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Encyclopedia > Morse code
1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals
1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals

Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. The short and long elements can be formed by sounds, marks or pulses, in on off keying and are commonly known as "dots" and "dashes" or "dits" and "dahs". Image File history File links Intcode. ... Image File history File links Intcode. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Generally speaking, the term alphanumeric refers to anything that consists of only letters and numbers. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... On-off keying (OOK) is a type of modulation that represents digital data as the presence or absence of a carrier wave. ...


International Morse code is composed of six elements:

  1. short mark, dot or 'dit' (·)
  2. longer mark, dash or 'dah' (-)
  3. intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character)
  4. short gap (between letters)
  5. medium gap (between words)
  6. long gap (between sentences — about seven units of time)

Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, a radio signal with short and long tones, or as a mechanical or visual signal (e.g. a flashing light) using devices like an Aldis lamp or a heliograph. Morse code is transmitted using just two states (on and off) so it was an early form of a digital code. However, it is technically not binary, as the pause lengths are required to decode the information. An Aldis lamp is a visual signalling device, essentially a focussed lamp which can produce a pulse of light. ... Signaling with heliograph, 1910 A heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...


Originally created for Samuel F. B. Morse's electric telegraph in the early 1840s, Morse code was also extensively used for early radio communication beginning in the 1890s. For the first half of the twentieth century, the majority of high-speed international communication was conducted in Morse code, using telegraph lines, undersea cables, and radio circuits. However, the variable length of the Morse characters made it hard to adapt to automated circuits, so for most electronic communication it has been replaced by more machinable formats, such as Baudot code and ASCII. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII, and the root predecessor to International Telegraph Alphabet No 2 (ITA2), the teleprinter code in use until the advent of ASCII. Each character in the alphabet is represented by a series of bits... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...


The most popular current use of Morse code is by amateur radio operators, although it is no longer a requirement for Amateur licensing in some countries. It also continues to be used for specialized purposes, including identification of navigational radio beacon and land mobile transmitters, plus some military communication, including flashing-light semaphore communications between ships in some naval services. Morse code is the only digital modulation mode designed to be easily read by humans without a computer, making it appropriate for sending automated digital data in voice channels, as well as making it ideal for emergency signaling, such as by way of improvised energy sources that can be easily "keyed" such as by supplying and removing electric power (e.g. by flipping a switch or turning a flashlight on and off). An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ... Telegraph Signal Tower at Cobbs Hill, near New Market, Virginia, 1864. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ...

Contents

Development and history

A typical "straight key." This U.S. model, known as the J-38, was manufactured in huge quantities during World War II, and remains in widespread use today. In a straight key, the signal is "on" when the knob is pressed, and "off" when it is released. Length and timing of the dits and dahs are entirely controlled by the operator
A typical "straight key." This U.S. model, known as the J-38, was manufactured in huge quantities during World War II, and remains in widespread use today. In a straight key, the signal is "on" when the knob is pressed, and "off" when it is released. Length and timing of the dits and dahs are entirely controlled by the operator

Beginning in 1836, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred Vail developed an electric telegraph, which used electrical currents to control an electromagnet that was located at the receiving end of the telegraph wire. The technology available at the time made it impossible to print characters in a readable form, so the inventors had to devise an alternate means of communication. Beginning in 1837, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone operated electric telegraphs in England, which also controlled electromagnets in the receivers; however, their systems used needle pointers that rotated to indicate the alphabetic characters being sent. Image File history File linksMetadata J38TelegraphKey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata J38TelegraphKey. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ... Alfred Lewis Vail (September 25, 1807 - January 18, 1859) was a machinist and inventor. ... ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of...


In contrast, Morse and Vail's initial telegraph, which first went into operation in 1844, made indentations on a paper tape when an electrical current was transmitted. Morse's original telegraph receiver used a mechanical clockwork to move a paper tape. When an electrical current was received, an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the moving paper tape, making an indentation on the tape. When the current was interrupted, the electromagnet retracted the stylus, and that portion of the moving tape remained unmarked.


The Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the indentations marked on the paper tape into text messages. In his earliest code, Morse had planned to only transmit numerals, and use a dictionary to look up each word according to the number which had been sent. However, the code was soon expanded to include letters and special characters, so it could be used more generally. The shorter marks were called "dots", and the longer ones "dashes", and the letters most commonly used in the English language were assigned the shortest sequences. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In the original Morse telegraphs, the receiver's armature made a clicking noise as it moved into and out of position to mark the tape. Operators soon learned to translate the clicks directly into dots and dashes, making it unnecessary to use the paper tape. When Morse code was adapted to radio, the dots and dashes were sent as short and long pulses. It was later found that people become more proficient at receiving Morse code when it is taught as a language that is heard, instead of one read from a page.[1][2][3] To reflect the sound of Morse code, practitioners began to vocalise a dash as "dah", and a dot as "dit".


