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Encyclopedia > Moscow Kremlin
*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug.
State Party Russian Federation
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Reference 545
Region Europe
Inscription History
Inscription 1990  (14th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basil's Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). It is the best known of kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes four palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of Russia. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 381 pixelsFull resolution (1007 × 479 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... á¹¢ St. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Changing Honour Guard at the Tomb of The Unknown Soldier in Alexander Garden. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kremlin towers. ... The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin: Kremlin towers in the 19th century. ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ...

Contents

Origin

Plan of Moscow Kremlin, 1917
Plan of Moscow Kremlin, 1917

The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. The Slavs occupied the south-western portion of the hill as early as the 11th century, as testifies a metropolitan seal from the 1090s, which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists on the spot. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1964x1671, 530 KB) // Краткое описание Ru Планъ Кремля и красной площади Вырезано из карты «Планъ города Москвы съ пригородами», 1917 En Plan of Moscow Kremlin, 1917 Источник/Source Image:Plan of Moscow 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1964x1671, 530 KB) // Краткое описание Ru Планъ Кремля и красной площади Вырезано из карты «Планъ города Москвы съ пригородами», 1917 En Plan of Moscow Kremlin, 1917 Источник/Source Image:Plan of Moscow 1917. ... The Vyatichs (Вятичи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited a part of the Oka basin. ... Reconstructed gord in Biskupin, Poland although this isnt a Slavonic gord (it is much older), it is a good illustration of what gords looked like The ancient Slavs were known for building wooden fortified settlements. ... Kremlin Hill (Russian: Кремлёвский холм [Kremlyovskiy kholm]; former name Borovitsky Hill - Боровицкий холм [Borovitskiy kholm]; also known as Borovitskiy Cape - Боровицкий мыс [Borovitskiy mys]) is one of the seven hills of Moscow. ... The Neglinnaya River (Неглинная in Russian), a. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ...


Until the 14th century, the site was known as the grad of Moscow. The word "kremlin" was first recorded in 1331 and its etymology is disputed (see Vasmer online). The "grad" was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Grad or gorod (Cyrillic: град, город) is a Slavic word for town or city. ... Max Vasmer (1886 – 1962) was a Russian-born German linguist who studied problems of etymology of Indo-European, Finno-Ugrian and Turkic languages and worked on history of Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, and Finno-Ugrian peoples in Eastern Europe. ... Yury Dolgoruky, Dologoruky meaning of the long hands/arms (Юрий Долгорукий in Russian) (1091? - May 15, 1157), Prince of Suzdal, Grand Prince of Kiev, sixth son of Vladimir Monomakh, founder of Moscow. ...


Seat of Grand Dukes

"In Moscow Kremlin" by Apollinary Vasnetsov
"In Moscow Kremlin" by Apollinary Vasnetsov

The first recorded stone structures in the Kremlin were built at the behest of Ivan Kalita in the late 1320s and early 1330s, after Peter, Metropolitan of Rus had moved his seat from Kiev to Moscow. The new ecclesiastical capital needed permanent churches. These included the Dormition Cathedral (1327, with St. Peter's Chapel, 1329), the church-belltower of St. John Climacus (1329), the monastery church of the Saviour's Transfiguration (1330), and the Archangel Cathedral (1333) — all built of limestone and decorated with elaborate carving and eggas covered in poo, each crowned by a single dome. Of these churches, the reconstructed Saviour Cathedral alone survived into the 20th century, only to be pulled down at the urging of Stalin in 1933. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1845 × 1396 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1845 × 1396 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mikhail Nesterov: Portrait of Apollinary Vasnetsov. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Иван I Данилович Калита in Russian)(? - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Saint Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр in Russian) (? — December 20, 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... John Climacus ( ca. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


