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Encyclopedia > Mosaic
Detail of mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Amphitrite
Detail of mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Amphitrite
A small part of The Great Pavement, a Roman mosaic laid in AD 325 at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, England.
A small part of The Great Pavement, a Roman mosaic laid in AD 325 at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, England.
Cave canem mosaics ('Beware of the Dog') were a popular motif for the threshold of Roman villas.
Cave canem mosaics ('Beware of the Dog') were a popular motif for the threshold of Roman villas.
Early 12th-century Kievan mosaic depicting St. Demetrius.
Early 12th-century Kievan mosaic depicting St. Demetrius.

Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. It may be a technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration or of cultural and spiritual significance as in a cathedral. Small tiles or fragments of pottery (known as tesserae, diminutive tessellae) or of colored glass or clear glass backed with metal foils are used to create a pattern or picture. The term Mosaic may have the following meanings. ... Download high resolution version (400x837, 140 KB)Detail of mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Amphitrite This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (400x837, 140 KB)Detail of mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Amphitrite This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Mosaic from Herculaneum depicting Poseidon and Amphitrite In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (not to be confused with Aphrodite) was a sea-goddess. ... A small part of the Roman mosaic (called the Great Pavement) at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, England. ... A small part of the Roman mosaic (called the Great Pavement) at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 445 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 445 KB) photo by Radomil 01. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... 12th-century mosaic of St. ... 12th-century mosaic of St. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... 12th-century mosaic depicting St Demetrios, from the Golden-Roofed Monastery in Kiev. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about the material. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Interior decoration or décor is the art of decorating a room so that it is attractive, easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A tessera (plural: tesserae) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ... Glass tiles are pieces of glass formed into consistent shapes. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

History

Mosaics were used across the ancient world for domestic interior decoration. Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic villas, and Roman dwellings from Britain to Dura-Europas. Splendid mosaic floors distinguished luxurious Roman villas across north Africa. In Rome, Nero and his architects used mosaics to cover the surfaces of walls and ceilings in the Domus Aurea, built AD 64. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The entrance to the Great Tumulus Museum at Vergina Vergina (in Greek Βεργίνα; also spelled Verghína and Veryína) is a small town in northern Greece, located at coordinates , in the prefecture of Imathia in the region of Central Macedonia. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Dura-Europos was a Hellenistic and Roman walled city built on an escarpment 90 meters above the banks of the river Euphrates. ... The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this...


The mosaics of the Villa Romana at Casale near Piazza Armerina in Sicily are the largest collection of late Roman mosaics in the world and are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The large villa rustica, which was probably owned by Emperor Maximian, was largely built in the early 4th century. The mosaics were covered and protected by a landslide in the 12th century for 700 years. The most important pieces are the Circus Scene, the 64 m long Great Hunting Scene, the Little Hunt, the Labours of Hercules and the famous Bikini Girls, showing girls in modern-looking bikinis. The peristyle, the imperial apartements and the thermae were also decorated with ornamental and mythological mosaics. Other important examples of Roman mosaic art in Sicily were unearthed on the Piazza Vittoria in Palermo where two houses were discovered. The most important scenes here depicted Orpheus, Alexander the Great's Hunt and the Four Seasons. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


Early Christian art

With the building of Christian basilicas in the late 4th century, wall and ceiling mosaics were adapted to Christian uses. The earliest examples, such as those of the first basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul were all destroyed, but the mosaics of Santa Constanza and Santa Pudenziana, both from the 4th century, survived. The winemaking putti in the ambulatory of Santa Constanza still follow the classical tradition (ie. feast of Bacchus). The so-called Tomb of the Julii, near the crypt beneath St Peter's Basilica, is a fourth-century vaulted tomb with wall and ceiling mosaics that are given Christian interpretations. The former Tomb of Galerius in Thessaloniki, converted into a Christian church during the course of the 4th century, was embellished with very high artistic quality mosaics. Only fragments survived of the original decoration, especially a band depicting saints with hands raised in prayer, in front of complex architectural fantasies. St. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... View of the mausoleum of Santa Costanza from the Constantinian cemetery basilica. ... Main entrance of the church. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... The Arch of Galerius (Greek: τόξο του Γαλερίου or Aψίδα του Γαλερίου) and the Tomb of Galerius (Τάφος του Γαλερίου) are neighbouring monuments in the city of Thessaloniki, in the province of Central Macedonia in northern Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...


In the following century Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire, became the centre of late Roman mosaic art (see details in Ravenna section). Milan also served as the capital of the western empire in the 4th century. In the St Aquilinus Chapel of the Basilica of San Lorenzo mosaics executed in the late 4th-early 5th centuries, depict Christ with the Apostles and the Abduction of Elijah; these mosaics are outstanding for their bright colors, naturalism and adherence to the classical canons of order and proportion. Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of St. ...


Albingaunum was the main Roman port of Liguria. The octagonal baptistry of the town was decorated in the 5th century with high quality blue and white mosaics representing the Apostles. The surviving remains are fragmentary. Albenga is a city on the Italian Riviera in the province of Province_of_Savona in Liguria, Italy. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ...


A beautiful mosaic pavement depicting humans, animals and plants from the original fourth-century cathedral of Aquileia have survived in the later medieval church. This mosaic adopts pagan motifs such as the Nilotic scene but behind the traditional naturalistic content is Christian symbolism (ichthys, fisherman). The sixth-century early Christian basilicas of Sant' Eufemia and Santa Maria delle Grazie in Grado also have magnificent mosaic floors. Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Grado can refer to: Grado, a municipality in the province and autonomous community of Asturias, Spain. ...


Ravenna

Apse mosaic in church
Apse mosaic in church

In the 5th century Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire, became the centre of late Roman mosaic art. The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia was decorated with mosaics of high artistic quality in 425-430. The vaults of the small, cross-shaped structure are clad with mosaics on blue background. The central motif above the crossing is a golden cross in the middle of the stary sky. Another great building established by Galla Placidia was the Church of San Giovanni Evangelista. She erected it in fulfillment of a vow that she made having escaped from a deadly storm in 425 on the sea voyage from Constantinople to Ravenna. The mosaics depicted the storm, portraits of members of the western and eastern imperial family and the bishop of Ravenna, Peter Chrysologus. They are only known from Renaissance sources because they were destroyed in 1569. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 5. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Portrait of Galla Placidia, from her mausoleum in Ravenna. ... Church of San Giovanni Evangelista is a church reputed to have the True Cross. ... Saint Peter Chrysologus (Latin for golden word) (406–450) was the Archbishop of Ravenna from 433 to his death. ...


