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Encyclopedia > Moscow
Moscow (English)
Москва (Russian)


Location of Moscow in Europe
Coordinates
55°45′8″N 37°37′56″E / 55.75222, 37.63222Coordinates: 55°45′8″N 37°37′56″E / 55.75222, 37.63222
Flag of Moscow
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Federal city
Central
Central
Code 77
Area
Area 1,081 km² (417.4 sq mi)
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
10,382,754 inhabitants
1st
9,604.8/km² (24,876.3/sq mi)
Government
Head Yury Luzhkov
Legislative body City Duma
Charter Charter of Moscow
Events
Founded 1147
Other information
Postal code 101xxx–129xxx
Dialing codes +7 495, +7 499
Official website
http://www.mos.ru

Moscow (Russian: Москва́, romanised: Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] see also other names) is the capital and the largest city of Russia, and the largest city in Europe, with its List of metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is the country's political, economic, religious, financial, educational and transportation centre. It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the pre-Imperial Russian state. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the ceremonial residence of the President of Russia. Moscow is a major economic centre and is the world's billionaire capital, home to the largest number of billionaires in the world;[1] in 2007 Moscow was named the world's most expensive city for the second year in a row.[2] It is home to many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. It possesses a complex transport system that includes the world’s busiest metro system, which is famous for its architecture and artwork. Moscow can refer to the following locations: Moscow - the capital of Russia Moscow, Idaho - a city in Idaho, in the United States Moscow, India - a village in India Moscow, Kansas - a city in Kansas, in the United States Moscow, Maine - a city in Maine, in the United States Moscow, Ohio... Image File history File links Moscow_In_Europe. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Central Federal District (Russian: Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Central economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Revolution Square and Moscow City Hall in 2000. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... // Proposed Country Code: 3 In 1996, the European Commission proposed the introduction of a single telephone numbering plan, in which all European Union member states would use the code 3. Calls between member states would no longer require the use of the international access code 00. This proposal would have... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... For romanization of Russian on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian. ... Image File history File links Ru-Moskva. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas of Europe. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... Central Federal District (Russian: Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ... This is a list of the worlds most expensive cities for expatriate employees, (not local residents) according to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting 2006 Cost of Living Survey [1] . Various factors enter in to a citys cost-of-living for expatriate employees, such as monetary value, consumer confidence... Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of Moscow

The city is named after the river (old Russian: гра́д Моско́в, literally the city by the Moskva River). The origin of the name is unknown, although several theories exist.[3] One theory suggests that the source of the name is an ancient Finnic language, in which it means “dark” and “turbid”. The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when Yuri Dolgoruki called upon the prince of the Novgorod Republic to “come to me, brother, to Moscow.”[4] Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square. ... Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... Monument to Yuriy Dolgorukiy in Moscow. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ...


Nine years later, in 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgoruki of Rostov ordered the construction of a wooden wall, which had to be rebuilt multiple times, to surround the emerging city.[5] After the sacking of 1237–1238, when the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of an independent principality in 1327.[6] Its favourable position on the headwaters of the Volga River contributed to steady expansion. Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... “Volga” redirects here. ...

Under Ivan I the city replaced Tver as a political centre of Vladimir-Suzdal and became the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol-Tatar rulers. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons but was passed intact to his eldest. However, Moscow's opposition against foreign domination grew. In 1380, prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo which was not decisive, though. Only two years later Moscow was sacked by khan Tokhtamysh. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, allowing Moscow to become the centre of power in Russia.[7] Under Ivan III the city became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia and other lands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x700, 118 KB) Source: http://he. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (950x700, 118 KB) Source: http://he. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mongol invasion of Rus. ... This article is about the title. ... Statue of Dmitri Donskoi (1862). ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength between 60,000 and 80,000 between 75,000 and 125,000 Casualties up to 40,000 killed or wounded Almost entire army killed The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ) was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the...


In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.[8] Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ...


In 1609, the Swedish army led by Count Jacob De la Gardie and Evert Horn started their march from Velikiy Novgorod toward Moscow to help Tsar Vasili Shuiski, entered Moscow in 1610 and suppressed the rebellion against the Tsar, but leaving it early next year 1611, following which the Polish-Lithuanian army invaded. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Evert Horn (1585-1615) was a Swedish soldier, being appointed Governor (Ståthållare) of Narva in 1613, and Field Marshal in 1614. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Vasili IV of Russia (1552 – September 12, 1612) was the last Rurikid tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610. ...

Kremlin Embankment and Moscow skyline with Cathedral of Christ the Saviour on the left and Kremlin on the right
Kremlin Embankment and Moscow skyline with Cathedral of Christ the Saviour on the left and Kremlin on the right

The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish-Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682. Image File history File links Kremlevskaya Naberezhnaya and Moscow skyline. ... Image File history File links Kremlevskaya Naberezhnaya and Moscow skyline. ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Salt Riot in Kolomenskoe, by N. Nekrasov The Salt Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1648 (Соляной бунт, Московское восстание 1648 in Russian), was a riot in Moscow in 1648, triggered by the governments substitution of different taxes with a universal direct salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state... The Copper Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1662 (Russian: Медный бунт, Московское восстание 1662 года) was a major riot in Moscow, which took place on July 25 of 1662. ... A scene from the uprising: Natalia Naryshkina shows Ivan V to the Streltsy in order to prove that he is alive and well, while the Patriarch attempts to calm the crowd. ...

The plague of 1654–1656 had killed half the population of Moscow.[9] The city ceased to be Russia’s capital in 1712, after the founding of Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great on the Baltic coast in 1703. When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Muscovites burned the city and evacuated, as Napoleon’s forces were approaching on 14 September. Napoleon’s army, plagued by hunger, cold and poor supply lines, was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Red Square ... St Basils Cathedral The Intercession Cathedral (Pokrovsky Cathedral, better known as the Cathedral of St. ... The following is a list of towers of Moscow Kremlin: Kremlin towers in the 19th century. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Napoleon retreating from the Kremlin. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow’s first official mayor. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, on March 12, 1918, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union less than five years later.[10] During the Great Patriotic War (a part of World War II and the official Russian name for the conflict, after German invasion of the USSR), the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army was located in Moscow. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


In 1941, sixteen divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), twenty-five battalions (18,500 people) and four engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. That November, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be under siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. It is of some note that Stalin refused to leave the city, meaning the general staff and the council of people's commissars remained in the city as well. Despite the siege and the bombings, the construction of Moscow's metro system, continued through the war and by the end of the war several new metro lines were opened. Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ...


On May 1, 1944, a medal For the defence of Moscow and in 1947 another medal In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow were instituted. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II, on May 8, 1965, Moscow was one of twelve Soviet cities awarded the title of the Hero City. In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which was boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ...


In 1991, Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt by the government members opposed to the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow continued to be the capital of Russia. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Since then, the emergence of a market economy in Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles. Besides the historical traits of Moscow, it has many different agricultural attributes. In 1998, it hosted the first World Youth Games. Moscow is the seat of power for the Russian Federation. At the centre of the city, in Central Administrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as many of the facilities for the national government. This includes numerous military headquarters and the headquarters of the Moscow Military District. A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... This article is about building architecture. ... World Youth Games is an international competition among young athletes. ... Moscow with Central administrative district highlighted Coat of arms of the Central administrative district, featuring Yuriy Dolgorukiy in the centre Central Administrative District, or Tsentralny Administrative Okrug (Russian: ), is an administrative okrug of Moscow within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... The Moscow Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ...


Moscow, like with any national capital, is also the host of all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia. Moscow is designated as one of only two Federal cities of Russia (the other one being Saint Petersburg). Among the 85 Federal subjects of Russia, Moscow represents the most populated one and the smallest one in terms of area. Lastly, Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Central economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ...


The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor (Yuriy Luzhkov). It is divided into ten administrative okrugs and 123 districts. Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd (number 1 on the map), are located within City of Moscow main boundaries. All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms, flags, and elected head officials. Additionally, most districts have their own cable television, computer network, and official newspaper. In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status, or territories. These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations, such as the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, the Botanical Garden, large parks, and industrial zones. This is a list of mayors of Moscow. ... Yuriy Mikhailovich Luzhkov. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Exhibition grounds feature numerous fountains. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ...


In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities. And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city centre, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious. This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ...


Government

Mayor’s office (former Comecon headquarters) highrise to the left and Russian government to the right, view from Kudrinskaya square Stalin skyscraper.

Moscow is the seat of power for the Russian Federation. At the centre of the city, in Central Administrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as many of the facilities for the national government. This includes numerous military headquarters and the headquarters of the Moscow Military District. Moscow, like with any national capital, is also the host of all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia. Moscow is designated as one of only two Federal cities of Russia (the other one being Saint Petersburg). Among the 85 federal subjects of Russia, Moscow represents the most populated one and the smallest one in terms of area. Lastly, Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals. Map of Moscow administrative okrugs The federal city of Moscow, Russia is divided into ten administrative okrugs, which are in turn subdivided into districts (raions). ... Image File history File links Msk_all_districts_abc_eng. ... Image File history File links Msk_all_districts_abc_eng. ... Map of Moscow administrative okrugs The federal city of Moscow, Russia is divided into ten administrative okrugs, which are in turn subdivided into districts (raions). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Moscow with Central administrative district highlighted Coat of arms of the Central administrative district, featuring Yuriy Dolgorukiy in the centre Central Administrative District, or Tsentralny Administrative Okrug (Russian: ), is an administrative okrug of Moscow within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... The Moscow Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... Central economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ...


