moses' name

  • The name Moses comes from two words, one meaning "water", the other meaning to "come out of" ("to come out of water"). This shows significance as the word "water" in the Bible is often a metaphor referring to evil, gentiles or the world. Thus, Moses name symbolized a special deliverance of evil by God as he led them to the promised land. Moses also led the Isrealites across the Red Sea which would also show deliverance out of water.
  • Some medieval Jewish scholars had suggested that Moses' actual name was the Egyptian translation of "to draw out", and that it was translated into Hebrew, either by the Bible, or by Moses himself later in his lifetime.
  • Some modern scholars had suggested that the daughter of the pharaoh might have derived his name from the Egyptian word moses, which means "son" or "formed of"; for example, "Thutmose" means "son of Thoth", and Rameses means "son of Ra".
  • In ancient Egyptian language, the word "Mo" meant "water" while the word "Sa" meant "son". His complete name "Mosa" would mean "the son of water" as he was found in a basket in water.

, or , or [1] Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth, a Greek name derived from the Egyptian * (djih-how-tee) (written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Mo, MO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sa or sa may stand for: Look up sa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Shepherd in Midian

After Moses had reached adulthood, he went to see how his brethren who were enslaved to the Egyptians were faring.[9] Seeing an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, he killed the Egyptian and buried the body in the sand, supposing that no one who knew about the incident would be disposed to talk about it.[10] The next day, seeing two Hebrews quarreling, he endeavored to separate them, whereupon the Hebrew who was wronging the other taunted Moses for slaying the Egyptian.[11] Moses soon discovered from a higher source that the affair was known, and that Pharaoh was likely to put him to death for it; he therefore made his escape over the Sinai peninsula.[12] He stopped at a well, where he protected seven shepherdesses from a band of rude shepherds. The shepherdesses' father Hobab (also known as Raguel and Jethro[13]), a priest of Midian[14] was immensely grateful for this assistance Moses had given his daughters, and adopted him as his son, gave his daughter Zipporah to him in marriage, and made him the superintendent of his herds.[15] [16] [17] There he sojourned forty years, following the occupation of a shepherd, during which time his son Gershom was born.[18] [19] One day, Moses led his flock to Mount Horeb, usually identified with Mount Sinai — a mountain that was thought in the Middle Ages to be located on the Sinai Peninsula, but that many scholars now believe was further east, towards Moses' home of Midian. At Mount Horeb, he saw a burning bush that would not be consumed.[20] When he turned aside to look more closely at the marvel, God spoke to him from the bush, revealing his name to Moses.[21] Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Hobab was the son of Jethro and thence the brother-in-law of Moses. ... Zipporah or Tzipora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Sephora ; Arabic: Safura or Safrawa ; bird), mentioned in the Book of Exodus, was the wife of Moses, and the daughter of Jethro, a priest of Midian. ... In the Bible, Gershom (גֵּרְשֹׁם Expulsion, Standard Hebrew Gerəšom, Tiberian Hebrew GÄ“rəšōm) was the firstborn son of Moses and Zipporah (Exodus 2:22). ... For other places named Mount Sinai, see Mount Sinai (disambiguation) Sunrise on the Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (2,285 meters) is a mountain in the southern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Burning bush at St. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... I am that I am (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה, pronounced Ehyeh asher ehyeh) is one English translation of the response God used in the Bible when Moses asked for his name (Exodus 3:14). ...


Leader of the Israelites

God commissioned Moses to go to Egypt and deliver his fellow Hebrews from bondage. God had Moses practice transforming his rod into a serpent and inflicting and healing leprosy, and told him that he could also pour river water on dry land to change the water to blood.[22][23] Moses then set off for Egypt, was nearly killed by God because his son was not circumcised, was met on the way by his elder brother, Aaron, and gained a hearing with his oppressed kindred after they returned to Egypt, who believed Moses and Aaron after they saw the signs that were performed in the midst of the Israelite assembly.[24] It is also revealed that during Moses' absence, the Pharaoh of the Oppression (sometimes identified with Rameses II) had died, and been replaced by a new Pharaoh, known as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. If Rameses II is the Pharaoh of the Oppression, then this new Pharaoh would be Merneptah. Because the story the book of Exodus describes is catastrophic for the Egyptians — involving horrible plagues, the loss of thousands of slaves, and many deaths (possibly including the death of Pharaoh himself, though that matter is unclear in Exodus) — it is conspicuous that no Egyptian records speaking of Israelites in Egypt have ever been found. However, Merneptah, is indeed, historically known to have been a mediocre ruler, and certainly one weaker than Rameses II. Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him that the Lord God of Israel wanted Pharaoh to permit the Israelites to celebrate a feast in the wilderness. Pharaoh replied that he did not know their God and would not permit them to go celebrate the feast. Pharaoh upbraided Moses and Aaron and made the Israelites find their own straw besides meeting the same daily quota of bricks.[25] Moses and Aaron gained a second hearing with Pharaoh and changed Moses' rod into a serpent, but Pharaoh's magicians did the same with their rods. Moses and Aaron had a third opportunity when they went to meet the Pharaoh at the Nile riverbank, and Moses had Aaron turn the river to blood, but Pharaoh's magicians could do the same. Moses obtained a fourth meeting, and had Aaron bring frogs from the Nile to overrun Egypt, but Pharaoh's magicians were able to do the same thing. Apparently Pharaoh eventually got annoyed by the frogs and asked Moses to remove the frogs and promised to let the Israelites go observe their feast in the wilderness in return. The next day all the frogs died leaving a horrible stench and an enormous mess, which angered Pharaoh and decide against letting the Israelites leave to observe the feast. Eventually Pharaoh let the Hebrews depart after Moses's God sent ten plagues upon the Egyptians. The third was lice, gnats, and flies. The fourth was attacking of wild beasts. The fifth was the invasion of diseases on the Egyptians' cattle, oxen, goats, sheep, camels, and horses. Sixth were boils on the skins of Egyptians. Seventh, fiery hail and thunder struck Egypt. The eighth plague was locusts encompassing Egypt. The ninth plague was total darkness. The tenth plague culminated in the slaying of the Egyptian male first-borns, whereupon such terror seized the Egyptians that they ordered the Hebrews to leave in the Exodus. The events are commemorated as Passover, referring to how the plague "passed over" the houses of the Israelites whilst smiting the Egyptians. Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... For German Naval Acoustic Torpedo see G7es torpedo, for the light jet aircraft see Folland Gnat and for the UAV see GNAT-750. ... Fly can refer to any of the following things: A fly (plural flies) is any species of insect of the order Diptera. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A thunderstorm over Piracicaba, Brazil. ... For other meanings of the word Locust, see Locust (disambiguation). ... ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ... Pasch redirects here. ...