Ostrogoths kept alive the tradition in the sixth century, as the mosaics of the Arian Baptistry, Baptistry of Neon, Archiepiscopal Chapel, and the earlier phase mosaics in the Basilica of San Vitale and Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo testify. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna, Italy was erected by Ostrogothic King [Theodoric] the Great between the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the sixth century. ... The Baptistry of Neon in Ravenna, Italy, is the most ancient monuments remaining in Ravenna, and was partly erected on the site of a Roman bath. ... Archiepiscopal Chapel is a chapel on the first floor of the bishops palace in Ravenna, Italy. ... The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine Art and architecture in western Europe. ... SantApollinare Nuovo: The 38. ...


After 539 Ravenna was conquered by the Byzantine Empire and became the seat of the Exarchate of Ravenna. The greatest development of Christian mosaics unfolded in the second half of the 6th century. Outstanding examples of Byzantine mosaic art are the later phase mosaics in the Basilica of San Vitale and Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo. The mosaic depicting Emperor Justinian I and Empress Theodora in the Basilica of San Vitale were executed shortly after the Byzantine conquest. The mosaics of the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe were made around 549. The anti-Arian theme is obvious in the apse mosaic of San Michele in Affricisco, executed in 545-547 (largely destroyed, the remains in Berlin). Byzantine redirects here. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine Art and architecture in western Europe. ... SantApollinare Nuovo: The 38. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... The Basilica of SantApollinare in Classe. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The last example of Byzantine mosaics in Ravenna was commissioned by bishop Reparatus between 673-79 in the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe. The mosaic panel in the apse showing the bishop with Emperor Constantine IV is obviously an imitation of the Justinian panel in San Vitale. The Basilica of SantApollinare in Classe. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685); sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatus, meaning the Bearded, like his father; was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ...


Ravenna is still known world-wide as the Capital of Mosaic on account of its unique artistic heritage. Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...

A floor mosaic excavated at the Great Palace of Constantinople, dated to the reign of Justinian I.

Image File history File linksMetadata Greatpalacemosaic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greatpalacemosaic. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...

Byzantine mosaics

Mosaics were more central to Byzantine culture than to that of Western Europe. Byzantine church interiors were generally covered with golden mosaics. Mosaic art flourished in the Byzantine Empire from the 6th to the 15th century. The majority of Byzantine mosaics were destroyed without trace during the long Christian-Muslim wars, but the surviving remains still form a beautiful collection. Byzantine redirects here. ...


The buildings of Emperor Justinian like the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and the Nea Church in Jerusalem were certainly embellished with great mosaics but none of these survived. Probably the earliest example of Byzantine mosaic art can be found in the Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai. On the upper wall Moses is shown in two panels on a landscape background. In the apse we can see the Transfiguration of Jesus on a golden background. The apse is surrounded with bands containing medallions of apostles and prophets, and two contemporary figure, "Abbot Longinos" and "John the Deacon". The mosaic was probably created in 565/6. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... St. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ...


Important fragments survived from the mosaic floor of the Great Palace of Constantinople which was commissioned during Justinian's reign. The figures, animals, plants all are entirely classical but they are scattered before a plain background. The impressive portrait of a moustached man, probably a Gothic chieftain, is considered the most important surviving mosaic of the Justinian age. The so-called small sekreton of the palace was built during Justin II's reign around 565-577. Some fragments survive from the mosaics of this vaulted room. The vine scroll motifs are very similar to those in the Santa Constanza and they still closely follow the Classical tradition. There are remains of floral decoration in the Panayia Acheiropoietos Church in Thessaloniki (5-6th centuries). One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus or Justin The Divine (c. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...


In the 6th century, Ravenna, the capital of Byzantine Italy, became the centre of mosaic making. Istria also boasts some important examples from this era. The Euphrasian Basilica in Parentium was built in the middle of the 6th century and decorated with mosaics depicting the Theotokos flanked by angels and saints. Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... The Euphrasian Basilica is a minor basilica in Poreč, Croatia. ... Position of Poreč in Croatia. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ...


Interesting fragments remain from the mosaics of the Church of Santa Maria Formosa in Pola. These high quality pieces were made during the 6th century by artists from Constantinople. Their pure Byzantine style is different than the contemporary Ravennate mosaics. Pula (Latin Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola; Italian Pola (the city has an official Croatian-Italian bilingualism [1]); Istriot Pula, German Polei) is the largest city in Istria, situated at the southern tip of the peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

A pre-Iconoclastic depiction of St. Demetrios at the Aghios Demetrios Basilica.

Very few early Byzantine mosaics survived the Iconoclastic destruction of the 8th century. Among the rare examples are the 6th century Christ in majesty (or Ezekiel's Vision) mosaic in the apse of the Osios David Church in Thessaloniki that was hidden behind mortar during those dangerous times. The mosaics of the Hagios Demetrios Church, which were made between 634 and 730, also escaped destruction. Unusually almost all represent Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki, often with suppliants before him. Image File history File links Dimamosaic. ... Image File history File links Dimamosaic. ... Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... St Demetrios with children: one of several Byzantine mosaics that escaped destruction from the hands of the Iconoclasts. ... 12th-century mosaic depicting St Demetrios, from the Golden-Roofed Monastery in Kiev. ...


In the Iconoclastic era, figural mosaics were also condemned as idolatry. The Iconoclastic churches were embellished with plain gold mosaics with only one great cross in the apse like the Hagia Irene in Constantinople (after 740). There were similar crosses in the apses of the Hagia Sophia Church in Thessaloniki and in the Church of the Dormition in Nicaea. The crosses were substituted with the image of the Theotokos in both churches after the victory of the Iconodules (787-797 and in 8-9th centuries respectively, the Dormition church was totally destroyed in 1922). Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... The Church of St. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom) in Thessaloniki, Greece, is one of the oldest churches in that city still standing today. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ...


A similar Theotokos image flanked by two archangels were made for the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in 867. The dedication inscription says: "The images which the impostors had cast down here pious emperors have again set up." In the 870s the so-called large sekreton of the Great Palace of Constantinople was decorated with the images of the four great iconodule patriarchs. Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ...


The post-Iconoclastic era was the heyday of Byzantine art with the most beautiful mosaics executed. The mosaics of the Macedonian Renaissance (867-1056) carefully mingled traditionalism with innovation. Constantinopolitan mosaics of this age followed the decoration scheme first used in Emperor Basil I's Nea Church. Not only this prototype was later totally destroyed but each surviving composition is battered so it is necessary to move from church to church to reconstruct the system. Macedonian Renaissance is a label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire (867-1056) which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian themes. ... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ...


An interesting set of Macedonian-era mosaics make up the decoration of the Hosios Loukas Monastery. In the narthex there is the Crucifixion, the Pantokrator and the Anastasis above the doors, while in the church the Theotokos (apse), Pentecost, scenes from Christ's life and ermit St Loukas (all executed before 1048). The scenes are treated with a minimum of detail and the panels are dominated with the gold setting. The monastery of St. ...