The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor (Yuriy Luzhkov). It is divided into ten administrative okrugs and 123 districts. Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd (number 1 on the map), are located within City of Moscow main boundaries. This is a list of mayors of Moscow. ... Yuriy Mikhailovich Luzhkov. ...


All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms, flags, and elected head officials. Additionally, most districts have their own cable television, computer network, and official newspaper. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status, or territories. These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations, such as the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, the Botanical Garden, large parks, and industrial zones. In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities. And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city centre, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious. Exhibition grounds feature numerous fountains. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ...


In addition to being the capital of Russia, Moscow is the administrative centre of Moscow Oblast. Since Moscow has the status of a federal city, it is administratively separate from the oblast. Moscow Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) officially established on January 14, 1929. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Administrative divisions

Moscow is divided into ten administrative okrugs, one of which (Zelenograd) is located entirely outside the ring road. Administrative okrugs are in turn divided into 123 districts (raions). Map of Moscow administrative okrugs The federal city of Moscow, Russia is divided into ten administrative okrugs, which are in turn subdivided into districts (raions). ... Zelenograd () is a town 40 km from Moscow, Russia (officially is a district of Moscow city). ... Major MKAD interchange in southern Moscow This article is about the road in Moscow. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...


Geography and climate

Moscow has a hemiboreal climate (Koppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of July and August are around 22 °C (72 °F); in the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately -12 °C (10 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded was 36.7 °C (98.1 °F)[11], and the lowest ever recorded was -42.2 °C in January 1940. Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...

Weather averages for Moscow
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6 (47) 8.3 (47) 17.5 (64) 28.0 (82) 33.2 (92) 33.9 (93) 36.7 (98) 34.8 (95) 29.4 (85) 23.7 (75) 12.5 (55) 9.2 (49) 36.7 (98)
Average high °C (°F) -5.8 (22) -4.5 (24) 1.2 (34) 10.5 (51) 18.1 (65) 21.9 (71) 23.2 (74) 21.5 (71) 15.5 (60) 8.1 (47) 0.6 (33) -3.5 (26) 9.0 (48)
Average low °C (°F) -11.7 (11) -11.2 (12) -6.1 (21) 1.6 (35) 7.3 (45) 11.6 (53) 13.4 (56) 12.1 (54) 7.2 (45) 2.1 (36) -3.9 (25) -8.4 (17) 1.3 (34)
Record low °C (°F) -42.2 (-44) -35.2 (-31) -27.9 (-18) -18.8 (-2) -5.0 (23) 0.8 (33) 5.1 (41) 2.1 (36) -5.2 (23) -16.1 (3) -23.3 (-10) -38.0 (-36) -42.2 (-44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 42 (1.7) 36 (1.4) 34 (1.3) 44 (1.7) 51 (2) 75 (3) 94 (3.7) 77 (3) 65 (2.6) 59 (2.3) 58 (2.3) 56 (2.2) 691 (27.2)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[12] 7.09.2007
The layout of Moscow, from a 1784 map
The layout of Moscow, from a 1784 map

Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km through western Russia, in the centre of the East-European plain. There are 49 bridges across the Moskva River and its canals within city limits. Image File history File links Map_of_Moscow_1784. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Moscow_1784. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... This is a partial list of bridges of Moscow, Russia, including all existing rail, road and foot bridges over Moskva River, Moskva Canal, Vodootvodny Canal within the MKAD beltway limits and the bridges over Yauza downstream from Rostokino. ...


Moscow’s road system is centred roughly around the heart of the city, the Moscow Kremlin. From there, the roads in general radiate out to intersect with a sequence of circular roads or “rings” focused at the Kremlin. The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ...


The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the sixteenth century city wall around that used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town).[6] The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that goes from the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour to the Yauza River. In addition, the Boulevard Ring changes street names numerous times throughout its journey across the city. A facade on Tverskoy Boulevard The Boulevard Ring, russian: Бульварное кольцо, is a circular boulevard in the centre of Moscow, Russia. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Bely Gorod (ru: Белый Город - White Town) is a part of Moscow which was surrounded by white stone fortification wall which was built in the end of 15th century and demolished in the end of 17th century. ... For other uses, see Horseshoe (disambiguation). ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ... Yauza River is a confluent of the Moskva River, the second in size river in Moscow (after the Moskva River). ...


The second primary ring, located outside the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a sixteenth century wall that used to encompass part of the city.[6] The third ring, the Third Transport Ring, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway. The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, is under construction to further reduce traffic congestion. The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (often called the MKAD from the Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the approximate boundary of the city. The Garden Ring, also known as the B Ring (Russian: Садовое кольцо, кольцо Б) is a circular avenue in the centre of Moscow, Russia. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Major MKAD interchange in southern Moscow This article is about the road in Moscow. ...


Outside the city, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits.

  • Weather in Moscow - moscow.the.by.

Architecture

Shukhov Tower in Moscow. Currently under threat of demolition, the tower is at the top of UNESCO's 'Endangered Buildings' list, and there is an international campaign to save it.
Shukhov Tower in Moscow. Currently under threat of demolition, the tower is at the top of UNESCO's 'Endangered Buildings' list, and there is an international campaign to save it.

Moscow’s architecture and performing arts culture are world-renowned. Moscow is also well known as the site of Saint Basil’s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Orthodox Church. Moscow also hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics. For a long time, the view of the city was dominated by numerous Orthodox churches. The look of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, mostly due to Joseph Stalin, who oversaw a large-scale effort to modernise the city. He introduced broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, but he also destroyed a great number of historically significant architectural works. The Sukharev Tower, as well as numerous mansions and stores lining the major streets, and various works of religious architecture, such as the Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, were all destroyed during Stalin’s rule. During the 1990s, however, both the latter were rebuilt. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x900, 227 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shukhov Tower ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x900, 227 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shukhov Tower ... Shukhov Tower in Moscow The Shukhov radio tower, also known as the Shabolovka tower (Russian: Шуховская башня) is a broadcasting tower in Moscow designed by Vladimir Shukhov. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... á¹¢ St. ... Detail of onion domes on Saint Basils Cathedral in Moscow An onion dome (Russian: луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glava) is a type of architectural dome usually associated with Russian Orthodox churches. ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans of Moscow and Patriarchs of Moscow and all Russia along with when they served: // Metropolitans Maximus (1283-1305) Peter (1308-1326) Theognostus (1328-1353) Alexius (1354-1378) Cyprian (1381-1382), (1390-1406) Pimen (1382-1384) Dionysius I (1384-1385) Photius (1408... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Old photo of the Sukharevka Sukharev Tower (Сухарева башня) was one of the best known landmarks and symbols of Moscow until its destruction by the Soviet authorities in 1934. ... Kazan Cathedral before its destruction in 1936 Kazan Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox church at the north east corner of Red Square in Moscow. ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ...


Architect Vladimir Shukhov was responsible for building several of Moscow’s landmarks during early Soviet Russia. The Shukhov Tower, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov, was built between 1919 and 1922 as a transmission tower for a Russian broadcasting company.[13] Shukhov also left a lasting legacy to the Constructivist architecture of early Soviet Russia. He designed spacious elongated shop galleries, most notably the Upper Trade Rows (GUM) on Red Square,[13] bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults. Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov (Russian: ), (August 28 [O.S. August 16] 1853 - February 2, 1939) was a great Russian engineer renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for civil engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of hyperboloid structures, shell structures, tensile structures, oil... Shukhov Tower in Moscow The Shukhov radio tower, also known as the Shabolovka tower (Russian: Шуховская башня) is a broadcasting tower in Moscow designed by Vladimir Shukhov. ... The worlds first hyperboloid water tower by Vladimir Shukhov, All-Russian Exposition, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 1896 Hyperboloid structures in architecture were first applied by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov (1853-1939). ... Tatlin Tower. ... The GUM facade faces Red Square. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ...

Ostankino Tower - the tallest free-standing structure in Eurasia. It will remain the third-tallest in the world after completion of Burj Dubai.

Stalin, however, is also credited with building the The Seven Sisters, comprising seven, cathedral-like structures. A defining feature of Moscow’s skyline, their imposing form was allegedly inspired by the Manhattan Municipal Building in New York City, and their style — with intricate exteriors and a large central spire — has been described as Stalinist Gothic architecture. All seven towers can be seen from most elevations in the city; they are among the tallest constructions in central Moscow apart from the Ostankino Tower which, when it was completed in 1967, was the tallest free-standing land structure in the world and today remains the world’s second-tallest after the CN Tower in Toronto.[14] The Soviet policy of providing mandatory housing for every citizen and his or her family, and the rapid growth of the Muscovite population in Soviet times, also led to the construction of large, monotonous housing blocks, which can often be differentiated by age, sturdiness of construction, or ‘style’ according to the neighbourhood and the materials used. Most of these date from the post-Stalin era and the styles are often named after the leader then in power — Brezhnev, Khrushchev, etc — and they are usually ill-maintained. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x1024, 96 KB) Summary Ostankino Tower as viewed from the grounds of the All-Soviet Exhibition Centre. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x1024, 96 KB) Summary Ostankino Tower as viewed from the grounds of the All-Soviet Exhibition Centre. ... Vertical panorama of Ostankino Television Tower The Ostankino tower seen from the grounds at All-Russia Exhibition Centre. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Municipal Building from down Chambers Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was... Vertical panorama of Ostankino Television Tower The Ostankino tower seen from the grounds at All-Russia Exhibition Centre. ...