Moses strikes water from the stone, by Bacchiacca

And so Moses leads his people Eastward, beginning the long journey to Canaan. The procession moved slowly, and found it necessary to encamp three times before passing the Egyptian frontier — some believe at the Great Bitter Lake, while others propose sites as far south as the northern tip of the Red Sea. Meanwhile, Pharaoh had a change of heart, and was in pursuit of them with a large army. Shut in between this army and the sea, the Israelites despaired, but Exodus records that God divided the waters so that they passed safely across on dry ground. When the Egyptian army attempted to follow, God permitted the waters to return upon them and drown them. Whether Pharaoh himself drowns is unclear, although Egyptian records did not chronicle such an event. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1566, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses schlägt Wasser aus dem Felsen Technique: de: Öl auf Holz Dimensions: de: 100 × 80 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1566, 274 KB) Description: Title: de: Moses schlägt Wasser aus dem Felsen Technique: de: Öl auf Holz Dimensions: de: 100 × 80 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland... The Gathering of Manna Francesco Bacchiacca (1494 - 1557), also known as Bachiacca, Francesco dUbertino Verdi or Francesco Ubertini, was an artist whose works include: The Flagellation of Christ (1512/1515) The Gathering of Manna (1540/1555) Categories: | | ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Possible Exodus Routes. ...


When the people arrived at Marah, the water was bitter, causing the people to murmur against Moses. Moses cast a tree into the water, and the water became sweet.[26] Later in the journey the people began running low on supplies and again murmured against Moses and Aaron and said they would have preferred to die in Egypt, but God's provision of manna from the sky in the morning and quail in the evening took care of the situation.[27] When the people camped in Rephidim, there was no water, so the people complained again and said, "Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?" Moses struck a rock with his staff, and water came forth.[28] Marah can refer to: The genus Marah, or manroots, a kind of wild cucumber Marah, a place in Bible time Marah and Kapri, a pair of characters in the Power Rangers: Ninja Storm television series This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Mana (disambiguation). ...

Moses holding up his arms during the battle, assisted by Aaron and Hur. Painting by Millais

Amalekite raiders arrived and attacked the Israelites. In response, Moses bid Joshua lead the men to fight while he stood on a hill with the rod of God in his hand. As long as Moses held the rod up, Israel dominated the fighting, but if Moses let down his hands, the tide of the battle turned in favor of the Amalekites. Because Moses was getting tired, Aaron and Hur had Moses sit on a rock. Aaron held up one arm, Hur held up the other arm, and the Israelites routed the Amalekites.[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 2490 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Victory O Lord! by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 2490 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Victory O Lord! by John Everett Millais The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States... John Everett Millais (June 8, 1829–August 13, 1896) was a painter. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (עֲמָלֵק; Standard Hebrew ʿAmaleq, Tiberian Hebrew ʿĂmālēq) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ...


Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came to see Moses and brought Moses' wife and two sons with him. After Moses had told Jethro how the Israelites had escaped Egypt, Jethro went to offer sacrifices to the Lord, and then ate bread with the elders. The next day Jethro observed how Moses sat from morning to night giving judgement for the people. Jethro suggested that Moses appoint judges for lesser matters, a suggestion Moses heeded.[30]


When the Israelites came to Sinai, they pitched camp near the mountain.[31] Moses commanded the people not to touch the mountain.[32] Moses received the ten commandments orally (but not yet in tablet form) and other moral laws.[33] Moses then went up with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders to see the God of Israel.[34] Before Moses went up the mountain to receive the tablets, he told the elders to direct any questions that arose to Aaron or Hur.[35] An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Torah people ... Hur (חור) is the name of several persons in the Bible. ...


While Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving instruction on the laws for the Israelite community, the Israelites went to Aaron and asked him to make gods for them. After Aaron had received golden earrings from the people, he made a golden calf and said, "These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt." A "solemnity of the Lord" was proclaimed for the following day, which began in the morning with sacrifices and was followed by revelry. After Moses had persuaded the Lord not to destroy the people of Israel, he went down from the mountain and was met by Joshua. Moses destroyed the calf and rebuked Aaron for the sin he had brought upon the people. Seeing that the people were uncontrollable, Moses went to the entry of the camp and said, "Who is on the Lord's side? Let him come unto me." All the sons of Levi rallied around Moses, who ordered them to go from gate to gate slaying the idolators.[36] Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ... This article discusses the Biblical patriarch. ...


Following this, according to the last chapters of Exodus, the Tabernacle was constructed, the priestly law ordained, the plan of encampment arranged both for the Levites and the non-priestly tribes, and the Tabernacle consecrated. Moses was given eight prayer laws that were to be carried out in regards to the Tabernacle. These laws included light, incense and sacrifice. The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering...


Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses on account of his marriage to an Ethiopian,[37] and about him being the only one through whom the Lord spoke. Miriam was punished with leprosy for seven days.[38]


The people left Hazeroth and pitched camp in the wilderness of Paran.[39] (Paran is a vaguely defined region in the northern part of the Sinai peninsula, just south of Canaan) Moses sent twelve spies into Canaan as scouts, including most famously Caleb and Joshua. After forty days, they returned to the Israelite camp, bringing back grapes and other produce as samples of the regions fertility. Although all the spies agreed that the land's resources were spectacular, only two of the twelve spies (Joshua and Caleb) were willing to try to conquer it, and are nearly stoned for their unpopular opinon. The people began weeping and wanted to return to Egypt. Moses turned down the opportunity to have the Israelites completely destroyed and a great nation made from his own offspring, and instead he told the people that they would wander the wilderness for forty years until all those twenty years or older who had refused to enter Canaan had died, and that their children would then enter and possess Canaan. Early the next morning, the Israelites said they had sinned and now wanted to take possession of Canaan. Moses told them not to attempt it, but the Israelites chose to disobey Moses and invade Canaan, but were repulsed by the Amalekites and Canaanites.[40] Hazeroth is one of the locations (or stations) that the Israelites stopped at during their 40 year wandering in the dessert. ... Paran (פארן) is a small agricultural settlement in Israels northern Aravah region. ... Mark of Calebs grave, Timnat Serah Caleb, the son of Jephunneh is an important figure in the Hebrew Bible, noted for his faith in God when the Hebrew nation refuses to enter the promised land of Canaan. ...


The Reubenites, led by Korah, Dathan, Abiram, and two hundred fifty Israelite princes accused Moses and Aaron of raising themselves over the rest of the people. Moses told them to come the next morning with a censer for every man. Dathan and Abiram refused to come when summoned by Moses. Moses went to the place of Dathan and Abiram's tents. After Moses spoke the ground opened up and engulfed Dathan and Abiram's tents, after which it closed again. Fire consumed the two hundred fifty men with the censers. Moses had the censers taken and made into plates to cover the altar. The following day, the Israelites came and accused Moses and Aaron of having killed his fellow Israelites. The people were struck with a plague that killed fourteen thousand seven hundred persons, and was only ended when Aaron went with his censer into the midst of the people.[41] To prevent further murmurings and settle the matter permanently, Moses had the chief prince of the non-Levitic tribes write his name on his staff and had them lay them in the sanctuary. He also had Aaron write his name on his staff and had it placed in the tabernacle. The next day, when Moses went into the tabernacle, Aaron's staff had budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds.[42] The Tribe of Reuben (Hebrew: שֵׁבֶט רְאוּבֵן, Standard Tiberian ) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Reuben son of Jacob. ... Korah or Kórach (Hebrew: קֹרַח, Standard Tiberian ; Baldness; ice; hail; frost) is the name associated with at least two Biblical villains. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


After leaving Sinai, the Israelites camped in Kadesh. After more complaints from the Israelites, Moses struck the stone twice, and water gushed forth. However, because Moses and Aaron had not shown the Lord's holiness, they were not permitted to enter the land to be given to the Israelites.[43] This was the second occasion Moses struck a rock to bring forth water; however, it appears that both sites were named Meribah after these two incidents.