The Nea Moni Monastery on Chios was established by Constantine Monomachos in 1043-1056. The exceptional mosaic decoration of the dome showing probably the nine orders of the angels was destroyed in 1822 but other panels survived (Theotokos with raised hands, four evangelists with seraphim, scenes from Christ's life and an interesting Anastasis where King Salomon bears resemblance to Constantine Monomachos). In comparison with Osios Loukas Nea Moni mosaics contain more figures, detail, landscape and setting. Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Ottoman Turkish: صاقيز Sakız; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea five miles off the Turkish coasts. ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ...


The Daphni Monastery houses the best preserved complex of mosaics from the early Comnenan period (ca. 1100) when the austere and hieratic manner typical for the Macedonian epoch and represented by the awesome Christ Pantocrator image inside the dome, was metamorphosing into a more intimate and delicate style, of which The Angel before St Joachim — with its pastoral backdrop, harmonious gestures and pensive lyricism — is considered a superb example. Dafni or Daphni (Greek Δάφνι before the spelling change, Dafnion Δάφνιον or Daphnion) is a monastery 11 km north-west of downtown Athens in Chaidari, south of Athinon Avenue (GR-8A). ... Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael IIIs widow; died in hunting accident Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III; Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew... For other uses, see Pantokrator (disambiguation). ...


The 9th and 10th century mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople are truly classical Byzantine artworks. The north and south tympana beneath the dome was decorated with figures of prophets, saints and patriarchs. Above the principal door from the narthex we can see an Emperor kneeling before Christ (late 9th or early 10th century). Above the door from the soutwest vestibule to the narthex another mosaic shows the Theotokos with Iustinian and Constantine. Iustinian is offering the model of the church to Mary while Constantine is helding the model of the city in his hand. Both emperors are beardless - this is an example for conscious archaization as contemporary Byzantine rulers were bearded. A mosaic panel on the gallery shows Christ with Constantine Monomachos and Empress Zoe (1042-1055). The emperor gives a bulging money sack to Christ offering a donation for the church. Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Empress Zoe as depicted in a mosaic from the Hagia Sophia Zoe (in Greek Ζωή, meaning life), (c. ...


The dome of the Hagia Sophia Church in Thessaloniki is decorated with an Ascension mosaic (c. 885). The composition resembles the great baptistries in Ravenna, with apostles standing between palms and Christ in the middle. The scheme is somewhat unusual as the standard post-Iconoclastic formula for domes contained only the image of the Pantokrator. The Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom) in Thessaloniki, Greece, is one of the oldest churches in that city still standing today. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Mount Pantokrator (sometimes Pantocrator, Παντωκράτορ in Greek) is a mountain located in north-eastern Corfu. ...

There are very few existing mosaics from the Komnenian period but this paucity must be due to accidents of survival and gives a misleading impression. The only surviving 12th century mosaic work in Constantinople is a panel in Hagia Sophia depicting Emperor John II and Empress Eirene with the Theotokos (1122-34). The empress with her long braided hair and rosy cheeks is especially capturing. It must be a life-like portrayal because Eirene was really a redhead as her original Hungarian name, Piroska shows. The adjacent portrait of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos on a pier (from 1122) is similarly personal. The imperial mausoleum of the Komnenos dynasty, the Pantokrator Monastery was certainly decorated with great mosaics but these were later destroyed. The lack of Komnenian mosaics outside the capital is even more apparent. There is only a "Communion of the Apostles" in the apse of the cathedral of Serres. Image File history File links Christ_Hagia_Sofia. ... Image File history File links Christ_Hagia_Sofia. ... For other uses, see Pantokrator (disambiguation). ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... “John Komnenus” redirects here. ... Piroska of Hungary (1088 - 13 August 1134) was a daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Mosque viewed from south east Zeyrek Camii (full name in Turkish: Molla Zeyrek Camii), is a mosque in Istanbul, made of two former Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Serres (Greek: Σέρρες, older form: Σέρραι, Turkish: Serez or Siroz, Slavic: Серез/Serez, Сяр/Syar or Сер/Ser) is a city in the Greek region of Macedonia. ...


A striking technical innovation of the Komnenian period was the production of very precious, miniature mosaic icons. In these icons the small tesserae (with sides of 1 mm or less) were set on wax or resin on a wooden panel. These products of extraordinary craftmanship were intended for private devotion. The Louvre Transfiguration is a very fine example from the late 12th century. The miniature mosaic of Christ in the Museo Nazionale at Florence illustrates the more gentle, humanistic conception of Christ which appeared in the 12th century. This article is about the city in Italy. ...


The sack of Constantinople in 1204 caused the decline of mosaic art for the next five decades. After the reconquest of the city by Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261 the Hagia Sophia was restored and a beautiful new Deesis was made on the south galery. This huge mosaic panel with figures two and a half times lifesize is really overwhelming due to its grand scale and superlative craftmanship. The Hagia Sophia Deesis is probably the most famous Byzantine mosaic in Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos) (1224/1225 – December 11, 1282) reigned as Byzantine emperor 1259–1282. ... The Deesis mosiac in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. ...


The Pammakaristos Monastery was restored by Michael Glabas, an imperial official, in the late 13th century. Only the mosaic decoration of small burial chapel (Parekklesion) of Glabas survived. This domed chapel was built by his widow, Martha around 1304-08. In the miniature dome the traditional Pantokrator can be seen with twelve prophets beneath. Unusually the apse is decorated with a Deesis, probably due to the funerary function of the chapel. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Deesis mosiac in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. ...


The Church of the Holy Apostles in Thessaloniki was built in 1310-14. Although some vandal systematically removed the gold tesserae of the background it can be seen that the Pantokrator and the prophets in the dome follow the traditional Byzantine pattern. Many details are similar to the Pammakaristos mosaics so it is supposed that the same team of mosaicists worked in both buildings. Another building with a related mosaic decoration is the Theotokos Paregoritissa Church in Arta. The church was established by the Despot of Epirus in 1294-96. In the dome is the traditional stern Pantokrator, with prophets and cherubim below. Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Arta (Greek: Άρτα) is a city in north-western Greece, capital of the Arta Prefecture. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ...


The greatest mosaic work of the Palaiologian Renessaince is the decoration of the Chora Church in Constantinople. Although the mosaics of the naos have not survived except three panels, the decoration of the exonarthex and the esonarthex constitute the most important full-scale mosaic cycle in Constantinople after the Hagia Sophia. They were executed around 1320 by the command of Theodore Metochites. The esonarthex has two fluted domes, specially created to provide the ideal setting for the mosaic images of the ancestors of Christ. The southern one is called the Dome of the Pantokrator while the northern one is the Dome of the Theotokos. The most important panel of the esonarthex depicts Theodor Metochites wearing a huge turban, offering the model of the church to Christ. The walls of both narthexes are decorated with mosaic cycles from the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ. These panels show the influence of the Italian trecento on Byzantine art especially the more natural settings, landscapes, figures. Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Italic textTheodore Metochites (1270–1332) was a Byzantine statesman, author, gentleman philosopher, and patron of the arts. ... This article is about headwear. ... From mille trecento, Italian for 1300. ...