The Stalinist-era constructions, usually in the central city, are massive and usually ornamented with Socialist realism motifs that imitate classical themes. However, small churches — almost always Eastern Orthodox - that provide glimpses of the city's past still dot various parts of the city. The Old Arbat, a popular tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the twentieth century. Many buildings found off the main streets of the inner city (behind the Stalinist facades of Tverskaya Street, for example) are also examples of the bourgeois decadence in Tsarist times. Ostankino, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists. Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Melnikov House (1929), just a few steps away from the Arbat. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see facade (disambiguation). ... Tverskaya (Тверская) is a neighborhood/borough around Tverskaya Street in Moscow. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... View of Kuskovo in 1839 Kuskovo is an extensive estate, or manor, of the Counts Sheremetev, originally situated several miles to the east of Moscow but now forming a part of the East District of that city. ... Church of the Theotokos of Kazan (1698-1704). ...


Attempts are being made to restore many of the city’s best-kept examples of pre-Soviet architecture. These revamped structures are easily spotted by their bright new colours and spotless facades. There are a few examples of notable, early Soviet avant-garde work too, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. Later examples of interesting Soviet architecture are usually marked by their impressive size and the semi-Modernist styles employed, such as with the Novy Arbat project, familiarly known as “false teeth of Moscow” and notorious for the wide-scale disruption of a historic area in the Moscow downtown involved in the project. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... One of buildings designed by Melnikov Konstantin Stepanovitch Melnikov (Russian Константин Степанович Мельников; July 22 (August 3) 1890, Moscow - November 28, 1974, Moscow) was a Russian architect and major figure member of the Constructivist avant-garde in the early 20th century. ... Melnikov House (1929), just a few steps away from the Arbat. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... The mixing architecture of New Arbat Street. ...


As in London, but on a broader scale, plaques on house exteriors will inform passers-by that a well-known personality once lived there. Frequently, the plaques are dedicated to Soviet celebrities not well-known outside of Russia. There are also many ‘house-museums’ of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Moscow's skyline is quickly modernizing with several new towers under construction. One tower will be the second tallest in the world when it is completed in 2010, the 2,009-foot (612 m) tall Russia Tower. Russia Tower Russia Tower - skyscraper in the territory of Moscow, whose building they plan to complete in 2012. ...



Culture

Moscow’s world-famous museums and galleries with their collections, are some of the largest and most important in the world. Frequent art exhibitions thrive on both the new and the classic, as they once did in pre-Revolutionary times, and are derived from diverse branches of the arts - painting, photography, and sculpture. Image File history File links Gmii. ... Image File history File links Gmii. ... Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev (1847-1913) The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts (Russian: Музей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in the Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. ... A museum is distinguished a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Sculptor redirects here. ...


One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city.[15] The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses the works of the classic Russian tradition.[16] The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found in the Old Tretyakov Gallery. Visitors can even see rare originals by early-fifteenth century iconographer Andrei Rublev.[16] The New Tretyakov gallery, created in Soviet times, mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary artists, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early twentieth century art. The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin's famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery. State Tretyakov Gallery (2006) The State Tretyakov Gallery (Russian: , Russian: ), in Moscow, Russia, is the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. ... Tretyakovs portrait by Repin (1883) Tretyakov Pavel Mikhailovich (December 27, 1832 - December 16, 1898) was a Russian businessman, patron of art, collector, and philanthropist. ... edit edit Tretyakovskaya (Russian: ) is a cross-platform station on the Moscow Metro serving the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line and the Kalininskaya Line. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... Salvator Mundi is an iconography depicting Christ with his right hand raised in blessing and his left hand holding an orb. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ... Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin (Владимир Евграфович Татлин) (December 28, 1885 (OS: December 16) – May 31, 1953) worked as a painter and architect. ... Model of the Monument to the Third International Tatlin’s Tower, or the Monument to the Third International, was a grand monumental building envisioned and blueprinted by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, but never built. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Russian: , Polish: , Ukrainian Казимір Северинович Малевич, German: ), (February 23, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and art theoretician, pioneer of geometric abstract art and one of the most important members of the Russian avant-garde. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...

Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, Marina Tsvetaeva's father. The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of world civilisations, with many plaster casts of ancient sculptures. However, it also hosts famous paintings from every major Western era of art; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are all sampled there. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x700, 72 KB) Краткое описание State Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky pereulok. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x700, 72 KB) Краткое описание State Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky pereulok. ... State Tretyakov Gallery (2006) The State Tretyakov Gallery (Russian: , Russian: ), in Moscow, Russia, is the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. ... Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev (1847-1913) The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts (Russian: Музей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in the Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. ... Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Russian: ) (October 9, 1892 – August 31, 1941) was a Russian poet and writer. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about Impressionist painter. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... Picasso redirects here. ...


The State Historical Museum of Russia (Государственный Исторический музей) is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions. The Polytechnical Museum,[17] founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata of the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. Its collection contains more than 160,000 items.[18] The Borodino Panorama[19] museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon’s army, that includes also the Triumphal arch erected in 1827. There is also a military history museum not to be missed, it includes statues, military hardware, along with powerful tales of that time. State Historical Museum, as seen from Red Square The State Historical Museum of Russia is a museum of Russian history located at one end of Red Square in Moscow. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Manege Square (Russian: ) is a large pedestrian open space at the very centre of Moscow bound by the Hotel Moskva (to the east), the State Historical Museum and the Alexander Garden (to the south), the Moscow Manege (to the west), and the 18th-century headquarters of the Moscow State University... Polytechnical Museum (Russian: Политехнический музей) is a science museum in Moscow that emphasizes the progress of Soviet technology and science, as well as modern inventions and developments. ... A diorama is any of the two display devices mentioned below. ...

Bolshoi theatre
Bolshoi theatre

Moscow is also the heart of Russian performing arts, including ballet and film. There are ninety-three theatres, 132 cinemas and twenty-four concert-halls in Moscow. Among Moscow’s many theatres and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre. The repertories in a typical Moscow season are exhaustive and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are quite common. State Central Concert Hall Rossia,[20] famous for ballet and estrade performances, is the place of frequent concerts of pop-stars such as Alla Pugacheva and is situated in the soon to be demolished building of Hotel Rossiya, the largest hotel in Europe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1555x977, 420 KB) Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1555x977, 420 KB) Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russia. ... Russian ballet is a method of ballet technique that originated in Russia. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... Yevgeny Vakhtangov Yevgeny (Eugene) Bagrationovich Vakhtangov (February 13, 1883-May 29, 1922) was a renowned Russian director who founded the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ... Alla on the Star Factory television show, 2004 Alla Borisovna Pugachyova (А́лла Бори́совна Пугачёва), pronounced Pougachiova and commonly anglicized as Pugacheva, born April 15, 1949 in Moscow, Russia, is perhaps the best known musical performer in Russia, her career having started in 1965 and continuing to this day. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Bolshoi Theatre during an April 2005 performance
Bolshoi Theatre during an April 2005 performance

Moscow International Performance Arts Centre,[21] opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. It also has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov hall. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1958x913, 733 KB)Inside the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1958x913, 733 KB)Inside the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... Moscow International House of Music Moscow International Performance Arts Center, opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard[22] named after Yuri Nikulin. For other uses, see Circus (disambiguation). ... The Moscow State Circus is a touring circus. ... Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoi Boulevard used to be the only circus in Moscow between 1926 and 1971 and still remains the most popular one. ... Yury V. Nikulin Yuri Vladimirovich Nikulin (Russian: ; 18 December 1921 – 21 August 1997) was a well-known Russian clown and actor who played in many popular films. ...


Soviet films are integral to film history and the Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many Soviet classic films as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions.[23] However, despite the continued presence and reputation of internationally-renowned Russian filmmakers, the once prolific native studios are much quieter. Rare and historical films may be seen in Salut cinema where films from the Museum of Cinema[24] collection are shown regularly. Mosfilm logo was the Statue of the Worker and Kolkhoznitsa at VDNKh Mosfilm film studio (in Cyrillic, Мосфи́льм) is often described as the largest and oldest in Russia and in Europe. ...


Parks and landmarks

See also: List of Moscow tourist attractions
Patriarshiye Ponds
Novodevichy Convent is just one of many medieval monuments that dot the city.
Novodevichy Convent is just one of many medieval monuments that dot the city.
The Moscow Zoo entrance
The Moscow Zoo entrance
Ostankino palace
Ostankino palace
Ice palace, built in 2006
Ice palace, built in 2006
Central Moscow Hippodrome facade
Central Moscow Hippodrome facade
All-Russia Exhibition Centre Golden Fountain
All-Russia Exhibition Centre Golden Fountain

There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, Including 4 botanical gardens. There are also 450 square kilometers (174 sq mi) of green zones besides 100 square kilometers (39 sq mi) of forests.[25] Moscow is a very green city if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and America. There are average 27 square meters (290 sq ft) of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Paris, 7.5 in London and 8.6 in New York.[26] Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square in Moscow. ... Image File history File links Patriarshy. ... Image File history File links Patriarshy. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Novodevichy convent in summer Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новодевичий монастырь, Богородице-Смоленский монастырь in Russian) is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Khodynka Arena (Russian: Ледовый дворец спорта на Ходынском поле) is a multi-use indoor arena in Moscow, Russia. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 1737 KB) Photo made by my brother, Alex Zelenko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 1737 KB) Photo made by my brother, Alex Zelenko. ... A square foot is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 foot long. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The Central Park of Culture and Rest named after Maxim Gorky founded in 1928. The main part with area of 689,000 square metres (170 acres)[26] along the Moskva river contains estrades, children attractions, including the Observation Wheel water ponds with boats and water bicycles, dancing, tennis courts and other sport facilities. It borders the Neskuchniy Garden with area of 408,000 square metres (101 acres)  — the oldest park in Moscow, and a former Emperor's residence, created as a result of integration of three estates of XVIII century, which contains also the Green Theatre, one of the largest open amphitheatres in Europe, able to contain up to 15 thousand people.[27] Central Park of Culture and Rest is an amusement park in Moscow, Russia, named after Maxim Gorky. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... Look up Appendix:Architectural glossary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neskuchniy Garden - is the oldest park in Moscow with area of 40,8 hectares and a former Emperors residence, created as a result of integration of three estates of XVIII century. ...