Now ready to enter Canaan, the Israelites abandon the idea of attacking the Canaanites head-on in Hebron, a city in the southern part of Canaan, having been informed by spies that they were too strong, it is decided that they will flank Hebron by going further East, around the Dead Sea. This requires that they pass through Edom, Moab, and Ammon. These three tribes are considered Hebrews by the Israelites as descendants of Lot, and therefore cannot be attacked. However they are also rivals, and are therefore not permissive in allowing the Israelites to openly pass through their territory. So Moses leads his people carefully along the eastern border of Edom, the southernmost of these territories. While the Israelites were making their journey around Edom, they complained about the manna. After many of the people had been bitten by serpents and died, Moses made the brass serpent and mounted it on a pole, and if those who were bitten looked at it, they did not die.[44] This brass serpent remained in existence until the days of King Hezekiah, who destroyed it after persons began treating it as an idol.[45] When they reach Moab, it is revealed that Moab has been attacked and defeated by the Amorites led by a king named Sihon. The Amorites were a non-Hebrew Canannic people that once held power in the fertile crescent. When Moses asks the Amorites for passage and it is refused, Moses attacks the Amorites (as non-Hebrews, the Israelites have no reservations in attacking them), presumably weakened by conflict with the Moabites, and defeats them. The Cave of the Patriarchs, also site of the Ibrahimi Mosque. ... The Dead Sea ((Arabic: ), Hebrew: , translated as Sea of Salt), is a salt lake between Israel and Jordan. ... Edom (Hebrew: אֱדוֹם, Standard Tiberian  ; red) is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation purportedly descended from him. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... It has been suggested that nehustan be merged into this article or section. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Bible describes that as the Israelites in their Exodus came to the country east of the Jordan, king Sihon of the Amorites refused to let them pass through his country. ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ...


The Israelites now holding the territory of the Amorites just north of Moab, desire to expand their holdings by acquiring Bashan, a fertile territory north of Ammon famous for its oak trees and cattle. It is led by a king named Og. Later rabbinical legends made Og a survivor of the flood, suggesting the he had sat on the ark and was fed by Noah. The Israelites fight with Og's forces at Edrei, on the southern border of Bashan, where the Israelites are victorious and slay every man, woman, and child of his cities and take the spoil for their bounty. Bashan (meaning light soil) is a biblical place first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth, where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. ... According to several books of the Old Testament, Og (pronounced , , or ; meaning gigantic) was an ancient Amorite king of Bashan who, along with his sons and army, was slain by Moses and his men at the battle of Edrei (probably modern day Dara, Syria). ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means ‘teacher’, or more literally ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a recent (18th...


Balak, king of Moab, having heard of the Israelites conquests, fears that his territory might be next. Therefore he sends elders of Moab, and of Midian, to Balaam (apparently a powerful and respected prophet), son of Beor, to induce him to come and curse the Israelites. Balaam's location is unclear. Balaam sends back word that he can only do what God commands, and God has, via a dream, told him not to go. Moab consequently sends higher ranking priests and offers Balaam honours, and so God tells Balaam to go with them. Balaam thus sets out with two servants to go to Balak, but an Angel tries to prevent him. At first the Angel is seen only by the ass Balaam is riding. After Balaam starts punishing the ass for refusing to move, it is miraculously given the power to speak to Balaam, and it complains about Balaam's treatment. At this point, Balaam is allowed to see the angel, who informs him that the ass is the only reason the Angel did not kill Balaam. Balaam immediately repents, but is told to go on. Balak was king of Moab around 1200 BC. Revelations 2:12 - 2:14 says about Balak: 12 `And to the messenger of the assembly in Pergamos write: These things saith he who is having the sharp two-edged sword: 13 I have known thy works, and where thou dost dwell... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew Bilʻam, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the House of B or was the oldest of the Three Houses of Men that had allied with the Elves in the First Age. ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ...


Balak meets with Balaam at Kirjathhuzoth, and they go to the high places of Baal, and offer sacrifices at seven altars, leading to Balaam being given a prophecy by God, which Balaam relates to Balak. However, the prophecy blesses Israel; Balak remonstrates, but Balaam reminds him that he can only speak the words put in his mouth, so Balak takes him to another high place at Pisgah, to try again. Building another seven altars here, and making sacrifices on each, Balaam provides another prophecy blessing Israel. Balaam finally gets taken by a now very frustrated Balak to Peor, and, after the seven sacrifices there, decides not to seek enchantments but instead looks upon the Israelites from the peak. The spirit of God comes upon Balaam and he delivers a third positive prophecy concerning Israel. Balak's anger rises to the point where he threatens Balaam, but Balaam merely offers a prediction of fate. Balaam then looks upon the Kenites, and Amalekites and offers two more predictions of fate. Balak and Balaam then simply go to their respective homes. Later, Balaam informed Balak and the Midianites that, if they wished to overcome the Israelites for a short interval, they needed to seduce the Israelites to engage in idolatry.[46] The Midianites sent beautiful women to the Israelite camp to seduce the young men to partake in idolatry, and the attempt proved successful.[47] For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Pisgah may refer to several things: Pisgah, Alabama, USA Pisgah, Iowa, USA Mount Pisgah (numerous uses) Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, in the U.S. state of North Carolina Pisgah National Forest, in the U.S. state of North Carolina Pisgah Crater, in California Pisgah, a small village in Ceredigion, Wales... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Kenites were a people whose name has been interpreted as smiths by some and by others related to the word nest. These interpretations are not sure, however. ...


Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron, put an end to the matter of the Midianite seduction by slaying two of the prominent offenders, but by that time a plague inflicted upon the Israelites had already killed about twenty-four thousand persons. Moses was then told that because Phinehas had averted the wrath of God from the Israelites, Phinehas and his descendents were given the pledge of an everlasting priesthood.[48] Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ... Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ... Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ...


After Moses had taken a census of the people, he sent an army to avenge the perceived evil brought upon the Israelites by the Midianites. Numbers 31 says Moses instructed the Israelite soldiers to kill every Midianite woman, boy and the non-virgin girl, although virgin girls were shared amongst the soldiers. [49]. The Israelites killed Balaam, and the five kings of Midian: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba.[50]


Moses appointed Joshua, son of Nun, to succeed him as the leader of the Israelites.[51] Moses then died at the age of 120.[52] Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Nun, in the Hebrew Bible, was a man from the Tribe of Ephraim, grandson of Ammihud, son of Elishama, and father of Joshua. ...


