FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mortar (weapon)
US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar.
US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar.
French 120 mm MO-120-RT-61 mortar
French 120 mm MO-120-RT-61 mortar
French 120 mm mortar
French 120 mm mortar
American soldiers firing a 120 mm mortar
American soldiers firing a 120 mm mortar

A mortar is a muzzle-loading artillery piece that fires indirect shells (bombs in the United Kingdom) at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories, typically with a barrel length less than 15 times its caliber. These attributes contrast with the mortar's larger siblings, rifled howitzers and field guns, which fire at higher velocities, longer ranges, and flatter arcs. Typically a modern mortar consists of a tube into which is dropped a mortar shell (bomb) onto a firing pin resulting in the detonation of the propellant and the firing of the shell. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (484x710, 160 KB) Soldier Firing the M224 60mm Mortar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (484x710, 160 KB) Soldier Firing the M224 60mm Mortar. ... The M224 60 mm Lightweight Mortar is a smooth bore, muzzle-loading, high-angle-of-fire weapon used for close-in support of ground troops. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1496, 517 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mortar (weapon) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1496, 517 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mortar (weapon) ... The Mortier 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1 (MO-120-RT-61, 120mm rifled towed mortar, model F1) is a heavy mortar used by the French Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1018x943, 336 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mortar (weapon) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1018x943, 336 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mortar (weapon) ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2710x1880, 1439 KB) Subject: Mortar Source page url: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2710x1880, 1439 KB) Subject: Mortar Source page url: http://www. ... It has been suggested that United States Army values be merged into this article or section. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large projectiles without a filling which are properly termed shot. ... Ballistics (gr. ... The word calibre (British English) or caliber (American English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... The firing pin is a very hard steel rod with a one small, rounded end for striking the primer of a cartridge. ...


In the 19th and early 20th centuries very heavy immobile siege mortars were used, of up to one metre calibre. The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ...


A mortar can also be a launcher for fireworks, a hand-held or vehicle-mounted projector for smoke shells or flares, or a large grenade launcher. The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Years Eve Fireworks 2005 A fireworks event (also called a fireworks display or fireworks show) is a spectacular display of the effects produced by firework devices on various occasions. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ...


Mortars are relatively simple and easy to operate artillery pieces. Light and medium mortars are man-portable, and are usually used by infantry organizations. The chief advantage a mortar section has over an artillery battery is its small size and its mobility. It is able to fire from the protection of a trench or defilade. In these aspects the mortar is an excellent infantry support weapon, as it can travel over any terrain and is not burdened by the logistical support needed for artillery. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... A trench is a long narrow ditch. ... Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units exposure to enemy fire. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are also heavy mortars of 120 mm to 240 mm calibre. These are usually towed or vehicle-mounted weapons, sometimes breech-loaded, and normally employed by artillery units attached to battalion through division level. Even at this large size, mortars are simpler and less expensive than comparable howitzers or field guns.


A mortar can be carried by one or more people (larger mortars can be broken down into components), or transported in a vehicle. An infantry mortar can usually also be mounted and fired from a mortar-carrier; a purpose-built armoured vehicle with a large roof hatch. A heavy mortar can be mounted on a towed carriage, or permanently vehicle-mounted as a self-propelled mortar. A U.S. M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) vehicles are a way of giving mobility to artillery. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ...


An unusual support weapon is the Soviet/Russian 2B9 Vasilek 82 mm automatic mortar, also manufactured by the People's Republic of China's Norinco as the Type W99 mortar. This is a fully-automatic weapon, capable of a high rate of fire. It can also be used in a direct fire mode, and can fire a HEAT round for use against light armoured vehicles. The 82mm 2B9 Vasilek or Cornflower automatic gun-mortar is a very complex breech loading or muzzle loading mortar that can function equally well as a high-angle mortar or as a flat-trajectory gun. ... The China North Industries Corporation (Norinco) manufactures vehicles (trucks, cars and motorcycles), machinery, optical-electronic products, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, civil firearms and ammunition, etc. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ...

Contents

Design

Most modern mortar systems consist of three main components: a tube or barrel, a base plate, and a bipod.


Modern mortars normally range in caliber from 60 millimeters (2.36 inches) to 120 millimeters (4.72 inches) however, aberrations both larger and smaller than these specifications have been produced. An example of the smaller scale is the British 51 mm light mortar which is carried by an individual and consists of only a tube and a base plate. Conversely, a large abnormality is the Soviet 2S4 M1975 "Tyulpan" (tulip tree) 240-mm self-propelled mortar. The word calibre (British English) or caliber (American English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev...