Izmaylovskiy Park created in 1931 is one of the largest urban parks in the world along with Richmond Park in London. Its area of 15.34 square kilometers (5.92 sq mi) is 6 times greater than that of Central Park in New York.[26] Izmaylovsky Park or Izmailovo Park is a forest-like park (russian:lesopark, urban forest) in the Izmaylovo district of Moscow, Russia. ... It has been suggested that King Henry VIIIs Mound be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Sokolniki Park, which got its name from the falcon hunting that occurred here in the past, is one of the oldest in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometers (2 sq mi). From a central circle with a large fountain radiate birch, maple and elm tree alleys. Farther, after the Deer ponds, there is a labyrinth, composed of green paths. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ...


Losiny Ostrov National Park (literally — "Elk Island"), bordering the Sokolniki park, with total area of more than 116 square kilometers (45 sq mi) is the first national park of Russia, located in Moscow and Moscow Oblast. It is also known as the "city taiga", where elk can be seen. Losiny Ostrov National Park (Russian: , literally - Elk Island) is the first national park of Russia, located in Moscow and Moscow Oblast. ... Moscow Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) officially established on January 14, 1929. ...


Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe.[28] It covers territory of 3.61 square kilometers (1.39 sq mi) bordering the All-Russian Exhibition Centre and contains a live exhibition of more than 20 thousand of different species of plants from different parts of the world as well as scientific research laboratory. It also contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest with average age of trees exceeding 100 years as well as a greenhouse on more than 5000 square meters.[26] Main Moscow Botanical Garden main building Japanese garden excibition was opened with assistance of Japanese government in 1987 Tsytsin Main Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe [1]. It covers territory of 3. ... Exhibition grounds feature numerous fountains. ...


Lilac Park, founded in 1958, is known for its permanent sculpture exposition and a large rosarium.


Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Some of the better known attractions include the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square,[29] which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries.[30] Kolomenskoye is another popular attraction with its UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Church of the Ascension, which dates from 1532.[31] UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Kolomenskoye (Russian: ) is a former royal estate situated several miles to the south-east of Moscow downtown, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name). ... Kolomenskoye (Russian: ) is a former royal estate situated several miles to the south-east of Moscow downtown, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name). ...


Other popular attractions include the Moscow Zoo, home to nearly a thousands species and more than 6,500 specimens.[32] Each year, the zoo attracts more than 1.2 million visitors.[32] The long days will also afford one more time to cover the immense wealth of historical, cultural or simply popular sites in Moscow. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Sports

Moscow possesses a large number of various sport facilities and over 500 Olympic champions lived in the city by 2005. [33] Moscow is home to sixty-three stadia (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe (it hosted the UEFA Cup 1998-99 and UEFA Champions League 2007-08 finals). Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including twenty-four with artificial ice. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow,[25] of which Central Moscow Hippodrome,[34] founded in 1834, is the largest. The Grand Sports Arena of the Luzhniki Olympic Complex (Большая спортивная арена Олимпийского комплекса Лужники) in Moscow, or briefly Luzhniki Stadium (Стадион Лужники), is the biggest sports stadium in Russia. ... The UEFA Cup 1998-99 was won by Parma comfortably in the final against Marseille. ... The 2007–08 UEFA Champions League is the 16th season of UEFAs premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League, since it was rebranded in 1992, and the 53rd tournament overall. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Central Moscow Hippodrome Central Moscow Hippodrome, founded in 1834 is the largest horse racing track as well as horse breeding research facility in Moscow and Russia. ...


Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, although the yachting events were held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia. Large athletic facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow had also made a bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on 6 July 2005, Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds. The Games were finally awarded to London. Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ... County Area 159. ... London 2012 redirects here. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Olympic Association has been working on a London Olympic Bid for the 2012 Summer Games since 1997. ...

Grand Sport Arena of Luzhniki Stadium as seen from Sparrow Hills
Grand Sport Arena of Luzhniki Stadium as seen from Sparrow Hills

The two most titled multi-sport clubs in the world are Moscow's CSKA Moscow and Dynamo Moscow. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1844x825, 577 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Luzhniki Stadium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1844x825, 577 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Luzhniki Stadium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Grand Sports Arena of the Luzhniki Olympic Complex (Большая спортивная арена Олимпийского комплекса Лужники) in Moscow, or briefly Luzhniki Stadium (Стадион Лужники), is the biggest sports stadium in Russia. ... A view of central Moscow from Sparrow Hills Sparrow Hills (Sparrows Hills, Russian: Воробьёвы горы, former name in 1935 – 1999: Lenin Hills - Ленинские горы) is a part of the right bank of the Moscow River and one of highest point in Moscow with an altitude up to 220 m (60-70 m above... CSKA Moscow (Central Sports Army Club Moscow, Russian: ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian sports club, often referred to as Red Army for its past affiliation with the Soviet Army. ... Dynamo Moscow (Dinamo Moscow, Dinamo Moskva, Russian: Динамо Москва) is a Russian sports club, based in Moscow. ...


The most titled Ice Hockey team in the Soviet Union and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow. Another big Ice Hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow, which was the second most titled team in the Soviet Union, Krylya Sovetov Moscow, and HC Spartak Moscow. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... HC CSKA Moscow (Central Sports Army Hockey Club Moscow, Russian: ХК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian ice hockey club. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... HC Dynamo Moscow (ru: Динамо Москва) is a Russian professional ice hockey club based in Moscow. ... Krylya Sovetov Moscow (Ru: Крылья Советов Москва) are an ice hockey team in the Russian Hockey Super League and are based in Moscow, Russia. ... HC Spartak Moscow (ru: Спартак Москва) is a Russian professional ice hockey team. ...


The most titled Soviet, Russian, and one of the most titled Euroleague clubs, is the Basketball club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow. Another strong Basketball club from Moskow is MBC Dynamo Moscow. CCCP redirects here. ... The Euroleague (EL) is the highest caliber professional basketball competition in Europe, with teams from thirteen different European countries. ... This article is about the sport. ... PBC CSKA Moscow is a Russian professional basketball club, often referred to as Red Army for its past affiliation with the Soviet Army. ... This article is about the sport. ... MBC Dynamo Moscow (Russian: ) is a Russian basketball club in the Russian Basketball Super League from Moscow, Russia. ...


Moscow had more winners at the USSR and Russian Chess Championship then any other city. Some of them were the best players in the world. The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms throughout history. ...


The most titled Volleyball team in the Soviet Union and in Europe (CEV Champions League) is CSKA Moscow. For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The CEV Champions League or Indesit European Champions League is the top official competition for mens Volleyball clubs of Europe and takes place every year. ... CSKA Moscow (Central Sports Army Club Moscow, Russian: ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian sports club, often referred to as Red Army for its past affiliation with the Soviet Army. ...


Two of the best teams in the world in Water Polo are CSKA Moscow and Dynamo Moscow. Water polo is a team water sport. ... CSKA Moscow (Central Sports Army Club Moscow, Russian: ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian sports club, often referred to as Red Army for its past affiliation with the Soviet Army. ... Dynamo Moscow (Dinamo Moscow, Dinamo Moskva, Russian: Динамо Москва) is a Russian sports club, based in Moscow. ...


In Bandy on of the most successful clubs in the world is Dynamo Moscow. Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dynamo Moscow is a Russian Bandy club from Moscow who were founded in 1923. ...


One of the best Futsal clubs in Europe, is the club MFK Dinamo Moskva. Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In Football FC Spartak Moscow is the club that won most championship titles in the Russian Premier League than any other team, and were second only to Dynamo Kyiv in the Soviet Union. PFC CSKA Moscow is the first Russian football team who won an UEFA title. Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about the football club. ... The Russian Premier League is the top division of Russian football teams. ... FC Dynamo Kyiv (Ukrainian: ФК Динамо Київ, formerly Dinamo Kiev) is the main professional football club in the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv. ... PFC CSKA Moscow (Russian: or Professional Football Club - Central Sports Club of Army (Moscow)) is the football section of the CSKA sports club of Moscow, Russia. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ...


Because of Moscow's cold local climate, winter sports have a large following as well. Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiers and frozen ponds for skaters. A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter. ...


Moscow also hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennis tournament on both the WTA and ATP tours. It is regarded as a very prestigious tournament and is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year. The Kremlin Cup (Russian: ) is an annual tennis tournament held in every autumn at the Olympic Stadium in Moscow, Russia. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... The Womens Tennis Association, formed in 1973, is the principal organizing body of womens professional tennis. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ...