Death of Moses

After all this was accomplished Moses was warned that he would not be permitted to lead Israel across the Jordan, but would die on the eastern side (Num. xx. 12). [53] He therefore assembled the tribes and delivered to them a parting address, which forms the Book of Deuteronomy.[54] In this address it is commonly supposed that he recapitulated the Law, reminding them of its most important features.[55] When this was finished, and he had pronounced a blessing upon the people, he went up Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah, looked over the country spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and twenty.[56] Yhwh Himself buried him in an unknown grave (Deut. xxxiv.).[57] Moses was thus the human instrument in the creation of the Israelitish nation; he communicated to it all its laws.[58] More meek than any other man (Num. xii. 3), he enjoyed unique privileges, for "there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face" (Deut. xxxiv. 10).[59]


Religious views of Moses

Moses in Jewish thought

To Orthodox Jews, Moses is really Moshe Rabbenu, `Eved HaShem, Avi haNeviim zya"a.[60] He is called "Our Leader Moshe", "Servant of God", and "Father of all the Prophets".[61] In the Hebrew calendar, he was born on the 7th of Adar 2368 and died on the 7th of Adar 2488.[62][63] The Torah is his work, as much for the revealed (written and oral) and the hidden (the `hokhmat nistar, which gave Judaism the Zohar of the Rashbi, the Torah of the Ari haQadosh and all that is discussed in the Heavenly Yeshivah between the Ramhal and his masters).[64] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ... The Grave of Isaac Luria in Safed Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534–July 25, 1572) was a Jewish scholar and mystic. ... Tsiyun of the Ramhal in Tiberias, ir haqodesh ttbba, Israel. ...


There is a wealth of stories and additional information about Moses in the Jewish genre of rabbinical exegesis known as Midrash, as well as in the primary works of the Jewish oral law, the Mishnah and the Talmud.[65] A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ...


Arising in part from his age, but also because 120 is elsewhere stated as the maximum age for Noah's descendants (one interpretation of Genesis 6:3), "may you live to 120" has become a common blessing among Jews.[66]


In Rabbinical Literature

see Moses in Rabbinic Literature Of all Biblical personages Moses has been chosen most frequently as the subject of later legends; and his life has been recounted in full detail in the poetic haggadah. ...


Moses in Christian thought

Moses

Moses receiving the Law before the Burning Bush
Prophet, Seer, Lawgiver
Born circa 16th–13th Century BC, Goshen, Egypt
Died Unknown date, Mount Nebo, Moab, in modern Jordan
Venerated in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy
Feast September 4
Attributes Tablets of the Law
Saints Portal

For Christians, Moses — mentioned more often in the New Testament than any other Old Testament figure — is often a symbol of God's law, as reinforced and expounded upon in the teachings of Jesus.[67] New Testament writers often made comparison of Jesus' words and deeds with Moses' in order to explain Jesus' mission.[68] In Acts 7:39–43, 51–53, for example, the rejection of Moses by the Jews that worshiped the golden calf is likened to the rejection of Jesus by the Jews that continued in traditional Judaism. [69] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Burning bush at St. ... The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is the region around the city with the modern name Fakus in the eastern Nile delta in Egypt referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ... The Brazen Serpent sculpture Mount Nebo (Arabic: جبل نيبو; transliterated: Jabal Nebo) is an elevated ridge that is approximately 817 metres (2680 feet) above sea level, in what is now western Jordan. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


Moses also figures in several of Jesus' messages.[70] When he met the Pharisee Nicodemus at night in the third chapter of the Gospel of John, he compares Moses' lifting up of the bronze serpent in the wilderness, which any Israelite could look upon and be healed, to his own lifting up (by his death and resurrection) for the people to look upon and be healed.[71] In the sixth chapter, Jesus responds to the people's claim that Moses provided them manna in the wilderness by saying that it was not Moses, but God, who provided.[72] Calling himself the "bread of life", Jesus states that he is now provided to feed God's people. [73] The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mana (disambiguation). ...


He, along with Elijah, is presented as meeting with Jesus in all three Gospel accounts of the Transfiguration in Matthew 17, Mark 9, and Luke 9, respectively. Later Christians found numerous other parallels between the life of Moses and Jesus to the extent that Jesus was likened to a "second Moses." For instance, Jesus' escape from the slaughter by Herod in Bethlehem is compared to Moses' escape from Pharaoh's designs to kill Hebrew infants.[74] Such parallels, unlike those mentioned above, are not pointed out within Scripture. See the article on typology.[75] Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ...


He is considered a saint by several Christian churches. [76]He is commemorated as a prophet in the respective Calendars of Saints of the Lutheran [77]and Eastern Orthodox Churches on September 4. Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...


Moses in Islam

Main article: Islamic view of Moses

In the Qur'an, the life of Moses (Arabic: Musa) is narrated and recounted more than any other prophet recognized in Islam.[78] The Qur'an narrates much of Moses' life in relation to God.[79] The Qur'an and the Bible are similar on the basic outline of Moses' life.[80] But some distinctive accounts, such as the story of Moses and Al Khidr, are found only in the Qur'an.[81] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... Al-Khadir (right) and Dhul-Qarnayn, here referring to Alexander the Great, marvel at the sight of a salted fish that comes back to life when touched by the Water of Life. ...


Moses in Mormon thought

Main article: Book of Moses

Members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also called Mormons) generally view Moses in the same way that other Christians do. However, in addition to accepting the Biblical account of Moses, Mormons include the Book of Moses as part of their scriptural canon. This book is believed to be the translated writings of Moses, and is included in the LDS Church's Pearl of Great Price. Latter-day Saints are also unique in believing that Moses was taken to heaven without having tasted death. This belief stems from Joseph Smith, Jr. and Oliver Cowdery stating that on April 3, 1836, Moses appeared to them in the Kirtland Temple in glorified immortal physical form and bestowed upon them the "keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north." This event is recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants 110:11 which Latter-Day Saints consider to be modern scripture as revealed to Joseph Smith, Jr. and subsequent prophets. The Book of Moses is a text published by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Book of Moses is a text published by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses of Pearl of Great Price, see the Pearl of Great Price page. ... Among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, translation refers to being physically changed by God from a mortal human being to an immortal human being. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Photograph of Oliver Cowdery found in the Library of Congress, taken in the 1840s Oliver Hervy Pliny Cowdery[1] (3 October 1806 – 3 March 1850) was the primary participant with Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Kirtland Temple is a registered National Historic Landmark in Kirtland, Ohio, USA, on the eastern edge of the Cleveland metropolitan area. ... Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes referred to as the D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of Mormonism. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


Moses in Mandaeism

In Mandaeism Moses is regarded as a false prophet [82] Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Mandaic: mandaiuta) is a blanket term for the religion of the Mandaeans (Classical Mandaic mandaiia, Neo-Mandaic Mandeyānā) who are the followers of Mendā d-Heyyi (Mandaic manda Knowledge of Life). Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion practiced primarily in southern Iraq and the Iranian province of...