The last Byzantine mosaic work was created for the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople in the middle of the 14th century. The great eastern arch of the cathedral collapsed in 1346, bringing down the third of the main dome. By 1355 not only the big Pantokrator image was restored but new mosaics were set on the eastern arch depicting the Theotokos, the Baptist and Emperor John V Palaiologos (discovered only in 1989). Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: , Iōannēs V Palaiologos), (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy. ...


In addition to the large-scale monuments several miniature mosaic icons of outstanding quality was produced for the Palaiologos court and nobles. The loveliest examples from the 14th century are Annunciation in the Victoria and Albert Museum and a mosaic diptych in the Cathedral Treasury of Florence representing the Twelve Feasts of the Church. The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


In the troubled years of the 15th century the fatally weakened empire can't afford luxurious mosaics. Churches were decorated with wall-paintings in this era and after the Turkish conquest.


Medieval Rome

Christian mosaic art also flourished in Late Antique and medieval Rome. Fifth century mosaics can be found over the triumphal arch and in the nave of the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. The 27 surviving panels of the nave are the most important mosaic cycle in Rome of this period. Two other important 5th century mosaics are lost but we know them from 17th century drawings. In the apse mosaic of Sant'Agata dei Goti (462-472, destroyed in 1589) Christ was seated on a globe with the twelve Apostles flanking him, six on either side. At Sant'Andrea in Catabarbara (468-483, destroyed in 1686) Christ appeared in the center, flanked on either side by three Apostles. Four streams flowed from the little mountain supporting Christ. The original 5th century apse mosaic of the Santa Sabina was replaced by a very similar fresco by Taddeo Zuccaro in 1559. The composition probably remained unchanged: Christ flanked by male and female saints, seated on a hill while lambs drinking from a stream at its feet. All three mosaics had a similar iconography. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... SantAgata dei Goti SantAgata dei Goti is a church in Rome dedicated to the martyr Saint Agatha. ... Santa Sabina interior. ... Taddeo Zuccaro (1529-1566), one of the most popular painters of the so-called Roman mannerist school, was the son of Ottaviano Zuccaro, an almost unknown painter at St Angelo in Vado, where he was born in 1529. ...


6th century pieces are rare in Rome but the mosaics inside the triumphal arch of the basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le mura. The Chapel of Ss. Primo e Feliciano in Santo Stefano Rotondo has very interesting and rare mosaics from the 7th century. This chapel was built by Pope Theodore I as a family burial place. The Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura is a shrine to the martyred Roman deacon, Saint Lawrence. ... Santo Stefano Rotondo is the most ancient example of central plan church in Rome. ... Theodore I (d. ...


In the 7-9th centuries Rome fell under the influence of Byzantine art, noticeable on the mosaics of Santa Prassede, Santa Maria in Domnica, Sant'Agnese fuori le Mura, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Santi Nereo e Achilleo and the San Venanzio chapel of San Giovanni in Laterano. The great dining hall of Pope Leo III in the Lateran Palace was also decorated with mosaics. They were all destroyed later except for one example, the so-called Triclinio Leoniano of which a copy was made in the 18th century. Another great work of Pope Leo, the apse mosaic of Santa Susanna, depicted Christ with the Pope and Charlemagne on one side, and SS. Susanna and Felicity on the other. It was plastered over during a renovation in 1585. Inside of Santa Prassede. ... Santa Maria in Domnica, facade. ... The basilica of SantAgnese fuori le mura is a church in Rome, in which Saint Agness bones are reputed to rest. ... Chapel Interior at Night. ... Facade of the basilica of Santi Nereo e Achilleo Santi Nereo e Achilleo is a 4th century basilica church in Rome. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... The Lateran Palace, sometimes more formally known as the Palace of the Lateran, is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later a Palace of the Popes. ... Baroque façade of Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno (1603). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


The fragment of an eighth-century mosaic, the Epiphany is one of the very rare remaining pieces of the medieval decoration of Old St. Peter's Basilica, demolished in the late 16th century. The precious fragment is kept in the sacristy of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. It proves the high artistic quality of the destroyed St. Peter's mosaics. Epiphany may refer to. ... Nineteenth century drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica as it is thought to have looked around 1450. ... Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a church in Rome founded in the 6th century. ...


The last great period of Roman mosaic art was the 12-13th century when Rome developed its own distinctive artistic style, free from the strict rules of eastern tradition and with a more realistic portrayal of figures in the space. Well-known works of this period are the floral mosaics of the Basilica di San Clemente, the façade of Santa Maria in Trastevere and San Paolo fuori le Mura. The beautiful apse mosaic of Santa Maria in Trastevere (1140) depicts Christ and Mary sitting next to each other on the heavenly throne, the first example of this iconographic scheme. A similar mosaic, Christ coronating Mary, decorates the apse of Santa Maria Maggiore. It is a work of Jacopo Torriti from 1295. The mosaics of Torriti and Jacopo da Camerino in the apse of San Giovanni in Laterano from 1288-94 were thoroughly restored in 1884. The apse mosaic of San Crisogono is attributed to Pietro Cavallini, the greatest Roman painter of the 13th century. Six scenes from the life of Mary in Santa Maria in Trastevere were also executed by Cavallini in 1290. These mosaics are praised for their realistic portrayal and attempts of perspective. There is an interesting mosaic medaillon from 1210 above the gate of the church of San Tommaso in Formis showing Christ enthroned between a white and a black slave. The church belonged to the Order of the Trinitarians which was devoted to ransoming Christian slaves. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Basilica of San Clemente is a complex of buildings in Rome centered around a 12th century Roman Catholic church dedicated to Pope Clement I. The site is notable as being an archeological record of Roman architectural, political and religious history from the early Christian era to the Middle Ages. ... Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches in Rome. ... St. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... Jacopo Torriti was an Italian painter and mosaic maker who lived in the 13th century. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... Façade of the basilica San Crisogono is a church in Rome (rione Trastevere) dedicated to the martyr Saint Chrysogonus. ... The Last Judgement (detail of the Apostles) Pietro Cavallini (1259-1330) was an Italian painter and mosaic designer working during the Renaissance. ... The Trinitarians are an order of monks founded at Rome in 1198 by St. ...


The great Navicella mosaic (1305-1313) in the atrium of the Old St. Peter's is attributed to Giotto di Bondone. The giant mosaic, commissioned by Cardinal Jacopo Stefaneschi, was originally situated on the eastern porch of the old basilica and occupied the whole wall above the entrance arcade facing the courtyard. It depicted St. Peter walking on the waters. This extraordinary work was mainly destroyed during the construction of the new St. Peter's in the 17th century. Navicella means "little ship" referring to the large boat which dominated the scene, and whose sail, filled by the storm, loomed over the horizon. Such a natural representation of a seascape was known only from ancient works of art. Giotto di Bondone (c. ... Giacomo Gaetani Stefaneschi (c. ...