Slava Moscow are a professional rugby union club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Moscow recently became home to the offices of the Rugby Union of Russia, formerly located in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Professional Rugby League (Russian: ) is the premier rugby union competition in Russia. ... Rugby Union of Russia (Russian: ) is the governing body for rugby union in Russia. ... Krasnoyarsk (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai of Russia, and the third largest city in Siberia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Night life

There is a vibrant night life in Moscow. The major and one of the most popular nightlife areas is around Tverskaya Street. The southern part of Tverskaya Street near the Manege Square and the Red Square area is known as an area with many expensive, luxurious bars and restaurants, and is considered being a playground for New Russians and celebrities. Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow. Tverskaya (Тверская) is a neighborhood/borough around Tverskaya Street in Moscow. ... Manege Square (Russian: ) is a large pedestrian open space at the very centre of Moscow bound by the Hotel Moskva (to the east), the State Historical Museum and the Alexander Garden (to the south), the Moscow Manege (to the west), and the 18th-century headquarters of the Moscow State University... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... New Russian (новый русский - novyi russkiy in Russian) is a half-sarcastic term for newly rich businessmen in post-Soviet Russia, who got wealthy very quickly using semi-criminal methods during Russias chaotic transition to a market economy. ...


The adjoining Tretyakovsky Proyezd, also south of Tverskaya Street, in Kitai-gorod, is host to upscale boutique stores such as Bulgari, Tiffany & Co., Armani, Prada and Bentley.[35] Tretyakovsky Proyezd with a Christmas Tree. ... // Iverskiye Gates leading to Red Square are the only extant gates of the Kitai-gorod wall. ... Italian jeweler and luxury goods retailer Bulgari (usually written BVLGARI in ancient Roman style) is named after its founder, Greek Sotirio Bulgari (Σωτήριος Βούλγαρης). The company was founded in 1884 in Rome, Italy. ... Tiffany Blue seen here on a Tiffany gift box. ... This article is about the fashion company. ... For other uses, see Prada (disambiguation). ... Bentleys winged B badge and hood ornament 1929 Blower Bentley from the Ralph Lauren collection. ...


Education and science

See also: Education in Russia

There are 1696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges.[25] Besides these, there are 222 institutions offering higher education in Moscow, including 60 state universities[25] and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755.[36] The university main building located in Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hills) is 240 meters (787 ft) tall and when completed, was the tallest building outside the United States.[37] The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to learn the Russian language. This article is about education in Russia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 993 KB) Summary Author: Athens Yan Place: Moscow State University Date: 1 Oct 2004 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Seven Sisters (Moscow) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 993 KB) Summary Author: Athens Yan Place: Moscow State University Date: 1 Oct 2004 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Moscow Seven Sisters (Moscow) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... A view of central Moscow from Sparrow Hills Sparrow Hills (Sparrows Hills, Russian: Воробьёвы горы, former name in 1935 – 1999: Lenin Hills - Ленинские горы) is a part of the right bank of the Moscow River and one of highest point in Moscow with an altitude up to 220 m (60-70 m above... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... A view of central Moscow from Sparrow Hills Sparrow Hills (Sparrows Hills, Russian: Воробьёвы горы, former name in 1935 – 1999: Lenin Hills - Ленинские горы) is a part of the right bank of the Moscow River and one of highest point in Moscow with an altitude up to 220 m (60-70 m above... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ...


Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in 1830, is located in the centre of Moscow and provides more than 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering offering a wide range of technical degrees.[38] Since it opened enrolment to students from outside Russia in 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University has increased its international enrolment to up to two hundred.[39] The Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Bauman MSTU, sometimes colloquially referred to as the Bauman School) (Russian: ) a public university located in Moscow, Russia. ...


The Moscow Conservatory,[40] founded in 1866 is a prominent music school in Russia, whose graduates included Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke. The Moscow Conservatory (Московская Государственная Консерватория им. П.И.Чайковского) is a prominent music school in Russia. ... Rachmaninoff, in his later years, toured the United States extensively, and remained there from 1918 until his death. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин, Aleksandr Nikolajevič Skriabin; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Scriabine (6 January 1872 [O.S. 26 December 1871]—27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян, Aram Ilič Hačaturjan) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ...

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Andrey Tarkovsky, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Aleksandr Sokurov, Yuriy Norshteyn, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolf among graduates. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technical University) is a university in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1930. ... The All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography is the worlds oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded in 1919. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Vladimir Rostislavovich Gardin (18 January [O.S. 6 January] 1877, Moscow — 28 May 1965, Leningrad) was a pioneering Russian film director and actor who strove to raise the artistic level of Russian cinema. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (Russian: ) (February 16, 1893–June 20, 1953) was a Russian film director who developed influential theories of montage. ... Aleksey Batalov as Gosha in Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears. ... 20th centurys first Chechnya-born filmmaker, Mikhail Vartanov (Vardanov), was born in Grozny in 1937 to Armenian parents. ... Sergei Parajanov and Lilya Brik, a sister of Aragons wife Elsa Triolet. ... Andrei Tarkovsky Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский) (April 4, 1932 - December 28, 1986) was a Russian movie director, writer, and actor. ... Nikita Mikhalkov in the 2005 Fandorin movie The Councillor of State. ... The cover of Ryazanovs memoir book Unsummarized conclusions Eldar Aleksandrovich Ryazanov (Russian: ); b. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Sokurov is a Russian auteur filmmaker from St Petersburg who has been hailed as successor to Andrei Tarkovsky. ... Yuriy Norshteyn Yuriy Borisovich Norshteyn (Russian: ), or Yuri Norstein or Yuri Norshtein (born September 15, 1941) is an award-winning Russian animator most known for his animated short Tale of Tales. ... Aleksandr Petrovs animated film from 1999 (Academy Award for Animated Short Film) Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Russian: ) (July 17, 1957) is a Russian animator and animation director. ... Vasily Makarovich Shukshin (Russian: Васи́лий Макарович Шукшин; 25 July 1929 – 2 October 1974) was a notable Russian actor. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ...


Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six different schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books — of which 20,000 are considered rare — can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.[41] Russias leading educational institution in the field of international relations and diplomacy Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Russia-related stubs ...


Among other prominent institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, also known as Phystech, Moscow Aviation Institute and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Noble Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau and Alexandr Prokhorov, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics.[42] Other institutions, such as the Financial Academy, the State University of Management, the Plekhanov Academy of Economics and the Higher School of Economics offer degrees in management and economic theory. Several Moscow institutions have divisions in other regions and countries around the world. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian: ), abbreviated MIPT or informally Phystech (alternative transliterations: MFTI, Fiztekh; ) is a leading Russian university, originally established in the Soviet Union. ... Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (abbreviated Phystech or MIPT, Russian language: Физтех or МФТИ) is one of the better known Russian universities, sometimes referred to as the Russian MIT. The Institutes primary facilities are located in Dolgoprudny, Moscows satellite town. ... The official MAI symbol Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology) (Russian: ), named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, is one of several major engineering higher education establishments in Moscow (along with Moscow State University, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). ... Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian: Московский Инженерно-Физический Институт, abbreviated МИФИ, MEPhI) is one of the most recognized technical universities in Russia. ... Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian: ), abbreviated MIPT or informally Phystech (alternative transliterations: MFTI, Fiztekh; ) is a leading Russian university, originally established in the Soviet Union. ... The Robert L. Noble Prize (not to be confused with the Nobel Prize) is awarded each year by the National Cancer Institute of Canada to researchers whose contributions have led to a significant advance in cancer research. ... Semenov (on the right) and Kapitsa (on the left), portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Russian Пётр Леонидович Капица) (July 9, 1894 – April 8, 1984) was a Russian physicist who discovered superfluidity with contribution from John F. Allen and Don Misener in 1937. ... Semyonov (right) and Kapitsa, portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921. ... Lev Davidovich Landau Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. ... Alexandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров) (1916 – 2002), physicist, one of the founders of quantum electronics, member of Soviet Academy of Sciences (since 1966). ... Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian: Московский Инженерно-Физический Институт, abbreviated МИФИ, MEPhI) is one of the most recognized technical universities in Russia. ... This box:      Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics (1907-1919: Moscow Commerical Institute; 1919-1924: Karl Marks Moscow Institute of the National Economy; 1924-1991: Plekhanov Institute of the National Economy) is one of the largest Russian economic institutes of higher education. ...


Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental science, in recent years Moscow has seen a significant growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management. Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and increased their student enrolments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with different (especially, European) countries also have become widespread in Moscow's universities, while many schools within the Russian capital will also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen. Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... MBA redirects here. ... A student exchange program is a program in which a student, typically in secondary or higher education, chooses to live in a foreign country to learn, among other things, language and culture. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Moscow is known as one of the most important science centres in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as numerous research and applied science institutions. Image File history File links Sk334. ... Image File history File links Sk334. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...


The Kurchatov Institute, Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow. The Kurchatov Institute is Russias leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institution devoted primarily to the theoretical studies of Condensed matter theory Quantum field theory Nuclear and elementary particle physics Computational physics Nonlinear dynamics Mathematical physics It was formed in 1965 from a reserch group... The entrance to ITEP (?) ITEP (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics; Russian Институт теоретической и экспериментальной физики) is located in Moscow, Russia. ... P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences. ... Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute (Russian: Математический институт имени Ð’.А.Стеклова) is a research institute specialized in Mathematics. ...