Smaller mortars (up to 81 mm) are commonly used and transported by infantry based mortar sections as a substitute for, or in addition to, artillery. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


Ammunition for mortar systems generally come in two main varieties: fin-stabilized and spin-stabilized. The former have short fins on their posterior portion that control their path in flight. The latter use spin (similar to a thrown American Football) to balance and control the mortar shell. These rounds can either be illumination (infrared or visible illumination), smoke, or high explosive. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large projectiles without a filling which are properly termed shot. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large projectiles without a filling which are properly termed shot. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large projectiles without a filling which are properly termed shot. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large projectiles without a filling which are properly termed shot. ...


Spin-stabilised rounds require a rifled barrel. Since mortars on the whole are top-loaded, the mortar bomb has a pre-engraved band that engages with the rifling of the barrel. The increase in accuracy is at a cost in loading time.


Mortars came in a variety of calibres. The French 81 mm mortar became standard for many countries. The Soviets developed an ingenious tactical advantage based upon this fact. They standardized an 82 mm mortar for their armies. Hence, they could use the ammunition of other countries which they found on the battlefield in their mortars, albeit with less accuracy, while their own would be too large for their opponents. This was made use of during the Vietnam War and at other times. [citation needed]


Spigot mortar

Spigot Mortars are a particular type of mortar which use a (mostly) solid rod barrel or spigot, with a hollow tube in the projectile into which the spigot fits, inverting the normal tube mortar arrangement. At the top of the tube in the projectile, propellant such as gunpowder is stored in a cavity. There is usually a trigger mechanism built into the base of the spigot, with a long firing pin running up the length of the spigot activating a primer inside the projectile and firing the propellant charge. The term Spigot can refer to: Spigot ( object ) - a small wooden plug Tristan A. Farnon - cartoonist Tristan A. Farnon Spigot Algorithms - a type of algorithm The AT-4 Spigot - a man-portable ATGM manufactured in the former Soviet Union and not to be confused with the M136 AT4 in service... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention needed to make fire-arms that could fire in any weather. ...


The advantage of a spigot mortar is that the firing unit (baseplate and spigot) is smaller and lighter than an equivalent payload and ranged conventional mortar is. It is also somewhat simpler to manufacture.


The disadvantage is that additional material is required in the mortar projectile to contain the propellant gases during firing. While most mortar shells have a streamlined shape towards the back that naturally fits a spigot mortar application well, using that space for the spigot mortar tube takes volume and mass away from explosive warhead payload and fragmentation mass of the projectile. If carrying only a few projectiles, the projectile weight disadvantage is not significant. However, if used in large quantities, more weight is added in the heavier and more complex projectiles than is saved in the spigot unit, compared to a conventional mortar.


A near silent mortar can be made using the spigot principle. The round has a close fit but moveable plug in the tube that fits over the spigot. When the round is fired the projectile is pushed off the spigot as normal, but the plug is caught by a narrowing of the tube at the base. This traps the gases from the propelling charge and hence the sound of the firing. Post WW2 the silent Belgium Fly-K spigot-mortar was accepted into French service as the TN-8111.


Spigot mortars are generally out of favor in modern usage, replaced by small conventional mortars.


Military applications of spigot mortars include

  • Anti-tank launchers
    • The Blacker Bombard and PIAT antitank launcher used by Britain in WW 2 utilized a spigot mortar type launcher.
  • Anti-submarine launchers
    • The Hedgehog launcher fired a number of antisubmarine projectiles from the deck of a ship forwards, in a circular pattern. The projectiles would detonate if they struck a submarine while sinking, and the pattern was spaced so that any submarine which was partly underneath the projectile landing zone should be struck one or more times.
Georgian-era portable French Mortar.
Georgian-era portable French Mortar.
Mallet's Mortar with 36 inch shells which would have contained 480 lb (217 kg) of gunpowder.
An 1832 "Monster Mortar" invented by Henri-Joseph Paixhans.
An 1832 "Monster Mortar" invented by Henri-Joseph Paixhans.

Nonmilitary applications include use as dummy launchers for training retriever dogs, whereby small- caliber spigot mortars are used to launch lightweight, low-velocity foam dummy targets used for training retriever hunting dogs for bird hunters. Extremely simple launchers use a separate small primer cap as the sole propellant (similar or identical to the cartridges used in industrial nailguns). The Blacker Bombard was anti-tank weapon devised by Lt-Col Blacker for use by the British Home Guard during World War 2. ... PIAT in Canadian War Museum The PIAT, for Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, was one of the earlier anti-tank weapons based on a HEAT shell. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon An anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy during World War II, the Hedgehog was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers to supplement the depth charge. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (816x516, 72 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (816x516, 72 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 643 KB) Summary Mallets mortar at Fort Nelson (Imperial War Museum). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 643 KB) Summary Mallets mortar at Fort Nelson (Imperial War Museum). ... Image File history File links PaixhansMonsterMortar. ... Image File history File links PaixhansMonsterMortar. ... The Mortier monstre, invented by Henri-Joseph Paixhans. ... A retriever is a type of gundog that retrieves game for a hunter. ... Pneumatic Gun in Australia Nail Gun in use A nail gun or nailgun is a type of tool used to drive nails into wood or some other kind of material. ...