Sicily

The heyday of mosaic making in Sicily was the age of the independent Norman kingdom in the 12th century. The Norman kings adopted the Byzantine tradition of mosaic decoration to enhance the somewhat dubious legality of their rule. Greek masters working in Sicily developed their own style, that shows the influence of Western European and Islam artistic tendencies. Best examples of Sicilian mosaic art are the Cappella Palatina of Roger II, the Martorana church in Palermo and the cathedrals of Cefalù and Monreale. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Saracene arches and Byzantine mosaics complement each other within the Palatine Chapel. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... The Baroque façade with the Romanesque campanile. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The façade of the Duomo. ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ...


The Cappella Palatina clearly shows evidence for blending the eastern and western styles. The dome (1142-42) and the eastern end of the church (1143-1154) were decorated with typical Byzantine mosaics ie. Pantokrator, angels, scenes from the life of Christ. Even the inscriptions are written in Greek. The narrative scenes of the nave (Old Testament, life of Sts Peter and Paul) are resembling to the mosaics of the Old St. Peter's and St. Paul's Basilica in Rome (Latin inscriptions, 1154-66). Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


The Martorana church (decorated around 1143) looked originally even more Byzantine although important parts were later demolished. The dome mosaic is very similar to that of the Cappella Palatina with Christ enthroned in the middle and four bowed, elongated angels. The Greek incsriptions, decorative patterns, the evangelists in the squinches are obviously executed by the same Greek masters who worked on Capella Palatina. The mosaic depicting Roger II of Sicily, dressed in Byzantine imperial robes, receiving the crown by Christ was originally in the demolished narthex together with another panel, the Theotokos with Georgios of Antiochia, the founder of the church.


In Cefalù (1148) only the high, French Gothic presbytery was covered with mosaics: the Pantokrator on the semidome of the apse and cherubim on the vault. On the walls we can see Latin and Greek saints, with Greek inscriptions. The Cathedral of Cefalù by night Lungomare Boardwalk beach in Cefalù Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cefalù Cefalù is an ancient city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ...


The Monreale mosaics constitute the largest decoration of this kind in Italy, covering 0,75 hectares with at least 100 million glass and stone tesserae. This huge work was executed between 1176 and 1186 by the order of King William II of Sicily. The iconography of the mosaics in the presbytery is similar to Cefalu while the pictures in the nave are almost the same as the narrative scenes in the Cappella Palatina. The Martorana mosaic of Roger II blessed by Christ was repeated with the figure of King William II instead of his predecessor. Another panel shows the king offering the model of the cathedral to the Theotokos. The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... William II (1153 – November 11, 1189 Palermo), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189. ...


The Cathedral of Palermo, rebuilt by Archbishop Walter in the same time (1172-85), was also decorated with mosaics but none of these survived except the 12th century image of Madonna del Tocco above the western portal. The dome and part of the apse of the Cathedral of Palermo. ...


The cathedral of Messina, consecrated in 1197, was also decorated with a great mosaic cycle, originally on par with Cefalù and Monreale, but heavily damaged and restored many times later. In the left apse of the same cathedral 14th century mosaics survived, representing the Madonna and Child between Saints Agata and Lucy, the Archangels Gabriel and Michael and Queens Eleonora and Elisabetta. Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ...


Southern Italy was also part of the Norman kingdom but great mosaics did not survive in this area except the fine mosaic pavement of the Otranto cathedral from 1166, with mosaics tied into a tree of life, mostly still preserved. The scenes depict biblical characters, warrior kings, medieval beasts, allegories of the months and working activity. Only fragments survived from the original mosaic decoration of Amalfi's Norman Cathedral. The mosaic ambos in the churches of Ravello prove that mosaic art was widespread in Southern Italy during the 11-13th centuries. Otranto is a town and commune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region, and once famous for its breed of horses. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Ravellos church in the main square. ...


The palaces of the Norman kings were decorated with mosaics depicting animals and landscapes. The secular mosaics are seemingly more Eastern in character than the great religious cycles and show a strong Persian influence. The most notable examples are the Sala di Ruggero in the Palazzo dei Normanni, Palermo and the Sala della Fontana in the Zisa summer palace, both from the 12th century. Renaissance façade of the palace. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The Zisa of Palermo. ...


Medieval Italy

Baptistery, Florence
Baptistery, Florence

In parts of Italy, which were under eastern artistic influences, like Sicily and Venice, mosaic making never went out of fashion in the Middle Ages. The whole interior of the St Mark's Basilica in Venice is clad with elaborate, golden mosaics. The oldest scenes were executed by Greek masters in the late 11th century but the majority of the mosaics are works of local artists from the 12-13th centuries. The decoration of the church was finished only in the 16th century. One hundred and ten scenes of mosaics in the atrium of St Mark's were based directly on the miniatures of the Cotton Genesis, a Byzantine manuscript that was brought to Venice after the sack of Constantinople (1204). The mosaics were executed in the 1220s. Other important Venetian mosaics can be found in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta in Torcello from the 12th century, and in the Basilical of Santi Maria e Donato in Murano with a restored apse mosaic from the 12th century and a beautiful mosaic pavement (1140). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (635 × 700 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (635 × 700 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For the Basilica di San Marco in Rome, see Basilica di San Marco (Rome). ... Categories: Art stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta is a basilica church on the island of Torcello, Venice, northern Italy. ... Torcello is a quiet island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ...


Trieste was also an important centre of mosaic art. The mosaics in the apse of the Cathedral of San Giusto were laid by master craftsmen from Veneto in the 12-13th centuries. For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Detail of the façade of San Giusto. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ...


The monastery of Grottaferrata founded by Greek Basilian monks and consecrated by the Pope in 1024 was decorated with Italo-Byzantine mosaics, some of which survived in the narthex and the interior. The mosaics on the triumphal arch portray the Twelve Apostles sitting beside an empty throne, evoking Christ's ascent to Heaven. It is a Byzantine work of the 12th century. There is a beautiful 11th century Deesis above the main portal. Grottaferrata is a town with a Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site of Ciceros Tusculanum and situated on the lower slopes of the Alban hills, in the Diocese of Frascati, two and a half miles from the town itself (41°47′N 12°40′E... Basilian monks are monks who follow the Rule of Saint Basil the Great. ...


The Abbot of Monte Cassino, Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after 1066 to hire expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church. According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds (now in the Monte Cassino Museum). "The abbot in his wisdom decided that great number of young monks in the monastery should be thoroughly initiated in these arts" - says the chronicler about the role of the Greeks in the revival of mosaic art in medieval Italy. The restored Abbey. ... Pope Victor III (Benevento, 1026?–September 16, 1087), born Dauferio Epifanio, Latinized Dauferius or Dauphar, Pope (May 24, 1086 until his death), was the successor of Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), yet his pontificate is a far less impressive in history than Desiderius as the great Abbot of Monte Cassino. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Leo Marsicanus (meaning of the Marsi) was of noble birth and became a monk in Monte Cassino around 1061. ...