There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children.[25] The Russian State Library,[43] founded in 1862 is the national library of Russia. The Russian State Library is home to over 275 kilometres of shelves and forty-two million items, including over seventeen million books and serial volumes, thirteen million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 different languages comprise approximately twenty-nine percent of the collection.[44][45] The Russian State Library is the national library of Russia, located in Moscow. ...


The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library, specialising in Russian history. Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science.[46] The history of Russia is essentially that of its many nationalities, each with a separate history and complex origins. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...


Transport

Kievsky Rail Terminal as seen from the Moskva River embankment
Kievsky Rail Terminal as seen from the Moskva River embankment

There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow: Sheremetyevo International Airport, Domodedovo International Airport, Bykovo Airport, Ostafievo International Airport and Vnukovo International Airport. Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most common entry point for foreign passengers, handling sixty percent of all international flights.[47] Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo's. The three other airports particularly offer flights within Russia and to and from states from the former Soviet Union.[48] Moscow's airports vary in distances from MKAD beltway: Bykovo is the farthest, at 35 kilometres (21 mi); Domodedovo is next at 22 kilometres (13.7 mi); Vnukovo is 11 kilometres (6.8 mi); Sheremetyevo is 10 kilometres (6.25 mi); and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometers (5 mi) from MKAD.[47] Image File history File links Svo_terminal_2. ... Image File history File links Svo_terminal_2. ... Sheremetyevo International Airport (Russian: Шереме́тьево) (IATA: SVO, ICAO: UUEE), is an International airport which serves Moscow, Russia. ... “Domodedovo” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 898 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kievski Rail Terminal, Moscow, selfmade picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 898 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kievski Rail Terminal, Moscow, selfmade picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Mon2. ... Image File history File links Mon2. ... Moscow monorail. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... North river terminal in Moscow North river terminal or Rechnoy vokzal, known also as North port, built in 1937, is one of two passenger terminals of river transport in Moscow. ... Sheremetyevo International Airport (Russian: Шереме́тьево) (IATA: SVO, ICAO: UUEE), is an International airport which serves Moscow, Russia. ... “Domodedovo” redirects here. ... Bykovo Airport (IATA: BKA, ICAO: UUBB) (Russian: Аэропорт Москва-Быково) is one of five airports that serves Moscow, Russia. ... Ostafievo International Airport (Russian: ) (IATA: N/A, ICAO: UUMO) is a B class international airport near Moscow owned by Gazpromavia company, a division of Gazprom. ... Vnukovo Airport (Аэропорт Внуково in Russian) (IATA: VKO, ICAO: UUWW), located 28 km away from the center of Moscow (although still being part of the municipality of Moscow), was the first international airport in the Moscow region. ... “Domodedovo” redirects here. ... Major MKAD interchange in southern Moscow This article is about the road in Moscow. ...


There are also several smaller airports near Moscow, such as Airport Myachkovo, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.[49] Airport Myachkovo (ICAO: UUBM) is an airport in Moscow Oblast, Russia located 31 km southeast of Moscow. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


Likewise, Moscow employs several train stations to serve the city. All of Moscow's nine rail terminals (or vokzals) – Belorussky Rail Terminal, Kazanskiy Rail Terminal, Kiyevsky Rail Terminal, Leningradsky Rail Terminal, Paveletsky Rail Terminal, Rizhsky Rail Terminal, Savyolovsky Rail Terminal, and Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal - are located close to the city centre, but they each handle trains from different parts of Europe and Asia.[50] There are also many smaller railway stations in Moscow. As trains are relatively cheap, they are the mode of preference for travelling Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow is also the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly 9,300 kilometers (5,779 mi) of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. Belorusskiy Rail Terminal Belorusskiy Rail Terminal is one of nine rail terminals in Moscow. ... Kazanskiy Rail Terminal Kazanskiy Rail Terminal is one of nine rail terminals in Moscow. ... Kievsky Rail Terminal as seen from the Moskva River embankment. ... View from Three Station Square. ... Paveletsky Terminal is one of Moscows nine railroad terminals. ... Rizhsky Rail Terminal Rizhsky Rail Terminal (Russian: , Rizhsky vokzal) is one of the nine rail terminals in Moscow, Russia. ... View from the entrance of Savyolovskya metro station Savyolovsky Rail Terminal (Russian: ), alternatively spelled Savyolovskiy, Savelovsky or Savelovskiy, is one of the nine rail terminals in Moscow. ... Yaroslavskiy Rail Terminal Yaroslavskiy Rail Terminal (Russian: ) is one of the nine railway terminals in Moscow, built in 1862. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... For the Fabergé egg, see Trans-Siberian Railway (Fabergé egg). ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Moscow also has two passenger terminals, (South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment. North river terminal, built in 1937, is also the main hub for long-range river routes. There are also three freight ports serving Moscow. Besides this Moscow has a bus terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses (Central Bus Terminal) with daily turnover of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow.[51] South River Terminal is one of two passenger river terminals in Moscow. ... North river terminal in Moscow North river terminal or Rechnoy vokzal, known also as North port, built in 1937, is one of two passenger terminals of river transport in Moscow. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Central Moscow Bus Terminal Central Bus Terminal is a bus terminal in Moscow for long-range and intercity passenger buses with daily overturn of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow[1]. It is owned by a state Mostransavto company[2]. ^ See also...


Local transport includes the Moscow Metro, a metro system famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. When it first opened in 1935, the system had just one line. But today, the Moscow Metro contains twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 176 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedy station, completed in 2003, at 84 metres underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is one of world's busiest metro systems, serving more than seven million passengers daily.[52] There is also a monorail line, operated by the same company. Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has wide plans of expansion of Moscow Metro. Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... A contemporary chandelier in the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky. ... edit Park Pobedy (Парк Победы), Victory Park, is a Metro station on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line in Moscow, Russia. ... Escalators at Canary Wharf, London. ... The following is a list of the top 20 metro systems in terms of passenger rides per year in the world: Tokyo Subway 2. ... Moscow monorail. ...


As Metro stations outside the city centre are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to four kilometres (2.5 mi), an extensive bus network radiates from each station to the surrounding residential zones. Suburbs and satellite cities also connected by commuter elektrichka (electric rail network). Every large street in the city is served by at least one bus route. There are also extensive tram and trolleybus networks. Elektrichka departing from station platform Elektrichka on Yaroslavskiy Rail Terminal, Moscow Elektrichka (Russian: , Ukrainian: is a slang word for elektropoezd (Russian: ), a Soviet or post-Soviet regional (mostly suburban) electrical multiple unit passenger train. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


There's a saving-time search engine for tracing all kinds of Moscow's city transport routes at Moscow Routes website.


There are over 2.6 million cars in the city on a daily basis.[25] Recent years have seen the growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and the lack of parking space to become major problems.


The MKAD, along with the Third Transport Ring and the future Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits. However, as one can easily observe from a map of Moscow area, there are several other roadway systems that form concentric circles around the city. Major MKAD interchange in southern Moscow This article is about the road in Moscow. ... The Third Ring (Russian: Третье транспортное кольцо, Третье кольцо) is one of the Moscow beltways. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Concentric objects share the same center or origin. ...

See also: Moscow Metro

Moscow Metro (Russian: ), which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is one of the worlds most heavily used metro systems. ...

Economy

See also: Economy of Russia
Moscow skyline in 2006, with construction in the right
Moscow skyline in 2006, with construction in the right

In 2006, Mercer Management Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city.[53] Russia is a unique emerging market, in the sense that being the nucleus of a former superpower shows more anomalies. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 676 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 676 KB) http://www. ... Mercer Management Consulting is a management consulting firm headquartered in New York City. ... This is a list of the worlds most expensive cities, according to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting Cost of Living Surveys. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ...


A significant portion of Russia's profits and development is concentrated in Moscow as many multi-national corporations have branches and offices in the city. The plush offices and the lifestyles of the typical corporate employee in Moscow are often indistinguishable from any Western European city, although the average salary for the Muscovite is a bit lower.[54] Since the Russian financial crisis in late 1998, various business sectors in Moscow have shown exponential rates of growth. Many new business centres and office buildings have been built in recent years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office space. As a result, many former industrial and research facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office use. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Inkombank was one of the most high-profile casualties of the events of August 1998. ...


However, while the overall stability has improved in the recent years, crime and corruption continue to remain a problem hindering business development.


The Cherkizovskiy marketplace, controlled by the Azeri diaspora is the largest marketplace in Europe with daily turnover of about thirty million dollars and about ten thousand sellers[55] from different countries (including the China, Turkey, Azerbaijan and India). It is administratively divided into twelve parts and covers a wide sector of the city. The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


Moscow is one of the top cities in the world for billionaires; in 2006, Forbes ranked Moscow second in highest number of billionaires, surpassed only by New York City.[56] In 2004, Russia's thirty-six billionaires (of whom only three did not live in Moscow) held the equivalent of twenty-four percent of Russia's gross domestic product.[57] The nouveau riche, also called the "New Russians", often pejoratively, have a reputation for flaunting their wealth; the avenues for doing so, and subtly, have also increased in recent times — a sense of fashion and self-consciousness has instilled itself through the many haute couture and haute cuisine spots in Moscow. A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... GDP redirects here. ... For the Philadephia-based Post-Genre group, see Nouveau Riche (Philadelphia band). ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ... Haute cuisine (literally high cooking in French) or grande cuisine refers to the cooking of the grand restaurants and hotels of the western world. ...