When Dmitri Donskoi prepared to challenge the Tatar authority, he replaced the oaken walls with a strong citadel of white stone (1366-1368), which withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh. Dmitri's son Vasily I made peace with the Tatars and resumed construction of churches and cloisters. The newly-built Annunciation Cathedral was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrey Rublev, and Prokhor in 1405. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Dmitri's tutor, Metropolitan Alexis; while his widow, Eudoxia, established the Ascension Convent in 1397. Statue of Dmitri Donskoi (1862). ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Basil I (known as the Macedonian, 811 - 886), Byzantine emperor, was born to a family of Armenian (not Slavonic) descent, settled in Macedonia. ... The Cathedral of the Annunciation (Благовещенский собор in Russian, or Blagoveschensky sobor) is a cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin. ... Theophanes (died 817 or 818) was a Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian icon painter, or iconographer. ... Prokhor, also known as Prokhor of/from Gorodets (Прохор, Прохор с Городца in Russian) (? - ?) was a Russian painter. ... The Ascension Convent in 1882 The Chudov Monastery (also known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Kremlin in 1358 by metropolitan Alexius. ... Saint Alexis (Алексей in Russian, (before 1296 – 1378) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (since 1354), who presided over Muscovite government during Dmitri Donskois minority. ... Eudoxia Dmitriyevna (Russian: Евдокия Дмитриевна) (? - 1407) was a Grand Duchess of Moscow and wife of Dmitry Donskoy. ... Cathedral of the Ascension Convent (1580s), from an early 19th-century drawing. ...


Residence of Tsars

"Kremlenagrad": the first detailed map of the Kremlin (ca. 1601).
"Kremlenagrad": the first detailed map of the Kremlin (ca. 1601).

By 1475, the principalities of medieval Russia were united under Grand Prince Ivan III, who assumed the title of the Grand Prince of All Rus, envisioning Moscow as the only legitimate successor to Rome and Constantinople. In order to illustrate his imperial ambitions, Ivan organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, like Pietro Antonio Solari and Marco Ruffo. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505-08 and augmented to its present height in 1600. Image File history File links Kremlenagrad. ... Image File history File links Kremlenagrad. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Pietro Antonio Solari, also known as Pyotr Fryazin (b. ... Marco Ruffo mistakenly known as Marco Fryazin (Марк Фрязин, Марко Фрязин and Марко Руффо in Russian) was an Italian architect active in Moscow in the 15th century. ... This article is about Muscovite Russia. ... Ivan the Great Bell Tower, with Assumption Belfry on the left The Ivan the Great Bell Tower is the tallest bell tower of the Kremlin in Moscow, with a total height of 81 meters (266 feet). ...


After construction of the new Kremlin walls and churches was over in 1516, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. Furthermore, the Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town (Kitai-gorod) by a 30-metre-wide moat, over which the Intercession Cathedral on the Moat was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar also renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and boasted the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, which was described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country. // Iverskiye Gates leading to Red Square are the only extant gates of the Kitai-gorod wall. ... St Basils Cathedral The Intercession Cathedral (Pokrovsky Cathedral, better known as the Cathedral of St. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... In Eastern Orthodoxy, a metochion (Russian: podvorie) is an ecclesiastical embassy church, usually from one autocephalous or autonomous church to another. ... View of the lavra in the 1890s. ... The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ... Venerable Sergii Radonezhsky (Сергий Радонежский) (born Varfolomei – Варфоломей, corresponds to Bartholomew), also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky and Sergius of Radonezh (1322 – 1392), was the...


During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish-Lithuanian forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis, the Kremlin witnessed the Moscow Uprising of 1682, from which tsar Peter barely escaped alive. This emotional trauma made him dislike the Kremlin. Three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg. The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Monument to Kuzma Minin in Nizhny Novgorod Kuzma Minich Minin (Russian: Минин Кузьма Минич) (?-1616) was a Russian patriot who together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky rallied an army to defend Russia against Polish invasion. ... Pozharsky and Minin monument (1804-16) in front of Saint Basils Cathedral Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (Russian: Дми́трий Миха́йлович Пожа́рский, Polish: Dymitr Pożarski) (November 1, 1578 - April 30, 1642) was a Rurikid prince who obtainted from the tsar an unprecedented title of the Saviour of Motherland. ... Michael Romanov is the name that might be used to refer to any of several members of the House of Romanov, the ruling dynasty of the Empire of Russia from 1631 to 1917. ... Alexey Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ... Armorial Gate, ca. ... The construction of the Terem Palace in the Moscow Kremlin began in the period 1635-1636. ... Nikon (Russian: Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; May 7, 1605 Valmanovo, Russia—August 17, 1681), was the seventh patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... A scene from the uprising: Natalia Naryshkina shows Ivan V to the Streltsy in order to prove that he is alive and well, while the Patriarch attempts to calm the crowd. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Imperial period

View from the Winter Palace across the Moskva River in the 1820s.
View from the Winter Palace across the Moskva River in the 1820s.

Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasily Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall. After the preparations were over, construction halted due to lack of funds. Several years later, Matvei Kazakov restored the dismantled sections of the wall, rebuilt the ancient Saviour Cathedral and some structures of the Chudov Monastery, and constructed the spacious and luxurious residence of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia. Image File history File links Teremnoy. ... Image File history File links Teremnoy. ... The construction of the Terem Palace in the Moscow Kremlin began in the period 1635-1636. ... It has been said that Quarenghi, due to his somewhat droll appearance, was the most frequently painted of architects. ... Image File history File links Kremlinduran. ... Image File history File links Kremlinduran. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Pashkov House in Moscow was designed by Vasily Bazhenov Vasili Ivanovich Bazhenov (Василий Иванович Баженов in Russian) (March 1(12), 1737 or 1738 - August 2(13), 1799) was a famous Russian architect, graphic artist, architectural theorist, and teacher. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov (Russian: , 1738, Moscow - 1812, Ryazan) was a Russian Neoclassicist architect. ... Kremlin Senate from the Red Square Moscow Kremlin Senate building (Russian: Сенат), commissioned by Catherine II of Russia, was designed and built by Matvey Kazakov in 1776-1787. ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ...


During Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, the French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October. When Napoleon fled Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and fires damaged the Faceted Chamber and churches. Explosions continued for three days, from 21 to 23 October. Fortunately, the rain damaged the fuses, and the damage was less severe than intended. Restoration works were held in 1816-19, supervised by Osip Bove. During the remainder of Alexander I's reign, several ancient structures were overhauled in a fanciful neo-Gothic style, but many more were simply swept away as "disused" or "dilapidated" (including all the buildings of the Trinity metochion). Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Cannons and mortars of La Grande Armée are exhibited along the Arsenal wall. ... Palace of Facets (1487-91), a piece of Cinquecento in the heart of Moscow. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ...


On visiting Moscow during his coronation, Nicholas I of Russia was not satisfied with the Grand, or Winter, Palace, which had been erected to Rastrelli's design in the 1750s. The elaborate Baroque structure was demolished, as of St. John the Precursor, built by Aloisio the New in 1508 in place of the very first church ever constructed in Moscow. The architect Konstantin Thon was commissioned to replace them with the Grand Kremlin Palace, which was to rival the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg by its dimensions and the opulence of its interiors. The palace was constructed in 1839-49, followed by the new building of the Kremlin Armoury in 1851. Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Cathedral of the Metropolitan Peter is one of 12 churches built by Aloisio in Moscow. ... Annunciation church in St. ... The exterior of the Grand Kremlin Palace incorporates many details characteristic for the medieval Russian and Byzantine architecture. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... The Armory (Оружейная палата in Russian), one of the oldest museums of Moscow, located in the Kremlin. ...


After that, there was virtually no new construction in the Kremlin until the Russian Revolution of 1917. The only new structures were the Monument to Alexander II and a stone cross marking the spot where Grand Duke Sergey Aleksandrovich of Russia was assassinated by Ivan Kalyayev in 1905. These monuments were destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The new Monument to Alexander II in front of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow The Monument to Alexander II, officially called the Monument to Emperor Alexander II, the Liberator Tsar, is a memorial of Emperor Alexander II of Russia, situated in the immediate surroundings of the Cathedral... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (Сергей Александрович) (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Photography of Ivan Kalyayev made just after the assassination. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


Soviet period and beyond

Kremlin riverside.
Kremlin riverside.

The Soviet government fled from Petrograd to Moscow on 12 March 1918. Lenin selected the Kremlin Senate as his residence; his room is still preserved as a museum. Stalin also had his personal rooms in the Kremlin. He was eager to remove from his headquarters all the "relics of the tsarist regime". Golden eagles on the towers were replaced by shining Kremlin stars, while the wall near Lenin's Mausoleum was turned into the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 871 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 871 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Kremlin stars (Russian: Кремлёвские звёзды) are the pentagonal luminescent ruby stars, installed in the 1930s on five towers of the Moscow Kremlin, replacing the gilded eagles that had symbolized Imperial Russia. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum (Russian: ) (Transliteration: Mavzoley Lenina) also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place... Kremlin Wall Necropolis The Kremlin Wall Necropolis (Некрополь у Кремлёвской стены in Russian) is a part of the Kremlin Wall, which surrounds the Moscow Kremlin and overlooks the Red Square. ...


The Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their magnificent 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the Communist military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. The residence of the Soviet government was closed to tourists until 1955. It was not until the Khrushchev Thaw that the Kremlin was reopened to foreign visitors. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990. Frontal Façade The State Kremlin Palace (Russian: ), formerly and unofficially still better known as the Kremlin Palace of Congresses (Кремлёвский Дворец съездов), is a large modern building inside the Moscow Kremlin. ... In Soviet history, Kruschevs Thaw or Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period between the end of 1950s and the beginning of 1960s, when repressions and censorship reached a low point. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Although the current director of the Kremlin Museums, Elena Gagarina (Yuri Gagarin's daughter) advocates a full-scale restoration of the destroyed cloisters, recent developments have been confined to expensive restoration of the original interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which were altered during Stalin's rule. The Patriarch of Moscow has a suite of rooms in the Kremlin, but divine service in the Kremlin cathedrals is held irregularly, because they are still administrated as museums. “Gagarin” redirects here. ...


Buildings

Church of the Deposition (1488).
Church of the Deposition (1488).

The Existing Kremlin walls and towers were built by Italian masters over the years 1485 to 1495. The irregular triangle of the Kremlin wall encloses an area of 275,000 square meters (68 acres). Its overall length is 2235 meters (2444 yards), but the height ranges from 5 to 19 metres, depending on the terrain. The wall's thickness is between 3.5 and 6.5 meters. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 595 KB) Image taken by User:Smack in June, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 595 KB) Image taken by User:Smack in June, 2004. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kremlin towers. ... The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin: Kremlin towers in the 19th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kremlin towers. ...


Originally there were eighteen Kremlin towers, but their number increased to twenty in the 17th century. All but three of the towers are square in plan. The highest tower is the Spasskaya, which was built up to its present height of 71 metres in 1625. Most towers were originally crowned with wooden tents; the extant brick tents with strips of colored tiles go back to the 1680s. The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin: Kremlin towers in the 19th century. ...


Cathedral Square is the heart of the Kremlin. It is surrounded by six buildings, including three cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Dormition was completed in 1479 to be the main church of Moscow and where all the Tsars were crowned. The massive limestone facade, capped with its five golden cupolas was the design of Aristotele Fioravanti. Several important metropolitans and patriarchs are buried there, including Peter and Makarii The gilded, three-domed Cathedral of the Annunciation was completed next in 1489, only to be reconstructed to a nine-domed design a century later. On the south-east of the square is the much larger Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1508), where almost all the Muscovite monarchs from Ivan Kalita to Alexis I of Russia are interred. (Boris Godunov was originally buried there, but was moved to the Troitse-Sergiev Monastery.) Tsarevich Dmitrii, the son of Ivan the Terrible, was buried there in the early 1600s. Emperor Peter II is also buried there, the only post-Petrine monarch buried in the Kremlin (and the only one besides Ivan VI who is not buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.) Cathedral Square in Moscow, veduta by Quarenghi, 1797. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, in winter The Cathedral of the Dormition or Cathedral of the Assumption (in Russian, Uspensky Sobor (Успенский Собор)) is the name of several cathedrals in the world. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... Aristotile Fioravanti (ca. ... The modern icon of St Macarius of Moscow Macarius (Макарий in Russian; secular name - Макар, or Makar) (1482 - January 12, 1563) was a notable Russian cleric, writer, and iconographer who served as the Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia from 1542 until 1563. ... The Cathedral of the Annunciation (Благовещенский собор in Russian, or Blagoveschensky sobor) is a cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin. ... The Cathedral of the Archangel Michael is a cathedral in the Kremlin complex in Moscow, Russia. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Иван I Данилович Калита in Russian)(? - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ...


There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (1653-56) and the one-domed exquisite church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by Pskov artisans over the years 1484-88 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For the eponymous structure in Constantinople, see Church of the Holy Apostles. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ...


The other notable structure is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower on the north-east corner of the square, which is said to mark the exact centre of Moscow and resemble a burning candle. Completed in 1600, it is 81 meters (266 ft) high. Until the Russian Revolution, it was the tallest structure in the city, as construction of buildings taller than that was forbidden. Its 21 bells would sound the alarm if any enemy was approaching. The upper part of the structure was destroyed by the French during the Napoleonic Invasion and has, of course, been rebuilt. Ivan the Great Bell Tower, with Assumption Belfry on the left The Ivan the Great Bell Tower is the tallest bell tower of the Kremlin in Moscow, with a total height of 81 meters (266 feet). ...

Church of the Twelve Apostles (1654-56).
Church of the Twelve Apostles (1654-56).