Morse code was an integral part of international aviation. Commercial and military pilots were required to be familiar with it, both for use with early communications systems and identification of navigational beacons which transmitted continuous three letter ID's in Morse code. As late as the 1990s, aeronautical charts listed the three letter ID of each airport in Morse and sectionals still show the Morse signals for Vortac and NDB used for in flight navigation. D-VOR (Doppler VOR) ground station, co-located with DME. VOR, short for VHF Omni-directional Radio Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. ... Radio Tower of NKR Leimen-Ochsenbach, Germany A Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) is a radio broadcast station in a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. ...


Morse code was also used as an international standard for maritime communication until 1999, when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress Safety System. When the French navy ceased using Morse code in 1997, the final message transmitted was "Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence." See also: international distress frequency The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally agreed-upon set of safety procedures, types of equipment, and communication protocols used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Beginning in the early 20th century, the radio frequency of 500 kilohertz (kHz) has been an international (calling and) distress frequency for Morse code maritime communication. ...


Modern International Morse Code

Morse code has been in use for more than 160 years — longer than any other electronic encoding system. What is called Morse code today is actually somewhat different from what was originally developed by Vail and Morse. The Modern International Morse code, or continental code, was created by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in 1848 and initially used for telegraphy between Hamburg and Cuxhaven in Germany. After some minor changes, in 1865 it was standardised at the International Telegraphy congress in Paris (1865), and later made the norm by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as International Morse code. Morse's original code specification, largely limited to use in the United States, became known as American Morse code or "railroad code." American Morse is now very rarely used except in historical re-enactments. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... 1911 Chart of the Standard American Morse Characters (now obsolete) American Morse Code — also known as Railroad Morse — is is the latter-day name for the now-obsolete version of the Morse Code specification originally developed in the mid-1840s, by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail for their electric telegraph. ...


Amateur radio

Vibroplex semiautomatic key. The paddle, when pressed to the right by the thumb, generates a series of dits, the length and timing of which are controlled by a sliding weight toward the rear of the unit. When pressed to the left by the knuckle of the index finger, the paddle generates a dah, the length of which is controlled by the operator. Multiple dahs require multiple presses. Left-handed operators use a key built as a mirror image of this one
Vibroplex semiautomatic key. The paddle, when pressed to the right by the thumb, generates a series of dits, the length and timing of which are controlled by a sliding weight toward the rear of the unit. When pressed to the left by the knuckle of the index finger, the paddle generates a dah, the length of which is controlled by the operator. Multiple dahs require multiple presses. Left-handed operators use a key built as a mirror image of this one

International Morse code today is most popular among amateur radio operators, where it is used as the pattern to key a transmitter on and off in the radio communications mode commonly referred to as "continuous wave" or "CW". The original amateur radio operators used Morse code exclusively, as voice-capable radio transmitters did not become commonly available until around 1920. Until 2003 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio licensing procedure worldwide. However, the World Radiocommunication Conference of 2003 (WRC-03) made the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing optional.[4] Many countries subsequently removed the Morse requirement from their licence requirements.[5][6] Image File history File links VibroplexBug. ... Image File history File links VibroplexBug. ... Undoubtedly the most popular side-to-side mechanical Morse keys is the semi-automatic key or bug. The most popular brand was (and still is) the Vibroplex key, named for the company that first manufactured them in 1905. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ...


Until 1991, a demonstration of the ability to send and receive Morse code at 5 words per minute (WPM) was required to receive an amateur radio license for use in the United States from the Federal Communications Commission. Demonstration of this ability was still required for the privilege to use the HF bands. Until 2000, proficiency at the 20 WPM level was required to receive the highest level of amateur license (Extra Class); effective April 15, 2000, the FCC reduced the Extra Class requirement to 5 WPM.[7] Finally, effective February 23, 2007, the FCC eliminated the Morse code proficiency requirements for all amateur licenses. FCC redirects here. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