Industry

Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software development and machinery industries. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... // Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sustainable, accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ...


The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world. Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center produces various space equipment, including modules for space stations Mir, Salyut and the ISS as well as Proton launch vehicles and military ICBMs. Automobile plants ZiL and AZLK, as well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrowagonmash metro wagon plant is located just outside the city limits. The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces reliable military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad. Yuri Gagarin in his trip into space used "Shturmanskie", produced by this factory. The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. The Kristall distillery[58] is the oldest distillery in Russia producing various vodka types, including "Stolichnaya" while a wide assortment of wines are produced at several Moscow wine plants, including Moscow Interrepublican Vinery.[59] The Moscow Jewelry Factory[60] and the Jewellerprom[61] are important producers of jewelry in Russia; Jewellerprom used to produce the famous and exclusive Order of Victory, awarded to those aiding the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II. There are also many other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as many microelectronic industries in Zelenograd. Mil (Миль) is the short name of the Soviet Russian helicopter producer Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (design office prefix Mi), named after the constructor Mikhail Mil. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... ISS is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: The International Space Station is a joint international project to build and maintain an orbiting space station. ... The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a rocket used in an expendable launch system for both commercial and Russian government launches. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... ZIL is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Zork Implementation Language (ZIL) is the language which Infocom used to produce their works of interactive fiction. ... AZLK (АЗЛК in Russian) is a Russian automobile factory (Moscow), the maker of the Moskvitch brand. ... Metro-cars of type 81-740/741 and Ем/Еж in Moscow, metro station Aleksandrovskiy Sad Metrowagonmash (in Russian ОАО ÐœÐµÑ‚ровагонмаш) is an engineering company in Russia. ... Poljot (pronounced PIE-yot, a transliteration of ПОЛЕТ, literally meaning FLIGHT), a brand of watches from Russia, was produced by the First Moscow Watch Factory. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... An early Stolichnaya promotional image. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Zelenograd () is a town 40 km from Moscow, Russia (officially is a district of Moscow city). ...


Moscow also hosts headquarters of various software development companies, including such as worldwide-known producer of anti-virus software Kaspersky Lab, business software and games producer 1C Company, developer of text recognition and translation software ABBYY software house, game developer Akella company and many others. Kaspersky Lab is a computer security company, co-founded by Natalia Kasperskaya and Eugene Kaspersky in 1997, offering antivirus, anti-spyware, anti-spam, and anti-intrusion products. ... 1C Company (Russian: Фирма 1С) is a one of the largest independent Russian software developers and publishers. ... Abbyy is a software house based in Moscow, Russia. ... Akella is a leading Russian software company specializing in the development, publishing, and distribution of computer games and multimedia products. ...


Despite the economic growth experienced in Moscow since the dawn of the twenty-first century, many industries have undergone various crises in recent years. Some of them have been sold to foreign investors, such as OTIS and British American Tobacco, and others have been closed down to make room for new buildings constructed as business centres. Additionally, some industry is now being transferred out of Moscow to improve the ecological state of the city. Nevertheless, the city of Moscow remains one of Russia's major industrial centres. 20XX redirects here. ... Invest redirects here. ... Otis can refer to: Otis, the Great Bustard. ... British American Tobacco Plc (LSE: BATS, AMEX: BTI, KLSE: BAT) is the second largest listed tobacco company in the world. ...


Living costs

Triumph-Palace building, built in 2005, the second tallest building in Europe is just one of many prestigious residential complexes

During Soviet times apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm (some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honours). Private ownership of apartments was limited until the 1990s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area. Due to the current economic situation, the price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. Today, one could expect to pay US$4000 in average per square meter (11 sq ft) in the outskirts of the city[62] or US$6000-$7000 per square meter in a prestigious district. The price sometimes may exceed US$40000 per square meter in a flat.[63][64][65] A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square meters (323 sq ft), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square meters (485 sq ft), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square meters (753 sq ft). Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas (country house) outside the city. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x769, 107 KB) Summary http://markokomp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x769, 107 KB) Summary http://markokomp. ... Triumph palace and the typical Soviet block of flats Triumph-Palace, view from Peschanaya Street Triumph-Palace is the name of an apartment building in Moscow. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ...


In 2007, Moscow ranked top on the List of most expensive cities for second year in a row. This is a list of the worlds most expensive cities for expatriate employees, (not local residents) according to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting 2006 Cost of Living Survey [1] . Various factors enter in to a citys cost-of-living for expatriate employees, such as monetary value, consumer confidence...


As of 2006, there are 8.47 million Muscovites able to work. 1.73 million are employed by the state, 4.42 million are employed by private companies, and 1.99 million are employed by small businesses. There are 74,400 officially registered unemployed working age, of which 34,400 are eligible for unemployment benefits.[25]


Future development

Moscow International Business Centre or Moscow-City is a projected part of central Moscow. Geographically situated in Presnensky District, located at the Third Ring, the Moscow-City area is under intense development. Moscow-city in September 2007 Moscow International Business Centre (Московский Международный Деловой Центр (ММДЦ)), (former Moscow-City (Russian: Москва-Сити )) is a projected part of central Moscow, Russia. ... View of Presnensky District from the Moskva River Presnensky District (Russian: ), commonly called Presnya (), is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. ... The Third Ring (Russian: Третье транспортное кольцо, Третье кольцо) is one of the Moscow beltways. ...


The goal of MIBC "Moscow-City" is to create a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe, that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment. It will be a city within a city. The project was conceived by the Moscow government in 1992.


The construction of MIBC "Moscow-City" takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up 1 square kilometer (247 acres). This area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes.


The Federation Tower, now being built is to be completed in 2008, will become the tallest building in Europe when completed. Federation Tower rendering The Federation Tower is a skyscraper complex currently under construction in Moscow, Russia and is designed to be both the tallest building in Europe as well as Europes first supertall building. ...


At overall completion the plan is to have one of the tallest buildings in the world; the Russia Tower is planned to be completed by 2012 at a height of 612,2 meters (2009 ft), second only to the Burj Dubai.[66] Also to be included in the project are a waterpark and other recreational facilities; trade and entertainment complexes, numerous prestigious office and residential buildings, the transport node and the new site of the Moscow government. The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has already been completed, of which two have already opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned. A rail shuttle service, directly connecting MIBC with Sheremetyevo Airport is also planned. Russia Tower Russia Tower - skyscraper in the territory of Moscow, whose building they plan to complete in 2012. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ... Fun at a waterpark in a wave pool Aerial view of Sunway Lagoon, a popular waterpark in Malaysia. ... City Hall and City Duma model on MIPIM exhibition For the historic structure, see Moscow City Hall. ... Sheremetyevo International Airport (Russian: Шереме́тьево) is otherwise known as Sheremetyevo-2. ...


A Fourth Ring freeway (in addition to Moscow Automobile Ring Road, Garden Ring and the Third Ring) has been designed and is being built around Moscow. It is to be completed by 2012 and will have total length of 61 kilometers (38 mi).[67][68][69] Major MKAD interchange in southern Moscow This article is about the road in Moscow. ... The Garden Ring, also known as the B Ring (Russian: Садовое кольцо, кольцо Б) is a circular avenue in the centre of Moscow, Russia. ... The Third Ring (Russian: Третье транспортное кольцо, Третье кольцо) is one of the Moscow beltways. ...


Demographics

Population: According to the 2002 Census the population of the city was 10,382,754, however, this figure only takes into account legal residents, and not the several million estimated illegal immigrants and guest workers living in the city.[citation needed] Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...


For centuries Moscow has been the largest city in Russia and/or the Soviet Union, however the collapse of the latter has led to a decline in Siberian as well as many other Russian cities, so that Moscow's growth and dominance over Saint Petersburg and the rest of the nation has become even more pronounced.[citation needed] Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Due to a low birth rate[70] and high mortality rate, the population of Russia has been declining by about 700,000 persons per year since the fall of the Soviet Union. In 2003 the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by approximately 49,400. Whilst the birth rate has risen in more recent years, the average age of Moscow's population continues to increase. In 2004 there were more than twice as many people over the age of 55 as there were under the age of 14.[citation needed]


Substantial numbers of internal migrants mean that Moscow's population is still increasing, whereas the population of many other Russian cities is in decline. Migrants are attracted by Moscow's strong economy which contrasts sharply with the stagnation in many other parts of Russia. In order to help regulate population growth, Moscow has an internal passport system that prohibits non-residents from staying in the capital for more than ninety days without registration.[citation needed] An internal passport is an identification document issued in some countries. ...


Ethnic groups: The 2002 Census reported the national composition as: Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...

  • Just over 4% of the inhabitants declined to state their ethnicity on the census questionnaire.[71]

This article is about the people. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Languages Persian Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni (Hanafi), with Shia (Twelver and Ismaili) minorities) Tājik (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east and northeast of present-day Iran. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Volgaic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... Language(s) Pashto Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto: پشتون or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ), ethnic Afghans,[10] or synonymously Afghans[11] (Persian: افغان ), are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North-West... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ...

Media

See also: List of Moscow newspapers

Moscow is the headquarters of nearly all Russian nationwide television networks, radio stations, newspapers and magazines. This is a list of newspapers headquartered in Moscow, Russia. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News which are, respectively, the largest[72] and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. The eXile is a newspaper intended for English-speaking expatriates in Moscow and is known for its satirical nature and pranks on Russian politicians.[73] Expert, Kommersant, and Gazeta are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. Expert and Kommersant are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers. The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia’s most successful independent English-language publication newspaper. ... The eXile, founded in 1997, is a Moscow-based English-language biweekly free newspaper, aimed at the citys expatriate community, which combines outrageous, sometimes satirical, content with investigative reporting. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерса́нтъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... Gazeta is a Russian language daily newspaper covering politics and business. ...