Other Advantages


An additional advantage of the mortar is its ability to place munitions in close proximity to the weapon placement due to the "lobbing" nature of the ballistics. This can also be an advantage if the attacking point of the mortar is at a lower elevation than the target. For example a city centre 1 km away with an elevation disadvantage of 30 meters (100 feet) could be attacked where regular long-range artillery would not work.


History

Mortars have existed for hundreds of years, first finding usage in siege warfare. However, these weapons were huge, heavy, iron monstrosities that could not be easily transported. Simply made, these weapons were no more than an iron bowl truly reminiscent of the mortar wherefrom they drew their name. An early portable mortar was invented by Baron Menno van Coehoorn (Siege of Grave, 1674). Coehorn mortars, of approximately 180 lbs weight, were used by both sides during the American Civil War. During the Russo-Japanese War of 19041905, Leonid Gobyato for the first time applied deflection from closed firing positions in the field and designed together with General Roman Kondratenko the first mortar that fired navy shells. However, it was not until World War I and the Stokes trench mortar devised by Sir Wilfred Stokes in 1915, that the modern, man-portable mortar was born. The Germans also developed a series of trench mortars or Minenwerfer in calibres from 7.58 cm to 25 cm. A mortar and pestle are two tools used with each other to grind and mix substances. ... Menno, baron van Coehoorn (1641 - March 17, 1704), Dutch soldier and military engineer, of Swedish extraction. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... General Leonid Gobyato Leonid Nikolaevich Gobyato (Russian: ; 6 February 1875 - 21 May 1915) was a Russian lieutenant-general (posthumously in 1915) and designer of the modern, man-portable mortar. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Sir Wilfred Stokes was the inventor of the Stokes Mortar, extensively used in the latter half of the First World War, being portable and managed by a smaller crew than field guns, as well as suited to trench warfare. ... Minenwerfer (mine launcher) is the German name for a class of short range mortars used extensively during the First World War by the German Army. ...


Extremely useful in the muddy trenches of Europe, mortars were praised because of their high angle of flight. A mortar round could be aimed to fall directly into trenches where artillery shells, due to their low angle of flight, could not possibly go. Modern mortars have improved upon these designs even more, offering a weapon that is light, adaptable, easy to operate, and yet possesses enough accuracy and firepower to provide the infantry with quality close fire support against soft and hard targets more quickly than any other means. A trench is a long narrow ditch. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ...


The largest mortars ever developed were the French "Monster Mortar" (developed by Henri-Joseph Paixhans in 1832), "Mallet's mortar" (developed by Woolwich Arsenal, London in 1857) and the "Little David" (developed in the United States for use in World War II). Each weapon had a caliber of 36 inches (915 mm); only the "Monster Mortar" was used in action (at the Siege of Antwerp in 1832).[1] The Mortier monstre, invented by Henri-Joseph Paixhans. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Little David at the Aberdeen proving ground Little David was the nickname of an American 36 inch (914 mm) caliber mortar used for test firing bombs during World War II. Towards the end of the war it was modified to serve as a siege mortar, as it was expected that... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... The word calibre (British English) or caliber (American English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod. ...




See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mortars

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... A list of the worlds artillery, by type. ... Drawing of a carcas shell In artillery, a carcass was a kind of bomb or shell, originally oblong or oval, and later spherical in shape, consisting of an external casing filled with highly flammable matter, and having three to five holes through which the internal flames could blaze outward. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... The United States chemical mortar battalions were army units attached to U.S. Infantry divisions, and it was their responsibility to service the 4. ... It has been suggested that United States Army values be merged into this article or section. ... The Bofors/SAAB Strix is a Swedish guided projectile fired from a 120 mm mortar. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon An anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy during World War II, the Hedgehog was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers to supplement the depth charge. ...

References

  1. ^ Largest Mortar. Guinness World Records. Retrieved on 2006-04-04.

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ...

External links

Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Weapons Racks | Weapon Racks | GSA Weapons Racks | Combat Weapon Racks | Small Arms Rack (283 words)
Combat Weapon Racks are fast becoming the standard in armories across North America as the most versatile small arms rack on the market for military, law enforcement and sheriff's departments today.
Combat Weapon Racks are available as fixed racks configured in one of our 4 fixed applications or as a high density weapons storage system.
Combat Weapons Racks are available with all standard weapon storage system components including our deployable base.
Mortar (weapon) (0 words)
A mortar is a military weapon into which is dropped a mortar shell, which is then fired in a high ballistic trajectory.
Modern mortars consists of a simple tube; however, early mortars were very short, very thick cannons, and some required transport on railroad cars.
Mortars are often portable by infantry and can be used as a small-scale substitute for artillery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m