While phone (voice) and data transmissions are limited to specific amateur radio bands, CW is the only form of communication that is permitted on all amateur bands—LF, MF, HF, UHF, and VHF. In some countries, certain portions of the amateur radio bands are reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only. Because Morse transmissions employ an on-off keyed radio signal, it requires less complex equipment than other forms of radio communication. Morse code also requires less bandwidth than voice communication, typically 100-150 Hz, compared to the roughly 2400 Hz used by single-sideband voice. Morse code is received as a high-pitched audio tone, so transmissions are easier to copy than voice through the noise on congested frequencies, and it can be used in very high noise / low signal environments. The fact that the transmitted energy is concentrated into a very limited bandwidth makes it possible to use narrow receiver filters, which suppress or eliminate interference on nearby frequencies. The narrow signal bandwidth also takes advantage of the natural aural selectivity of the human brain, further enhancing weak signal readability. This efficiency makes CW extremely useful for DX (distance) transmissions, as well as for low-power transmissions (commonly called "QRP operators", from the Q-code for "reduce power"). There are several amateur clubs that require solid high speed copy, the highest of these has a standard of 60 WPM. For a slower level, the American Radio Relay League offers a code proficiency certification program that starts at 10 WPM. The 136 kHz band is the lowest frequency band in which amateur radio operators are allowed to transmit. ... At just above the AM Broadcast band, 160 meters is the lowest radio frequency band alloted for use by Amateur Radio operators. ... On-off keying (OOK) is a type of modulation that represents digital data as the presence or absence of a carrier wave. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of the technique of amplitude modulation designed to be more efficient in its use of electrical power and bandwidth. ... In amateur radio, QRP operation means transmitting at reduced power levels while aiming to maximize ones effective range while doing so. ... The Q code is a standardized collection of three-letter message encodings, all starting with the letter Q, initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication, and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. ... The ARRL Logo. ...


The relatively limited speed at which Morse code can be sent led to the development of an extensive number of abbreviations to speed communication. These include prosigns and Q codes, plus a restricted standardized format for typical messages. This use of abbreviations also facilitates communication between operators who do not share a common language and thus would have great difficulty in communicating using voice modes. Prosigns or procedural signals are dot/dash sequences that have a special meaning in Morse Code transmissions. ... The Q code is a standardized collection of three-letter message encodings, all starting with the letter Q, initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication, and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. ...


Although the traditional telegraph key (straight key) is still used by many amateurs, the use of semi- and fully-automatic electronic keyers (known as "bugs") is prevalent today. Computer software is also frequently employed to produce and decode Morse code radio signals. Telegraph key Telegraph key (also known as the Morse key) is a generic term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. ... Keyer for wearable computer designed and built for making lightvector paintings. ... Software redirects here. ...


Other uses

A commercially manufactured iambic paddle used in conjunction with an electronic keyer to generate high-speed Morse code, the timing of which is controlled by the electronic keyer. Manipulation of dual-lever paddles is similar to the Vibroplex, but pressing the right paddle generates a series of dahs, and squeezing the paddles produces dit-dah-dit-dah sequence. The actions are reversed for left-handed operators
A commercially manufactured iambic paddle used in conjunction with an electronic keyer to generate high-speed Morse code, the timing of which is controlled by the electronic keyer. Manipulation of dual-lever paddles is similar to the Vibroplex, but pressing the right paddle generates a series of dahs, and squeezing the paddles produces dit-dah-dit-dah sequence. The actions are reversed for left-handed operators

Operators skilled in Morse code can often understand ("copy") code in their heads at rates in excess of 40 WPM. International contests in code copying are still occasionally held. In July 1939 at a contest in Asheville in the United States Ted R. McElroy set a still-standing record for Morse copying, 75.2 WPM.[8] In his online book on high speed sending, William Pierpont N0HFF notes some operators may have passed 100 WPM. By this time they are "hearing" phrases and sentences rather than words. The fastest speed ever sent by a straight key was achieved in 1942 by Harry Turner W9YZE (d. 1992) who reached 35 WPM in a demonstration at a U.S. Army base.[9] A commercially manufactured paddle for use with electronic keyer to generate Morse code Photograph taken in February 2005 by Henryk Kotowski and is released under the terms of GNU GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Morse code ... A commercially manufactured paddle for use with electronic keyer to generate Morse code Photograph taken in February 2005 by Henryk Kotowski and is released under the terms of GNU GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Morse code ... Undoubtedly the most popular side-to-side mechanical Morse keys is the semi-automatic key or bug. The most popular brand was (and still is) the Vibroplex key, named for the company that first manufactured them in 1905. ... Not to be confused with Ashville. ...


As of 2007 commercial radiotelegraph licenses are still being issued in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. Designed for shipboard and coast station operators, they are awarded to applicants who pass written examinations on advanced radio theory and show 20 WPM code proficiency [this requirement is waived for "old" (20 WPM) Extra Class licensees]. However, since 1999 the use of satellite and very high frequency maritime communications systems (GMDSS) have essentially made them obsolete. The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally-agreed set of safety procedures and types of equipment used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ...