Other notable media of Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned Russian television stations. Echo of Moscow (russian:Эхо Москвы - Ekho Moskvy) is the independent Russian radiostation based in Moscow and broadcasted in many other Russian cities and in Internet. ... NTV, a Russian television channel (HTB in Cyrillic) was a pioneer in the post-Soviet independent television media. ...


Sister cities

Moscow has many sister cities: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Location within Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... For other uses, see Santo Domingo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ...

Bibliography

  • Caroline Brooke. Moscow: A Cultural History. 2006 (Oxford University Press)
  • Karel Neubert. "Portrait of Moscow". 1964
  • Albert J. Schmidt. "The Architecture and Planning of Classical Moscow: A Cultural History". 1989
  • Kathleen Berton. "Moscow: An Architectural History". St. Martin's, 1991
  • Marcel Girard. "Splendours of Moscow and Its Surroundings", trans. from French. 1967
  • John Bushnell. "Moscow Graffiti: Language and Subculture". Unwin Hyman, 1990
  • S.S. Hromov et al. (eds.). "History of Moscow: An Outline", trans. from Russian. 1981
  • Galina Dutkina. "Moscow Days: Life and Hard Times in the New Russia". Trans. Catherine Fitzpatrick. Kodansha America, 1995

See also

The June 29, 1904 tornado in Russia was one of only two disastrous tornadoes that occurred in central Russia in recorded history (the other occurred June 9, 1984 in Ivanovo and Yaroslavl regions). ... World Youth Games is an international competition among young athletes. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... This is a list of the most populous cities of the world defined according to the concept of city proper. ... This is a list of mayors of Moscow. ... Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square in Moscow. ... The Moscow Millionaire Fair held in Moscow, Russia is an annual fair for the exclusive Russian Millionaires of today. ... Moscow-city in September 2007 Moscow International Business Centre (Московский Международный Деловой Центр (ММДЦ)), (former Moscow-City (Russian: Москва-Сити )) is a projected part of central Moscow, Russia. ... Moya Moskva (Моя Москва; My Moscow) is the Anthem of the City of Moscow (Гимн Города Москвы - Gimn Goroda Moskvy) since 1995. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Moscow becomes world's billionaire capital - Forbes. RIA Novsoti. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  2. ^ Sahadi, Jeanne, Moscow remains the world’s most expensive city while London moves up from fifth to second place. CNNMoney.com
  3. ^ Russian: On the origins of Moskva
  4. ^ Comins-Richmond, Walter. The History of Moscow. Occidental College. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  5. ^ Russia Engages the World: The Building of the Kremlin, 1156–1516. The New York Public Library. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  6. ^ a b c Along the Moscow Golden Ring. Moscow,Russia Tourist Information centre. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  7. ^ Vogel, Michael. The Mongol Connection: Mongol Influences on the Development of Moscow. Indiana University South Bend. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  8. ^ Moscow — Historical background
  9. ^ Genesis of the Anti-Plague System: The Tsarist Period
  10. ^ Geographi. The Russian Embassy. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  11. ^ Monthly Averages for Moscow, Russia. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  12. ^ Pogoda.ru.net (Russian). Retrieved on September 7, 2007.
  13. ^ a b Memorial. Melnikov Institute. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  14. ^ Shukshin, Andrei (2000-08-30). Moscow TV Broadcasts Set to Resume After Fire. Reuters via The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  15. ^ See also: The Official Site of the Tretyakov Gallery Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  16. ^ a b About The State Tretyakov Gallery. The State Tretyakov Gallery. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  17. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Polytechnical Museum Retrieved on 2006-07-23. ((English) English version)
  18. ^ The Museum Collections. Polytechnical Museum. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  19. ^ See also: The official site of Borodino Panorama museum
  20. ^ See also: The Official Site of the State Central Concert Hall "Rossia". Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  21. ^ See also: The Official Site of the Moscow International Performance Arts Centre. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  22. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Nikulun Circus. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  23. ^ History of the Mosfilm concern studios foundation. MosFilm. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  24. ^ See also: The Official Site of the Museum of Cinema. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g (Russian) СТОЛИЦА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ В ЗЕРКАЛЕ ЦИФР, ФАКТОВ И СОБЫТИЙ. Moscow government. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  26. ^ a b c d (Russian) Green dress of Moscow
  27. ^ (Russian) Neskuchniy Garden
  28. ^ (Russian) The Official Site of the Main Moscow Botanical Garden. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  29. ^ UNESCO considers the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square to be part of a single World Heritage Site. See also UNESCO's profile on this site.
  30. ^ Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow. World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  31. ^ Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye. World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  32. ^ a b General Information. Moscow Zoo. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  33. ^ BBC Sport: The mood in Moscow
  34. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Central Moscow Hippodrome
  35. ^ Go Magazine. The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  36. ^ MSU History. Moscow State University. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  37. ^ Templeton, John Marks (1997-10-01). Is Progress Speeding Up?: Our Multiplying Multitudes of Blessings, 99. ISBN 1-890151-02-5. 
  38. ^ Fedorov, I.B.. General (English). МГТУ им.Н.Э.Баумана ((Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  39. ^ International Relations. международная деятельность МГТУ (Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  40. ^ See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Conservatory. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  41. ^ " Facts and Figures. MGIMO (Moscow State Institute of International Relations). Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  42. ^ Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  43. ^ See also: The official homepage of the Russian State Library
  44. ^ (Russian) Краткая статистическая справка. Russian State Library (2006-01-01). Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  45. ^ Stacks. The Russian State Library. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  46. ^ (Russian) Official site of the State Public Historical Library
  47. ^ a b "Moscow Airports", Go-Russia, 2007-10-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. 
  48. ^ Getting to Russia: Arriving by Plane. The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  49. ^ (Russian)Airport Myachkovo changed the owners
  50. ^ Getting to Russia: Arriving by Train. The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  51. ^ See also: (Russian) [1] Realty news. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  52. ^ (Russian) Московский метрополитен. Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  53. ^ Sahadi, Jeanne. "World's most expensive cities", CNNMoney, 2006-06-23. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  54. ^ Average monthly salaries (HTML). Federal Service on State Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  55. ^ (Russian) Aleksandrov, Yuri. "Новые лимитчики", New Times, 2005-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 
  56. ^ Number of billionaires surges. CNNMoney (2006-03-09). Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  57. ^ Klebnikov, Paul. "Russia's Richest People: The Golden Hundred", Forbes, 2004-07-22. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 
  58. ^ See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Cristall distillery. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  59. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  60. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Jewelry Factory. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  61. ^ See also: (Russian) The Official Site of the Experimental Moscow Jewelry Atelier Jewellerprom. Retrieved on 2006-07-07
  62. ^ http://rus.intermark.ru/about-us/press/mt_20_10/ US$4,000 for a Square Meter of Apartment Space. The Moscow Times
  63. ^ (Russian) The absolute record of realty cost is broken
  64. ^ Humphries, Conor. "Dividing the Spoils of the Boom", The Moscow Times, 2006-06-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-14. 
  65. ^ (Russian) Costs of realty in Moscow (2006)
  66. ^ Russia Tower www.emporis.com Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  67. ^ (Russian)http://www.gazeta.ru/auto/2006/02/27_a_551381.shtml
  68. ^ (Russian)http://www.prime-realty.ru/cmi/c5/5.146..htm
  69. ^ Plan of the Fourth Transport Road
  70. ^ Heleniak, Timothy. "Russia's Demographic Decline Continues", Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-07-04. 
  71. ^ (2002). "National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation" (XLS). 2002 Russian All-Population Census. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  72. ^ Advertising Information. The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  73. ^ McMeekin, Sean. "From Russia With Malice", Reason Online. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  74. ^ ^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  75. ^ Moscow and Rejkjavik sister cities. . Retrieved on 2008-03-11

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Power crisis in Moscow and central Russia largest ever recorded
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  • Moscow.Info
  • Moscow Information

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Official sites

  • Committee for Tourism of Moscow City Government
  • Official Moscow Administration Site (Russian)

Newspapers & media

  • The Moscow Times - Moscow's leading English-language newspaper
  • The Moscow News - one of Moscow's oldest English-language newspapers
  • Russia Profile - In-depth coverage of international, political, business and cultural events in Russia (in English)

Weather information

  • Historical weather records for Moscow
  • Weather of Moscow, 6 days — moscow.the.by

Maps

  • WikiMapia: Moscow - aerial, satellite view of Moscow showing city landmarks
  • Virtual Moscow, integrates Google Maps with significant tourist locations, photographs and panoramic views.
  • Interactive digital map of Moscow (English) (Russian)
  • 360 Panorama Guide to Moscow (English) (Russian)

Photos and videos

  • Moscow House of Photography
  • Some images from Ukraina Hotel (plus maps from area around the hotel)
  • Christmas Moscow. Photo gallery
  • Sights of Moscow, photographs
  • Photogallery of Moscow

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Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


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Communities - Welcome to Moscow! (361 words)
Moscow is located in northern Idaho, nestled between Moscow mountain and the beautiful undulating hills of the Palouse.
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Moscow grew with the arrival of the railroad in 1885.
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