In Florence a magnificiant mosaic of the Last Judgement decorates the dome of the Battistero. The earliest mosaics, works of art of many unknown Venetian craftsmen (including probably Cimabue), date from 1225. The covering of the ceiling was probably not completed until the 14th century. This article is about the city in Italy. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ... The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ... Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ...


The impressive mosaic of Christ in Majesty, flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist in the apse of the cathedral of Pisa was designed by Cimabue in 1302. It evokes the Monreale mosaics in style. It survived the great fire of 1595 which destroyed most of the mediveval interior decoration. The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ...


Sometimes not only church interiors but façades were also decorated with mosaics in Italy like in the case of the St Mark's Basilica in Venice (mainly from the 17-19th centuries, but the oldest one from 1270-75, "The burial of St Mark in the first basilica"), the Cathedral of Orvieto (golden Gothic mosaics from the 14th century, many times redone) and the Basilica di San Frediano in Lucca (huge, striking golden mosaic representing the Ascension of Christ with the apostles below, designed by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri in the 13th century). For the Basilica di San Marco in Rome, see Basilica di San Marco (Rome). ... The Duomo di Orvieto is a large fourteenth century Roman Catholic cathedral situated in the Italian town of Orvieto in Umbria. ... Basilica of San Frediano The basilica of San Frediano is a Romanesque church, situated on the Piazza San Frediano in Lucca, Italy. ... Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ...


Western and Central Europe

19th century ceiling of the Palatine Chapel
19th century ceiling of the Palatine Chapel

Beyond the Alpes the first important example of mosaic art was the decoration of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, commissioned by Charlemagne. It was completely destroyed in a fire in 1650. A rare example of surviving Karolingian mosaics is the apsis decoration of the oratory of Germigny-des-Prés built in 805-806 by Theodulf, bishop of Orléans, a leading figure of Carolingian renaissance. This unique work of art, rediscovered only in the 19th century, had no followers. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (3128 × 2312 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (3128 × 2312 pixel, file size: 1. ... A palatine chapel is any chapel that serves a palace. ... Alpes are three departments in south-east France Basses-Alpes Hautes-Alpes Alpes Maritimes Categories: Départements of France | France geography stubs ... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Germigny-des-Prés is a commune of the Loiret département, in France. ... Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, France, (born about A.D. 760 - died at Angers, France, December 18, 821), a Visigoth either from a still-Christian portion of Spain (which had been conquered by Muslims after 710) or the South of France (which was a former possession of the Visigoths), came... The diocese of Orléans (Aurelianum in Latin) comprises the Départment of Loiret, and was suffragan of the archbishopric of Paris since 1622, previously of the archbishopric of Sens. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ...


Later fresco replaced the more labor-intensive technique of mosaic in Western-Europe, although mosaics were sometimes used as decoration on medieval cathedrals. The Royal Basilica of the Hungarian kings in Székesfehérvár (Alba Regia) had a mosaic decoration in the apse. It was probably a work of Venetian or Ravennese craftsmen, executed in the first decades of the 11th century. The mosaic was almost totally destroyed together with the basilica in the 17th century. The Golden Gate of the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague got its name from the golden 14th century mosaic of the Last Judgement above the portal. It was executed by Venetian craftsmen. Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... St. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...


In 2003 remains of a mosaic pavement were discovered under the ruins of the Bizere Monastery near the River Mureş in present-day Romania. The panels, beautifully crafted, are depicting real or fantastic animal, floral, solar and geometric representations. Some archeologists supposed that it was the floor of an Orthodox church, built some time between the 10th and 11th century. Other experts claim that it was part of the later Catholic monastery on the site because it shows the signs of strong Italianate influence. The monastery was situated that time in the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary. The FrumuÅŸeni Mosaics are a set of millennium-old Byzantine mosaics discovered in Romania at Fântâna Turcului (Turks Well), close to the locality of FrumuÅŸeni, on the left bank of MureÅŸ River, near the city of Arad. ... The name MureÅŸ may refer to: MureÅŸ County in Romania MureÅŸ River in Romania and Hungary (Maros) Also, the following localities contain the name MureÅŸ and lie on the banks of the river above. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Renaissance and Baroque

Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica

Although mosaics went out of fashion and were substituted by frescoes that time, some of the great Renaissance artists also worked with the old technique. Raffaello's Creation of the World in the dome of the Chigi Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable example that was executed by a Venetian craftsman, Luigi di Pace. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (617 × 640 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (617 × 640 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This page is about the artist. ... Raphaels Creation of the World Creation of the World is a mosaic in the dome of the Chigi Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, designed by Raphael. ... Floor mosaique of Chigi Chapel Study for the Phrygian Sibyl fresco by Raphael for Chigi Chapel. ... The facade of Santa Maria del Popolo Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable church located in Rome. ...


In the 17th century, the papacy established a Fabbrica to embellish the then new and cavernous St. Peter's Basilica with mosaics. There are few frescoes or canvases in the cavernous Basilica. Among the explanations are: This article is about the famous building in Rome. ...

1) The old St. Peter's basilica had been decorated with mosaic, as was common in churches built during the Byzantine domination; the seventeenth century only followed the tradition to enhance continuity.
2) In a temple like this with high walls and few windows, mosaics were brighter and reflected more light.
3) Mosaics had greater intrinsic longevity than either frescoes or canvases.

The mosaics of St. Peter's often show lively Baroque compositions based on designs or canvases from like Ciro Ferri, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Carlo Maratta, and many others. Raphael is represented by a mosaic replica of this last painting, the Transfiguration. Many of these mosaics were completed by the Pier Paolo Cristofari. Often works of the Fabbrica were used as papal gifts. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Ciro Ferri (1634 - 13 September 1689) was an Italian Baroque painter, the chief pupil and successor of Pietro da Cortona. ... Autoportrait Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 Guido Reni (November 4, 1575, Calvenzano di Vergato, near Bologna - August 18, 1642, Bologna) was a prominent Italian painter of high-Baroque style. ... Domenico Zampieri (or Domenichino) (October 21, 1581 - April 15, 1641), Italian painter, born at Bologna, was the son of a shoemaker. ... Carlo Maratta was an Italian painter of the Baroque era. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The Transfiguration is considered the last painting by the Italian High Renaissance master Raphael. ...