History of Moses

Known extra-Biblical references to Moses date from many centuries after his supposed lifetime, and contain significant departures from the Biblical account. In addition to the Judeo-Roman historians Flavius Josephus and Philo, a number of gentile historians including Polyhistor, Manetho and Tacitus make reference to him. The extent to which any of these accounts rely on earlier sources is unknown. Moses also features prominently in later traditions such as the Midrash, Mishna and Koran; these texts draw on and diverge from Biblical accounts. See the article on The Bible and history. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judeaus, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the war of Sulla and taken to Rome as a tutor. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ...


Currently, no other surviving written records from Egypt, Assyria, etc., indisputably referring to the stories of the Bible or its main characters before ca. 850 BC have been found.[83][84] Destruction of unfavorable records by unsympathetic Pharaohs, and even mass obliteration of cartouches from monuments, is known to have occurred at several epochs in Ancient Egyptian history[85]. An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC Years: 859 BC 858 BC 857 BC 856 BC 855 BC 854 BC 853 BC 852 BC...


Moses in Strabo

The following excerpt comes from the Roman historian Strabo (c. 24 AD): The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

34 As for Judaea, its western extremities towards Casius are occupied by the Idumaeans and by the lake. The Idumaeans are Nabataeans, but owing to a sedition they were banished from there, joined the Judeans, and shared in the same customs with them. The greater part of the region near the sea is occupied by Lake Sirbonis and by the country continuous with the lake as far as Jerusalem; for this city is also near the sea; for, as I have already said, it is visible from the seaport of Iopê. This region lies towards the north; and it is inhabited in general, as is each place in particular, by mixed stocks of people from Aegyptian and Arabian and Phoenician tribes; for such are those who occupy Galilee and Hiericus and Philadelphia and Samaria, which last Herod surnamed Sebastê. But though the inhabitants mixed up thus, the most prevalent of the accredited reports in regard to the temple at Jerusalem represents the ancestors of the present Judaeans, as they are called, as Aegyptians.

35 Moses, namely, was one of the Aegyptian priests, and held a part of Lower Aegypt, as it is called, but he went away from there to Judaea, since he was displeased with the state of affairs there, and was accompanied by many people who worshipped the Divine Being. For he says, and taught, that the Aegyptians were mistaken in representing the Divine Being by the images of beasts and cattle, as were also the Libyans; and that the Greeks were also wrong in modeling gods in human form; for, according to him, God is this one thing alone that encompasses us all and encompasses land and sea — the thing which we call heaven, or universe, or the nature of all that exists. What man, then, if he has sense, could be bold enough to fabricate an image of God resembling any creature amongst us? Nay, people should leave off all image-carving, and, setting apart a sacred precinct and a worthy sanctuary, should worship God without an image; and people who have good dreams should sleep in the sanctuary, not only themselves on their own behalf, but also others for the rest of the people; and those who live self-restrained and righteous lives should always expect some blessing or gift or sign from God, but no other should expect them. Edom (Hebrew: אֱדוֹם, Standard Tiberian  ; red) is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation purportedly descended from him. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian Dynasty of Roman Iudaea Province: Herod the Great (c. ...


36 Now Moses, saying things of this kind, persuaded not a few thoughtful men and led them away to this place where the settlement of Jerusalem now is; and he easily took possession of the place, since it was not a place that would be looked on with envy, nor yet one for which anyone would make a serious fight; for it is rocky, and, although it itself is well supplied with water, its surrounding territory is barren and waterless, and the part of the territory within a radius of sixty stadia is also rocky beneath the surface. At the same time Moses, instead of using arms, put forward as defense his sacrifices and his Divine Being, being resolved to seek a seat of worship for Him and promising to deliver to the people a kind of worship and a kind of ritual which would not oppress those who adopted them either with expenses or with divine obsessions or with other absurd troubles. Now Moses enjoyed fair repute with these people, and organized no ordinary kind of government, since the peoples all round, one and all, came over to him, because of his dealings with them and of the prospects he held out to them.

 
[86]

Moses in Tacitus

The Roman historian Tacitus (ca. 100 AD) mentions several possible origins of the Jews that were taught by those of his time. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...

As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple. For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Bakenranef (also known by the Greek form of his name, Bocchoris) was a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Αμμον Ammon, and Άμμον Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ...

 
[87]

Moses in The Antiquities of the Jews

Main article: Osarseph

Flavius Josephus relates several other incidents in connection with the Biblical account of Moses: Osarseph is a person that Manetho (writing in the first millenium BC) claimed was a high priest mainly during the reign of Amenhotep III. According to Manetho, he was part of the priesthood at Heliopolis, and supported the introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ...


Before the incident in which Moses slew the Egyptian, Moses had led the Egyptians in a campaign against invading Ethiopians and routed them. While Moses was besieging one of the Ethiopians' cities, Tharbis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king, fell in love with Moses and wished to marry him. He agreed to do so if she would procure the deliverance of the city into his power. She did so immediately, and Moses promptly married her.[88] This marriage is also mentioned in Numbers 12:1 (Cushite meant Ethiopian; Zipporah was Midianite, definitely not Ethiopian). The account of this expedition is also mentioned by Irenaeus[89], and the event would explain why St. Stephen refers to Moses as "mighty in his words and in his deeds" before Moses slayed the Egyptian.[90][91] Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... St. ...


Flavius Josephus also gives significantly detailed accounts of the aftermath of Baalam's blessings and the events that lead to the slaying of Zimri.[92]


Date of the Exodus

Main article: the Exodus

There is considerable uncertainty as to what date the Bible implies for the Exodus taking place. Suggestions include: ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ...