The oldest secular structure still standing is Ivan III's Palace of Facets (1491), which holds the imperial thrones. The next oldest is the first home of the royal family, the Terem Palace. The original Terem Palace was also commissioned by Ivan III, but most of the existing palace was built in the 17th century. The Terem Palace and the Palace of Facets are linked by the Grand Kremlin Palace. This was commissioned by Nicholas I in 1838. The largest structure in the Kremlin, it cost an exorbitant sum of eleven million rubles to build and more than one billion dollars to renovate in the 1990s. It contains dazzling reception halls, a ceremonial red staircase, private apartments of the tsars, and the lower storey of the Resurrection of Lazarus church (1393), which is the oldest extant structure in the Kremlin and the whole of Moscow. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 117 KB) Church of the Twelve Apostles (1650s) in the Moscow Kremlin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 117 KB) Church of the Twelve Apostles (1650s) in the Moscow Kremlin. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... The Palace of the Facets (Грановитая Палата) is part of what is now known as the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia. ... The construction of the Terem Palace in the Moscow Kremlin began in the period 1635-1636. ... The exterior of the Grand Kremlin Palace incorporates many details characteristic for the medieval Russian and Byzantine architecture. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The northeast corner of the Kremlin is occupied by the Arsenal, which was originally built for Peter the Great in 1701. The northwestern section of the Kremlin holds the Armoury building. Built in 1851 to a Renaissance Revival design, it is currently a museum housing Russian state regalia and Diamond fund. Arsenal is a large triangular building close to the edge of the Moscow Kremlin that faces Red Square (the top of the building features a pole with a Russian flag that is very prominent on the red square). ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Armory (Оружейная палата in Russian), one of the oldest museums of Moscow, located in the Kremlin. ... The Château de Ferrières completed 1855 was a deliberate copy of Mentmore Towers (below). ...


Political figures of speech

The name Kremlin is often used as a metonym to refer to the government of the Soviet Union (1922-1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars), in the same way the name Downing Street refers to the British government, or White House refers to the government of the United States. To some extent, it is still used in reference to the government of the Russian Federation. "Kremlinology" referred to the study of Soviet policies. In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... The political system of the Soviet Union was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the only party permitted by Constitution. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... The politics of Russia (or the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic. ... Kremlinology is the study of Soviet politics and policies, named after the Kremlin, the seat of the Soviet government. ...

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Moscow Kremlin

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References

  • Ivanov V. N. Московский Кремль. Moscow, 1971.
  • Nenakormova I. S. Государственные музеи Московского Кремля. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1987.
  • Materials from the Official website of the Kremlin Museums
  • The Kremlin appears as a world wonder on the video game Civilization IV.

Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ...

External links

Moscow Kremlin
Dormition Cathedral | Archangel Cathedral | Annunciation Cathedral
Church of the Twelve Apostles | Church of the Virgin's Robe | Saviour Church
Chudov Monastery | Ascension Convent
Ivan the Great Bell Tower | Tsar Bell | Tsar Cannon
Grand Kremlin Palace | Palace of Facets | Terem Palace | Amusement Palace | Patriarchal Chamber
State Kremlin Palace | Senate | Arsenal | Armoury | Diamond Treasury
Hill | Sobornaya Square | Ivanovskaya Square
Wall | Towers | Armorial Gate | Necropolis | Stars | Chiming Clock

Coordinates: 55°45′6″N, 37°37′4″E Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Kremlin in Moscow | Moscow Kremlin (1259 words)
‘Kremlin’ is actually the term given for the fortified stronghold of any city, and many other kremlins exist in large towns throughout Russia and acted as seats of power for local rulers.
Moscow’s Kremlin began life in the 1150s, on a much smaller scale than it exists now, and was added too by various rulers as Moscow grew in wealth and power.
The Presidium - lurking in the north-eastern corner of the Kremlin complex is the Neoclassical edifice of the Presidium.
Columbia Encyclopedia- kremlin - AOL Research & Learn (467 words)
It is bounded on the south by the Moscow River and Kremlin quay, on the east by Red Square with Lenin's tomb, the Moscow Historical Museum, and St. Basil's Cathedral, and on the west and south by the old Alexander Gardens.
Along the Kremlin walls are large palaces, including the 15th-century Granovitaya Palata (the throne and banquet hall of the czars); the 19th-century Oruzheinaya Palata (Armory), built as a museum for crowns, scepters, thrones, costumes, and armor; and the 19th-century Grand Palace (Rus.
The Kremlin's architectural history may be divided into the three periods: the wooden Kremlin (founded in the 13th cent.), the Italian Renaissance Kremlin, and the modern Kremlin begun by Catherine the Great in the 18th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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