A “painting” made from tesserae in St Peter's Basilica, Vatican State, Italy.
A “painting” made from tesserae in St Peter's Basilica, Vatican State, Italy.
A close up of the bottom left corner of the picture above. Click the picture to see the individual tesserae
A close up of the bottom left corner of the picture above. Click the picture to see the individual tesserae

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2075 × 1654 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2075 × 1654 pixel, file size: 1. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... Motto: None Anthem: Inno e Marcia Pontificale Capital Vatican City1 41°54′ N 12°27′ E Largest city Vatican City1 Official languages Latin2 Government Head of State Secretary of State Governor Elective monarchy Pope Benedict XVI Angelo Cardinal Sodano Edmund Cardinal Szoka Independence -Treaty signed Lateran Treaties 11 February 1929... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (2023 × 1486 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (2023 × 1486 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Eastern Orthodox countries

The craft has also been popular in the Eastern Orthodox countries and Russia, inherited as part of the Byzantine tradition. Yaroslav, the Grand Prince of the Kievan Rus' built a large cathedral in his capital, Kiev. The model of the church was the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, and it was also called Saint Sophia Cathedral. It was built mainly by Byzantine master craftsmen, sent by Constantine Monomachos, between 1037 and 1046. Naturally the more important surfaces in the interior were decorated with golden mosaics. In the dome we can see the traditional stern Pantokrator supported by angels. Between the 12 windows of the drum were apostles and the four evangelists on the pendentives. The apse is dominated by an orant Theotokos with a Deesis in three medallions above. Below is a Communion of the Apostles. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Much of the original Byzantine interior remains intact. ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Mount Pantokrator (sometimes Pantocrator, Παντωκράτορ in Greek) is a mountain located in north-eastern Corfu. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Deesis mosiac in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. ...


Prince Sviatopolk II built St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery in Kiev in 1108. The mosaics of the church are undoubtedly works of Byzantine artists. Although the church was destroyed by Soviet authorities, majority of the panels were preserved. Small parts of ornamental mosaic decoration from the 12th century survived in the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod but this church was largely decorated with frescoes. Mosaic of St. ... The reconstructed St. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


Mosaics stopped being used for church decoration as early as the 12th century in the eastern Slavic countries. Later Russian churches were decorated with frescoes, similarly than orthodox churches in the Balkan.


The apse mosaic of the Gelati Monastery in Georgia from c. 1130 is probably the work of Byzantine mosaicist invited by King Demetre I. The fragmentary panel depicting the Theotokos flanked by two archangels looks thoroughly Byzantine (with Greek inscriptions). Gelati Monastery The Monastery of the Virgin - Gelati near Kutaisi (Imereti region of Western Georgia) was founded by the King of Georgia David the Builder (1089-1125) in 1106. ... Demetre I (დემეტრე I) (ca. ...

Modern mosaic of a Picasso painting in San Francisco, California.
Modern mosaic of a Picasso painting in San Francisco, California.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Islamic art

Islamic architecture used mosaic technique in intricate geometric designs. The process is known as zillij in North Africa and qashani further east. Some of the best examples of Islamic mosaics were produced in Moorish Spain and are still visible at the Alhambra. The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Zillij is the famous Islamic Art of tile making. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The method of Mosaic production in the 19th Century Category: Art stubs ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ...


Modern mosaics

Modern Mosaic Cabinet
Modern Mosaic Cabinet

A modern example of mosaic is the Museum of Natural History station of the New York Subway. Some spectacular modern mosaics are the work of modernisme style architects Antoni Gaudí and Josep Maria Jujol, for example the unique mosaics in the Park Güell in Barcelona. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 81st Street Museum of Natural History is a local station with four tracks and two side platforms. ... South Ferry station 125th Street station The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ... Modernisme in Catalan, (not to be confused with modernism) is the Catalan variant of Art Nouveau. ... Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Riudoms or Reus, 25 June 1852 – Barcelona, 10 June 1926) – sometimes referred to by the Spanish translation of his name, Antonio Gaudí – was a Spanish architect from Catalonia, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic... Josep Maria Jujol Gibert (16 September 1879–1 May 1949) was a Catalan architect. ... The entrance to the park Park Güell is a garden complex with architectural elements situated on the hill of el Carmel in the Gràcia district of Barcelona, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...

Example of Opus Palladianum
Example of Opus Palladianum

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Mosaic Terminology

Mosaic is an ancient and contemporary art form which uses individual pieces of materials placed together to create a unified whole. The materials commonly used are glass, ceramic, marble, pebble, mirror, shells and china.


The term for each piece of material is Tessera (plural: tesserae). The term for the spaces in between where the grout goes is the Interstices. Andamento is the word used to describe the movement and flow of Tesserae. The 'opus', the Latin for ‘work’, is the way in which the pieces are cut and placed varies and is known. Roman Tessera A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ... A tessera (plural: tesserae) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ...

  • Opus Tessellatum: Tesserae laid in regular straight lines like bricks.
  • Opus Regulatum: Vertical and horizontal lines in regular grid.
  • Opus Vermiculatum: Flowing lines of tesserae wriggling over the surface.
  • Opus Musivum: Vermiculatum used totally over image and background.
  • Opus Palladianum: Irregular fitting shapes like crazy paving.

Roman mosaic (2nd century BC) with opus tessellatum as background. ... Opus vermiculatum is a type of mosaic which draws an outline around shapes using tesserae. ...

Mosaic Design

How To

Rough drawing of town crest on wall, projected in charcoal onto board.
Rough drawing of town crest on wall, projected in charcoal onto board.
  • Drawing: A very basic line drawing is all that is/will be required. Enlarge or reduce images with a Photocopier, cut out and draw round them or create a collage to copy. Part of the beauty of mosaic is the material used, so the materials help make decisions about design.
  • Contrast: This is the key to creating a strong piece of work; between image and background, border and central image, within images and patterns to create fine definitions and strong outlines. Check the following points on contrast:
  • Size: Large enough to give impact and small enough to give detail
  • Color: Areas of strong definite color against each other give strength to the design; shades of one color give vibrational quality and depth
  • Texture: Create textures by combining different quality materials. For example, put matte and glazed ceramic together to create tones of a color or reconstruct the patterning on broken china to create interest.
  • Technical consideration: The choice of tesserae will depend on the project. Outdoors, be sure to use weather resistant tiles and cements.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Liz deAth, http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Liz deAth, http://www. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ...

Mosaic Materials

  • Board: Use plywood preferably 5 ply (five layers) minimum thickness 9mm. Ensure that it is WPB quality – waterproof board.
  • Glue: Waterproof Unibond glue.
  • Tesserae: If the mosaic is for indoors use any of the ceramic and glass materials. If outdoors ensure that the materials are frost resistant. Regular ceramic bathroom and kitchen tiles are NOT frost resistant.
  • Tile adhesives and grouts
  • Soak tiles off sheets: Use warm water and paper will come away in about 10 minutes. Make sure to rinse the tiles thoroughly to take off excess glue. Lay on a towel to dry.
  • When using mirror: Remember to use mirror glue from a glass shop. Other glues over time eat the foil back away and reveal black marks.
  • Cement-based tile adhesive.
Workers assembling a mosaic at the Sagrada Família, Barcelona
Workers assembling a mosaic at the Sagrada Família, Barcelona

A tessera (plural: tesserae) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the Alan Parsons Project song, see La Sagrada Familia (song). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...

Mosaic technique

There are three main methods: the direct method, the indirect method and the double indirect method.