  • It may have occurred around the end of the Hyksos era (1648–1540 BC), as mentioned above;
  • It may have occurred around 1400 BC, since the Amarna letters, written ca. forty years later to Pharaohs Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) indicate that Canaan was being invaded by the "Habiru" — whom some scholars in the 1950s to 1970s interpret to mean "Hebrews". However, the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are also recorded as having conducted military activities in Canaan some centuries before the Exodus. Note also that "forty years" is a common expression in the Old Testament for "a long period of time", and that many scholars today view the Habiru as members of a social underclass of people present throughout the Ancient Near East at this time, rather than a tribal group confined to Egypt.
  • It may have occurred during the 13th century BC, as the pharaoh of that time, Rameses II, is commonly considered to be the pharaoh with whom Moses squabbled — either as the 'Pharaoh of the Exodus' himself, or the preceding 'Pharaoh of the Oppression', who is said to have commissioned the Hebrews to "(build) for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses." These cities are known to have been built under both Seti I and Rameses II, thus possibly making his successor Merneptah the 'Pharaoh of the Exodus.' This is considered plausible by those who view the famous claim of the Year 5 Merneptah Stele (ca. 1208 BC) that "Israel is wasted, bare of seed," as propaganda to cover up this king's own loss of an army in the Red Sea. Taken at face value, however, the primary intent of the stela was clearly to commemorate Merneptah's victory over the Libyans and their Sea People allies. The reference to Canaan occurs only in the final lines of the document where Israel is mentioned after the city states of Ashkelon, Gezer and Yanoam perhaps to signal Merneptah's disdain or contempt for this new entity. In Exodus, the Pharaoh of the Exodus did not cross into Canaan since his Army was destroyed at the Red Sea. Hence, the traditional view that Ramesses II was the Pharaoh of either the Oppression or the Exodus is affirmed by the basic contents of the Merneptah Stele. Under this scenario, the Israelites would have been a nation without a state of their own who existed on the fringes of Canaan in Year 5 of Merneptah. This is suggested by the determinative sign written in the stela for Israel — "a throw stick plus a man and a woman over the three vertical plural lines" — which was "typically used by the Egyptians to signify nomadic groups or peoples without a fixed city-state,"[93] such as the Hebrew's previous life in Goshen. A more remote and unverified possibility is that the line "wasted, bare of seed" refers to the time when the infants of Israel are said to have been thrown into the Nile when Moses was born.
  • An unverified theory places the birth and/or adoption of Moses during a minor oppression in the reign of Amenhotep III, which was soon lifted, and claims that the more well-known oppression occurred during the reign of Horemheb, followed by the Exodus itself during the reign of Ramses I. This is supported by the Haggada, which suggests that they were oppressed and then re-oppressed quite a few years later by Pharaoh. There is also an inscription from the very beginning of Seti I's reign[citation needed] that says that upon the death of Ramses I, many of the Shasu (a word as a collective for many of the nomadic groups of the time) left Egypt, traveled through Sinai, into northern Arabia, and, as recorded in other inscriptions, after about forty years, entered Canaan. The Bible, Quran, and Haggada all suggest that the Pharaoh of the Exodus died in year 2 of his reign, matching Ramses I. The fact that Pi-Tum and Raamses were built during the reign of Ramses I also supports this view. Seti I records that during his reign the Shasu warred with each other, which some see as a reference to the Midyan and Moab wars. Seti's campaigns with the Shasu have also been compared with Balaam's exploits.[94] However, many Egyptologists reject these comparisons as spurious.
  • A more recent and non-Biblical view places Moses as a noble in the court of the Pharaoh Akhenaten (See below). A significant number of scholars, from Sigmund Freud to Joseph Campbell, suggest that Moses may have fled Egypt after Akhenaten's death (ca. 1334 BC) when many of the pharaoh's monotheistic reforms were being violently reversed. The principal ideas behind this theory are: the monotheistic religion of Akhenaten being a possible predecessor to Moses' monotheism, and the "Amarna Letters", written by nobles to Akhenaten, which describe raiding bands of "Habiru" attacking the Egyptian territories in Mesopotamia.[95]
  • David Rohl, a British historian and archaeologist, author of the book "A Test of Time", places the birth of Moses during the reign of Pharaoh Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV of the 13th Egyptian Dynasty, and the Exodus during the reign of Pharaoh Dudimose (accession to the throne around 1457–1444), when according to Manetho "a blast from God smote the Egyptians".
  • It has also been suggested that the Exodus did not occur at all. Some archaeologists have claimed that surveys of ancient settlements in Sinai do not appear to show a great influx of people around the time of the Exodus (given variously as between 1500–1200 BC), as would be expected from the arrival of Joshua and the Israelites in Canaan. This suggests that the biblical Exodus may not be a literal depiction.[96]

The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic, likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ... (Redirected from 1400 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Pithom (Hebrew: פתם) is one of the cities which, according to Exodus 1:11, was built for the Pharaoh of the oppression by the forced labor of the Israelites. ... Ramesses (also commonly spelled Ramses or Rameses) is the name conventionally given in English transliteration to eleven Egyptian pharaohs of the later New Kingdom period: 19th Dynasty Ramesses I - founder of the 19th Dynasty Ramesses II (the Great) 20th Dynasty Ramesses III - adversary of the Sea Peoples Ramesses IV Ramesses... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issues Ramesses II, Tia, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... (Redirected from 1208 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is the region around the city with the modern name Fakus in the eastern Nile delta in Egypt referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... nomen or birth name Menpehtyre Ramesses I was the founding Pharaoh of Egypts 19th dynasty. ... The Haggadah (הגדה) is a Hebrew language text used at the Passover service containing the Seder. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issues Ramesses II, Tia, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died... Shasu is an Egyptian term for nomads who appeared in the Levant from the 15th Century BC all the way to the Third Intermediate Period. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Pithom (Hebrew: פתם) is one of the cities which, according to Exodus 1:11, was built for the Pharaoh of the oppression by the forced labor of the Israelites. ... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... According to the Bible, Midian (מִדְיָן Strife; judgment, Standard Hebrew Midyan, Tiberian Hebrew Miḏyān) was a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (Genesis 25:1-6). ... The Moabite language is an extinct Hebrew Canaanite dialect, spoken in Moab (modern-day northwestern Jordan) in the early first millennium BC. Most of our knowledge about Moabite comes from the Mesha Stele, as well as the El-Kerak Stela; this is sufficient to show that it was extremely similar... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ... (Redirected from 1330 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ...

Place of Exodus

In recent years, the actual place where the exodus happened is disputed. While the Bible states that it is the Red Sea that the Israelites crossed, two other possibilities have come up.


First off, many versions of the Bible do refer to the Reed Sea, but scholars have suggested that this does not indeed point to the Red Sea, but rather seas to the North of the Red Sea, which tend to be full of reeds.


The other possibility is that the Israelites took the path through the south. All three theories are backed up by translation, or at least mistranslation of original text.[97]


Moses and Egypt in historical psychoanalysis

There is also a psychoanalytical interpretation of Moses' life, put forward by Sigmund Freud in his last book, Moses and Monotheism, in 1937. Freud postulated that Moses was an Egyptian nobleman who adhered to the monotheism of Akhenaten. Freud also believed that Moses was murdered in the wilderness, producing a collective sense of patricidal guilt that has been at the heart of Judaism ever since. "Judaism had been a religion of the father, Christianity became a religion of the son", he wrote. The possible Egyptian origin of Moses and of his message has received significant scholarly attention.[98]. Opponents of this view observe that the religion of the Torah seems very different to Atenism in everything except the central feature of devotion to a single god,[99] although this has been countered by a variety of arguments, e.g. pointing out the similarities between the Hymn to Aten and Psalm 104[100][101]. Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Psalm 104 Psalm 104 (Psalm 103 in Septuagint based translations) is a poem in the Bible. ...


Depictions

Bas-relief of Moses in the U.S. House of Representatives chamber.
Bas-relief of Moses in the U.S. House of Representatives chamber.

Moses is depicted in several U.S. government buildings because of his legacy as a lawgiver. Moses in one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives in the United States Capitol.[102] An image of Moses holding two tablets written in Hebrew representing the Ten Commandments (and a partially-visible list of commandments six through ten, the more "secular" commandments, behind his beard) is depicted on the frieze on the south wall of the U.S. Supreme Court building.[103] Image File history File links Moses_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chamber. ... Image File history File links Moses_bas-relief_in_the_U.S._House_of_Representatives_chamber. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... The West front of the United States Capitol. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... The West front of the United States Capitol. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Supreme Court building in Washington, D.C. The buildings facade underwent renovation during the summer of 2006. ...

