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Encyclopedia > Mortal sin

Mortal sin, according to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a person's soul to Hell after death. But even so, you cannot go to heaven if the sin is of a serious enough magnitude. The phrase is used in I John 5.16 -17: "If you see your brother or sister committing what is not a mortal sin, you will ask, and God will give life to such a one - to those whose sin is not mortal. There is sin that is mortal; I do not say you should pray about that. All wrongdoing is sin, but there is sin that is not mortal." (NRSV) The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... Categories: Stub | 1989 books | Bible versions and translations ...


In Roman Catholic moral theology, a mortal sin, as distinct from a venial sin, must meet all of the following conditions: Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ...

  1. its subject must be a grave (or serious) matter;
  2. it must be committed with full knowledge, both of the sin and of the gravity of the offense;
  3. it must be committed with deliberate and complete consent.

Sins considered by the Magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church to be grave matter can usually be considered serious violations of the Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, whether directly such as perjury, adultery, lust, murder, contraceptive use, and abortion; or indirectly in the cases of heresy or despair, which contravene the first commandment,[1] or the use of contraceptives or abortion, which violates the 5th and 6th commandments.[2] All of these, however, are subject both to the conditions above and to mitigating circumstances (like mental illness, emotional or behavioral disturbance, insanity, retardation, young age, affective immaturity, or developmental disorders) of the individual situation. The Church itself does not provide a precise list of sins, subdivided into the mortal and venial categories. Rather, it is generally considered a matter for a well-formed conscience to decide after a comprehensive, prayer-filled, deliberate examination of conscience. These sins must be specifically confessed and named, giving details about the context of each sin: what sin, why, against what or whom, the number and type of occurrences, and any other factors that may exacerbate or lessen one's responsibility and culpability. It also should not be said that certain of these mortal sins, like purposely missing Mass on Sunday is considered equal in gravity to more grave ones, like first-degree murder: Roman Catholic belief holds that mortal sins can vary somewhat in their seriousness, and thus canon law only criminalizes some of the more serious mortal sins. However, for any sins that lack the above mitigating factors and meet the three criteria listed, the "mortal" effect remains present. For all sins in this category, a person's link within their life to God's saving grace necessary for as a member of God's Church is cut off — "dead", not merely lessened. Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ...


This punishment effect is not the same as that resulting from excommunication or penalties like it, which result when a Roman Catholic commits certain mortal sins that are so serious that the church through law has made them crimes, like abortion or heresy. Because commission of these offenses are so serious, the church forbids the excommunicated from receiving any sacrament (not just the Eucharist) and also severely restricts the person's participation in other church liturgical acts and offices. However, even if excommunicated, a Roman Catholic who has not been juridically absolved is still, due to the irrevocable nature of baptism, a member of the church in the sense that they are still considered members of the "church" that is Christ's human family, another more universal interpretation of the word "Catholic." In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Some of these crimes are so serious that they merit not imposed, but automatic, excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church. For this or any related formal penalty to be imposed, one must be aware not only of the seriousness of the offense as a mortal sin,[citation needed] but also of the penalty that is incurred,[citation needed] though this is sometimes more apparent in certain contexts. Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Mortal sins are not to be confused with the deadly sins. The latter are not sins but rather categories of sin or vice, corresponding to weaknesses in human nature. Mortal sins may also be called "grave", "grievous" or "serious" sins. For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ...


The Roman Catholic teaching on mortal sin was called into question by some within the Church in the late 20th century after the Second Vatican Council. In response to these doubts, Pope John Paul II reaffirmed the basic teaching in his encyclical Veritatis Splendor. It is maintained in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church, which says in section 1035, "Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell." (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Veritatis Splendor (Latin: The Splendor of Truth) is the name of an encyclical by Pope John Paul II. It expresses the position of the Catholic Church regarding fundamentals of the Churchs role in moral teaching. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


The Eastern Catholic Churches, which derive their theology and spirituality from same sources as the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox, do not use the Latin Catholic distinction between mortal and venial sin. However, like the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, the Eastern Catholic Churches do make a distinction between sins that are serious enough to bar one from receiving Communion (and must be confessed before receiving once again) and those which are not sufficiently serious to do so. The Eastern Churches do not consider death in such a spiritual state to mean automatic damnation. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ...

Contents

Twenty-first century sins

In March of 2008, Archbishop Gianfranco Girotti listed seven "new" sins:[3]

  • Environmental pollution
  • Genetic manipulation
  • Accumulating excessive wealth
  • Inflicting poverty
  • Drug trafficking and consumption
  • Morally debatable experiments
  • Violation of fundamental rights of human nature

This list is not intended to replace or add to the definition of mortal sin. The list was created with the intent of reminding Catholics of the social nature of many sins, or specifically, how seemingly small offenses (such as pollution) hurt other humans, making the acts sinful. For example, greed has long been considered a cardinal vice, so "inflicting poverty" by extension has always been sinful. "Inflicting poverty" and "accumulating excessive wealth" are not new sins, but manifestations of the sin of greed. Including specific offenses in the list aims to make Catholics aware of the severity of the offense. Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ...


See also

The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Veritatis Splendor (Latin: The Splendor of Truth) is the name of an encyclical by Pope John Paul II. It expresses the position of the Catholic Church regarding fundamentals of the Churchs role in moral teaching. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2084-2094
  2. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2370
  3. ^ David Willey (2008-03-10). Fewer confessions and new sins. BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Summa Theologica (3887 words)
On the other hand, venial sin is called a sin, in reference to an imperfect notion of sin, and in relation to mortal sin: even as an accident is called a being, in relation to substance, in reference to the imperfect notion of being.
Therefore venial sin is not a disposition to mortal sin.
Because venial sin is equally distant from mortal, as mortal sin is from venial.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sin (8286 words)
This state of sin is called by theologians habitual sin, not in the sense that habitual sin implies a vicious habit, but in the sense that it signifies a state of aversion from God depending on the preceding actual sin, consequently voluntary and imputable.
The punishments of the future life are proportioned to the sin committed, and it is the obligation of undergoing this punishment for unrepented sin that is signified by the "reatus poenæ" of the theologians.
Sin has its remedy in grace, which is given us by God, through the merits of His only-begotten Son, Who has redeemed us, restoring by His passion and death the order violated by the sin of our first parents, and making us once again children of God and heirs of heaven.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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