Direct method

The direct method of mosaic construction involves directly placing (gluing) the individual tesserae onto the supporting surface. This method is well suited to surfaces that have a three-dimensional quality, such as vases. Roman Tessera A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ...


The direct method suits small projects that are transportable. Another advantage of the direct method is that the resulting mosaic is progressively visible, allowing for any adjustments to tile colors placement.


The disadvantage of the direct method is that the artist must work directly at the chosen surface, which is often not practical for long periods of time. It is unsuitable for large scale projects. Also, it is difficult to control the evenness of the finished surface. This is of particular importance when creating a functional surface such as a floor or a table top.


A modern version of the direct method, sometimes called "Double Direct," is to work directly onto fiberglass mesh. The mosaic can then be constructed with the design visible on the surface and transported to its final location. Large work can be done in this way, with the mosaic being cut up for shipping and then reassembled for installation. It enables the artist to work in comfort in a studio rather than at the site of installation.


Indirect method

The indirect method of applying tesserae is often used for very large projects, projects with repetitive elements or for areas needing site specific shapes. Tiles are applied face-down to a backing paper using an adhesive, and later transferred onto walls, floors or craft projects. This method is most useful for extremely large projects as it gives the maker time to rework areas. Mosaic Murals, Benches even tabletops are some of the items usually made using the indirect method, as it results in a smoother and more even surface.


Double indirect method

The double indirect method can be used when it is important to see the work during the creation process as it will appear when completed. The tesserae are placed face-up on a medium (often adhesive-backed paper or sticky plastic) as it will appear when installed. When the mosaic is complete, a similar medium is placed atop it. The piece is then turned over, the original underlaying material is removed, and the piece is installed as in the indirect method described above.


In comparison to the indirect method, this is a fussy system to use and leads to a significant probability of damaging the work. As a rule, it is important to move your un-installed artwork as little as possible. If there is a great need for a 'true' view of the tile, then a digital photo can be taken and reversed on a computer monitor.


Mathematics

The best way to arrange variously shaped tiles on a surface can lead to complicated mathematical problems - see tessellation for details. Roger Penrose is a mathematician who has worked with tiling problems - see Penrose tilings. A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... In geometry, a tiling (also called tessellation, mosaic or dissection) of a given shape S consists of a collection of other shapes which precisely cover S. Often the shape S to be tiled is the Euclidean plane, but other shapes and three-dimensional objects are considered as well. ... A Penrose tiling A Penrose tiling is an aperiodic tiling of the plane discovered by Roger Penrose in 1973. ...


The artist M.C. Escher was influenced by Moorish mosaics to begin his investigations into tessellation. Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ...


Digital imaging

A mosaic in digital imaging is a plurality of non-overlapping images, arranged in some tessellation. A photomosaic is a picture made up of various other pictures (pioneered by Joseph Francis), in which each "pixel" is actually another picture, when examined closely. Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of digital images, typically from a physical object. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ... In the field of photographic imaging, a photomosaic is a picture (usually a photograph) that has been divided into (usually equal sized) rectangular sections, each of which is replaced with another photograph of appropriate average color. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as little squares and can easily be seen. ...


A tile mosaic is a digital image made up of individual tiles, arranged in a non-overlapping fashion, e.g. to make a static image on a shower room or bathing pool floor, by breaking the image down into square pixels formed from ceramic tiles (a typical size is 1 inch by 1 inch, as for example, on the floor of the University of Toronto pool, though sometimes larger tiles such as 2 by 2 inch are used). These digital images are coarse in resolution and often simply express text, such as the depth of the pool in various places, but some such digital images are used to show a sunset or other beach theme. Obviously digital images expressed in ceramic tile are of very low resolution. A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Thus apart from the artistic value (i.e. the work of Robert Silvers, Ed Chapman and others who use mosaicing creatively), the mosaicing is usually considered an artifact to be filtered out, through interpolation by demosaicing. In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any perceived distortion or other data error caused by the instrument of observation. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points from a discrete set of known data points. ... A demosaicing algorithm is a digital image process used to interpolate a complete image from the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor internal to many digital cameras in form of a matrix of colored pixels. ...


See also

Glass tiles are pieces of glass formed into consistent shapes. ... Example Of A Stone Inlaid Micro-Mosaic Brooch, Circa 1875 Micro mosaics are a special form of the mosaic arts that utilize unusually small mosaic components to craft what often are extraordinarily complex and detailed patterns or images. ... Paint By Number was 3s first album. ... A photographic mosaic of a sea gull made from pictures of birds and other nature photos using hexagonal tiles. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... A tessera (plural: tesserae) is an individual tile in a mosaic, usually formed in the shape of a cube. ...

References

  • Lowden, John. Early Christian and Byzantine art. Phaidon. (for the section of Byzantium and Sicily)

Other Mosaic Books

  • The Art of Mosaic - The Encyclopaedia of Projects, Techniques and Designs Sarah Kelly Search Press
  • Mosaic Techniques and Traditions Sonia King Sterling Publishing Co
  • The Art of Mosaic Design JoAnn Locktov & Leslie Plummer Clagett Quarry Books
  • The Art of Mosaic Caroline Suter & Celia Gregory Anness Publishing Limited
  • The Complete Pebble Mosaic Handbook Maggy Howarth Frances Lincoln
  • Ravenna- Art & History Giuseppe Bovini Longo Publisher
  • Ancient Mosaics Roger Ling British Museum Press
  • Mosaics – Inspiration & 24 Original Projects Kaffe Fassett & Candace Bahouth Ebury Press
  • Decorative Mosaics Elaine M. Goodwin Letts Contemporary Crafts
  • The Mosaic Book Peggy Vance & Celia Goodrick-Clarke Conran Octopus
  • Making Mosaics- Design, Techniques & Projects LeslieDierks Sterling/Lark
  • Antonio Gaudi-Master Architect Juan Bassegoda Nonell Abbeville Press
  • Stylish & simple Mosaic Emma Biggs & Tessa Hunkin Aurim
  • The Los Angeles Watts Towers Goldstone & Goldstone Thames & Hudson

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mosaic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1058 words)
Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic villas, but mosaic floors are particularly associated with Roman dwellings from Britain to Dura-Europas.
The greatest development of Christian mosaics unfolded in the Byzantine empire including its outpost the Exarchate of Ravenna and its territories in Sicily, and in its rival Venice, where mosaic encrusts the exterior and interior of St Mark's.
Mosaic tabletops are usually made using the indirect method, as it results in a smoother and more even surface.
Mosaic (web browser) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1150 words)
Mosaic is considered by scholars to be the first important World Wide Web browser and Gopher client, and was the first browser which ran on Windows (rather than UNIX), which opened the web up to the general public [1].
NCSA Mosaic was originally designed and programmed for Unix's X Window System by Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina at NCSA.
Mosaic, the first web browser to win over the Net masses, was released in 1993 and made freely accessible to the public.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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