Moses with horns, by Michaelangelo
Moses with horns, by Michaelangelo
Moses on 1518 baptismal font by Christoph von Urach
Moses on 1518 baptismal font by Christoph von Urach

Image File history File linksMetadata MichaelangeloMoses20020315. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MichaelangeloMoses20020315. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x562, 150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moses ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x562, 150 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moses ...

Horned Moses

Exodus 34:29-35 tells that after meeting with God the skin of Moses' face became radiant, frightening the Israelites and leading Moses to wear a veil. Jonathan Kirsch, in his book Moses: A Life, thought that, since he subsequently had to wear a veil to hide it, Moses' face was disfigured by a sort of "divine radiation burn". Jonathan Kirsch is a Biblical scholar and bestselling author of books on religion, the Bible, and Judaism. ...


This passage has led to one longstanding tradition that Moses grew horns. This is derived from a misinterpretation of the Hebrew phrase qarnu `owr panayv (קָרַן עֹור פָּנָיו). The root קרן Q-R-N (qof, resh, nun) may be read as either "horn" or "ray [of light]", depending on vocalization. `Owr panayv (עֹור פָּנָיו) translates to "the skin of his face". Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants. ... Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎ (in abjadi order). ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...


Interpreted correctly, these two words form an expression meaning that Moses was enlightened, that "the skin of his face shone" (as with a gloriole), as the KJV has it. Many rabbinical studies[citation needed] explain that the knowledge revealed to him made his face metaphorically shine with enlightenment. A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ...


The Septuagint properly translates the Hebrew phrase as δεδόξασται ἡ ὄψις, "his face was glorified"; but Jerome translated the phrase into Latin as cornuta esset facies sua "his face was horned". The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


With apparent Biblical authority, and the added convenience of giving Moses a unique and easily identifiable visual attribute (something the other Old Testament prophets notably lacked), it remained standard in Western art to depict Moses with small horns until well after the mistranslation was realized by the Renaissance. Michelangelo's Moses, is probably the best-known example. An attribute is the following: Generally, an attribute is an abstraction characteristic of an entity In database management, an attribute is a property inherent in an entity or associated with that entity for database purposes. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Michelangelos Moses is marble sculpture executed by Michelangelo Buonarroti 1513-1515. ...


Not all the Renaissance Italian painters gave horns to Moses. The Venetian artist Tintoretto depicts Moses' face as radiating light, in his series about the life of the prophet in the Scuola di San Rocco.


Popular depictions

Tribe of Levi
New Title Judge of Israel Succeeded by
Joshua

Cecil B. DeMille on August 27, 1934 cover of Time Magazine Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... This article is about the 1956 film. ... Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter on October 4, 1924) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American film actor, best known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... The Ten Commandments was a 2006 television mini-series depicting the biblical story of Moses and the the Exodus. ... The DreamWorks Boy on the Moon Logo DreamWorks SKG (Spielberg, Katzenberg, Geffen) is a Big Ten studio in the United States of America which develops, produces, and distributes films, music, and television programming. ... The Prince of Egypt is a 1998 Academy Award-winning American animated film, the first traditionally animated film produced and released by DreamWorks. ... Val Edward Kilmer[1] (born December 31, 1959) is an American actor. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... This article is about the film. ... Mel Brooks (born Melvin Kaminsky on May 9, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American actor, writer, director and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Moses with the Ten Commandments by Rembrandt (1659) Biblical Mount Sinai refers to the place where, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exod. ... Sir Ben Kingsley, CBE, (born Krishna Bhanji on December 31, 1943) is an Academy Award-winning British actor. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... An alphabetical list of people featured in the Bible. ... The following figures are believed to have founded major beliefs or to have been the first codifiers or best known proponents of older known religion or traditions. ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ... The Passage of Red Sea - the account of the march of Moses and the Israelites through yam suph, commonly translated as the Red Sea, is given in Exodus 14:22-31. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All[1] is an ancient Egyptian poem preserved in a single papyrus, Leiden Papyrus I 344, which is housed in the National Archeological Museum in Leiden, Netherlands. ... On the Jewish calendar, the seventh day of the month of Adar marks the traditional date of the death of Moses. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [http://harpers.org/archive/2002/03/0079105 False Testamentby Daniel Lazare (Harper's Magazine, New York, May 2002)
  2. ^ http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_arhs.htm
  3. ^ see Reference Halley's Bible Handbook
  4. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  5. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  6. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 8, Paragraph 5
  7. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 8, Paragraph 5
  8. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 8, Paragraph 7
  9. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  10. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  11. ^ Flavius Josephus does not mention this incident in his account, so it is uncertain as to its chronological relationship to Moses' expedition against the Ethiopians.
  12. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  13. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2359&pageno=64 Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 12, Paragraph 1
  14. ^ A region just East of the gulf of Aqaba
  15. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2359&pageno=63 Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 11, Paragraph 2
  16. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  17. ^ No further mention is made of Moses' first wife Tharbis in either Exodus or Flavius Josephus except in the case where Aaron and Miriam taunted Moses about it.
  18. ^ Exodus 2:16–22
  19. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  20. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  21. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0
  22. ^ Exodus 4:2–9
  23. ^ Flavius Josephus mentions that Moses also practiced the pouring of the river water in Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 12, Paragraph 3, but it appears that this might be a mistake on Josephus' part
  24. ^ Exodus 4:20–31
  25. ^ Exodus 5:1–9
  26. ^ Ex. 15:23–25
  27. ^ [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2016;&version=9; Ex. 16
  28. ^ Ex. 17:1–7
  29. ^ Ex. 17:8–13
  30. ^ Ex. 18
  31. ^ Ex. 19:1–2
  32. ^ Exodus 19:10–25
  33. ^ Ex. 20–23
  34. ^ Exodus 24:9–10
  35. ^ Exodus 24:14
  36. ^ Exodus 32
  37. ^ Josephus explains the marriage of Moses to this Ethiopian in the Antiquities of the Jews (see either the section on Moses in The Antiquities of the Jews or http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=61&fk_files=2359
  38. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2012:1-15;&version=9; Numbers 12:1–15
  39. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2012:16;&version=9; Numbers 12:16
  40. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2013-14;&version=9; Numbers 13–14
  41. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=4&chapter=16&version=9 Numbers 16
  42. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2017:1-8;&version=9; Numbers 17:1–8
  43. ^ Num. 20:1–13
  44. ^ Num. 21:4–9
  45. ^ 2 Kings 18:1–4
  46. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book IV, Chapter VI, Paragraph 6
  47. ^ Deuteronomy 23:3–6 summarises these incidents, and further states that the Ammonites were associated with the Moabites. Joshua, in his farewell speech, also makes reference to it. Nehemiah, Micah, and Joshua continue in the historical account of Balaam, who next advises the Midianites how to bring disaster upon the Israelites by seducing the people with idols and beautiful women, which proves partly successful.
  48. ^ Num. 25:1–13
  49. ^ Num. 31:17-18
  50. ^ Num. 31:8
  51. ^ Num. 27:15–23
  52. ^ Deut. 34:7
  53. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  54. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  55. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  56. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  57. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  58. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  59. ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846
  60. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  61. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  62. ^ http://www.chabad.org/calendar/view/day.asp?tdate=2/25/2007
  63. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  64. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  65. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  66. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  67. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  68. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  69. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  70. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  71. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  72. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  73. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  74. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  75. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  76. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  77. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  78. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  79. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  80. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  81. ^ http://www.religioninsight.com/2007/03/02/religious-views-of-moses.html
  82. ^ See Book
  83. ^ Who Were the Early Israelites? by William G. Dever (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003
  84. ^ The Bible Unearthed by Neil A. Silberman and Israel Finkelstein (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001
  85. ^ Two of the more famous examples being the attempted obliteration of all occurrences of the names of Hatshepsut and Akhenaten following their respective reigns, a sort of damnatio memoriae.
  86. ^ The Geography, Book XVI, Chapter 2, Paragraphs 34–36
  87. ^ Histories, Book 5, Paragraphs 2 & 3
  88. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=61&fk_files=2359
  89. ^ http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-01/anf01-64.htm#P9585_2796749 Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus, XXXII
  90. ^ Acts 7:22
  91. ^ http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-01/footnote/fn95.htm#P9588_2797128
  92. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, Book IV, Chapter VI, Paragraphs 6–12
  93. ^ Carol Redmount, 'Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt' in "The Oxford History of the Biblical World", ed: Michael D. Coogan, (Oxford University Press: 1999), paperback, p.97
  94. ^ see http://custance.org/old/hidden/4ch2.html
  95. ^ Transformations of Myth Through Time, Joseph Campbell, p. 87–90, Harper & Row
  96. ^ See Did the Exodus Really Happen? by Rabbi David Wolpe
  97. ^ See The Red Sea or the Reed Sea?
  98. ^ Jan Assmann. "Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism". Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-58738-3
  99. ^ http://www.atenism.org/
  100. ^ Jan Assmann, op. cit.
  101. ^ James E. Atwell, "An Egyptian Source for Genesis 1" , The Journal of Theological Studies 2000 51(2), 441–477.
  102. ^ "Relief Portraits of Lawgivers: Moses." Architect of the Capitol. [1]
  103. ^ "Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet." Supreme Court of the United States. [2]
  104. ^ http://christiannewsreport.com/film2004-5.htm
  105. ^ http://imdb.com/title/tt0120794/
  106. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0082517/

The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ...

Further reading

  • Asch, Sholem. Moses. New York: Putnam, 1958. ISBN 0742691373
  • Assmann, Jan. Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-58738-3.
  • Buber, Martin. Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant. New York: Harper, 1958.
  • Card, Orson Scott. Stone Tables. Deseret Book Co., 1998. ISBN 1-57345-115-0.
  • Daiches, David. Moses: The Man and his Vision. New York: Praeger, 1975. ISBN 0-275-33740-5.
  • Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. New York: Vintage, 1967. ISBN 0-394-70014-7.
  • Halter, Marek. Zipporah, Wife of Moses. New York: Crown, 2005. ISBN 1400052793.
  • Ingraham, J. H.. The Pillar of Fire: Or Israel in Bondage. New York: A.L. Burt, 1859. Reprinted Ann Arbor, Mich.: Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library, 2006. ISBN 1425564917.
  • Kirsch, Jonathan. Moses: A Life. New York: Ballantine, 1998. ISBN 0-345-41269-9.
  • Mann, Thomas. "Thou Shalt Have No Other Gods Before Me" in The Ten Commandments, 3–70. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1943.
  • Southon, Arthur E. On Eagles' Wings. London: Cassell and Co., 1937. Reprinted New York: McGraw-Hill, 1954.
  • Wiesel, Elie. “Moses: Portrait of a Leader.” In Messengers of God: Biblical Portraits & Legends, 174–210. New York: Random House, 1976. ISBN 0-394-49740-6.
  • Wilson, Dorothy Clarke. Prince of Egypt. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1949

Sholem Asch (1880 - 1957), also known as Shalom Asch, was a Polish-born American Jewish novelist, dramatist, and essayist in the Yiddish language. ... Jan Assmann is a German egyptologist born in Langelsheim in 1938. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... It has been suggested that Saintspeak be merged into this article or section. ... David Daiches (1912-2005) on the cover of Two Worlds and Promised Lands David Daiches (September 2, 1912 –July 15, 2005) was a British literary historian and critic, scholar and writer. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Marek Halter is a French-Jewish novelist. ... Joseph Holt Ingraham (born January 26, 1809 in Portland, Maine; died December 18, 1860 in Holly Springs, Mississippi) was an American author. ... Jonathan Kirsch is a Biblical scholar and bestselling author of books on religion, the Bible, and Judaism. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Eliezer Wiesel (commonly known as Elie, born September 30, 1928)[1] is an American-Jewish novelist, political activist, and Holocaust survivor. ... Dorothy Clarke Wilson Dorothy Clarke Wilson (1904-2003) was an American author and playwright. ...

External links

  • Prof. E.Anati: Archaeological discoveries at Har Karkom
  • by Richard Darlow, puts forward the idea that Moses was Prince Ramose
  • BBC: Presents a theory of a volcanic eruption causing phenomena similar to those described in Exodus
  • Ahmed Osman: Providing evidence that Akhenaten and Moses are the same person
  • The Geography, Book XVI, Chapter II The entire context of the cited chapter of Strabo's work
Prophets of Islam in the Qur'an
Adam Idris Nuh Hud Saleh Ibrahim Lut Ismail Is'haq Yaqub Yusuf Ayub
آدم ادريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط اسماعيل اسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب
Adam Enoch Noah Eber Shelah Abraham Lot Ishmael Isaac Jacob Joseph Job

Shoaib Musa Harun Dhul-Kifl Daud Sulayman Ilyas Al-Yasa Yunus Zakariya Yahya Isa Muhammad
شعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود سليمان إلياس اليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى محمد
Jethro Moses Aaron Ezekiel David Solomon Elijah Elisha Jonah Zechariah John Jesus Paraclete
v  d  e
Persondata
NAME Moses
ALTERNATIVE NAMES موسى (Arabic); מֹשֶׁה (Hebrew);
SHORT DESCRIPTION Christian prophet
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH Egypt
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moses (WebBible Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net (1594 words)
As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him.
Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew." He now resolved to make himself acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Ex.
Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai.
Robert Moses - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3567 words)
Moses' father was a successful department store owner and real estate speculator; his mother was a forceful and brilliant woman, active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building.
Moses was also linked in the minds of many to the Fair's accounting scandal when it was revealed that all advance ticket sales, even for those sold for use in 1965, were booked as 1964 revenues, even though there seems to be little if any evidence directly linking him to this error.
Moses is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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