Radio navigation aids such as VORs and NDBs for aeronautical use broadcast identifying information in the form of Morse Code. Even today, before a pilot can use such modern radio navigational aids, the pilot must listen to the Morse code identification to ensure he or she is tuned to the proper aid. D-VOR (Doppler VOR) ground station, co-located with DME. VOR, short for VHF Omni-directional Radio Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. ... Radio Tower of NKR Leimen-Ochsenbach, Germany A Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) is a radio broadcast station in a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. ...


Applications for the general public

In speed contests between expert Morse code operators and expert cellphone SMS text messaging users, Morse code has consistently won, leading to speculation that cellphone manufacturers might someday build interfaces for Morse code input[citation needed]. This interface would translate the Morse code input into text, so that it could be sent to any SMS-capable cellphone, thus the recipient would not need to know Morse code in order to read it. (There are third party applications already available for some cellphones that allow Morse code input for sending SMS (see external links)). Other speculated applications include taking an existing assistive application of Morse code (see below) and using the vibrating alert feature on the cellphone to translate SMS messages to Morse code for silent, hands free "reading" of the incoming messages. Many Nokia cellphones have an option to beep either "SMS" or "CONNECTING PEOPLE" in Morse code as an audible alert for the reception of a text message. Cellular redirects here. ... SMS arrival notification on a Siemens phone Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer) text messages, using the Short Message Service, from mobile phones. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ...


Morse code as an assistive technology

Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology, helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate. Morse can be sent by persons with severe motion disabilities, as long as they have some minimal motor control. In some cases this means alternately blowing into and sucking on a plastic tube ("puff and sip" interface). People with severe motion disabilities in addition to sensory disabilities (e.g. people who are also deaf or blind) can receive Morse through a skin buzzer. Products are available that allow a computer operating system to be controlled by Morse code, allowing the user access to the Internet and electronic mail.[10] Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


In one case reported in the radio amateur magazine QST an old shipboard radio operator who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak or write was able to communicate with his physician (a radio amateur) by blinking his eyes in Morse. A better confirmed case occurred in 1966 when prisoner of war Jeremiah Denton, brought on television by his North Vietnamese captors, Morse-blinked the word TORTURE. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. ...


Representation and timing

Morse messages are generally transmitted by a hand-operated device such as a telegraph key, so there are variations introduced by the skill of the sender and receiver — more experienced operators can send and receive at faster speeds. There are two "symbols" used to represent letters, called dots and dashes or (more commonly among CW users) dits and dahs. The length of the dit determines the speed at which the message is sent, and is used as the timing reference. Telegraph key Telegraph key (also known as the Morse key) is a generic term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. ...


The speed of Morse code is typically specified in "words per minute" (WPM). In text-book, full-speed Morse, a dah is conventionally 3 times as long as a dit. The spacing between dits and dahs within a character is the length of one dit; between letters in a word it is the length of a dah (3 dits); and between words it is 7 dits. The Paris standard defines the speed of Morse transmission as the dot and dash timing needed to send the word "Paris" a given number of times per minute. The word Paris is used because it is precisely 50 "dits" based on the text book timing.


Under this standard, the time for one "dit" can be computed by the formula:

T = 1200 / W

Where: W is the desired speed in words-per-minute, and T is one dit-time in milliseconds.


Below is an illustration of timing conventions. The phrase "MORSE CODE", in Morse code format, would normally be written something like this, where - represents dahs and · represents dits:

 -- --- ·-· ··· · / -·-· --- -·· · M O R S E (space) C O D E 

Next is the exact conventional timing for this phrase, with = representing "signal on", and . representing "signal off", each for the time length of exactly one dit:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 M------ O---------- R------ S---- E C---------- O---------- D------ E ===.===...===.===.===...=.===.=...=.=.=...=.......===.=.===.=...===.===.===...===.=.=...= ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | | dah dit | | symbol space letter space word space 

People learning Morse code using the Farnsworth method, named for Donald R. "Russ" Farnsworth, also known by his call sign, W6TTB, are taught to send and receive letters and other symbols at their full target speed, that is with normal relative timing of the dots, dashes and spaces within each symbol for that speed. However, initially exaggerated spaces between symbols and words are used, to give "thinking time" to make the sound "shape" of the letters and symbols easier to learn. The spacing can then be reduced with practice and familiarity. Another popular teaching method is the Koch method, named after German psychologist Ludwig Koch, which uses the full target speed from the outset, but begins with just two characters. Once strings containing those two characters can be copied with 90% accuracy, an additional character is added, and so on until the full character set is mastered. Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...


Morse code is often spoken or written with "dah" for dashes, "dit" for dots located at the end of a character, and "di" for dots located at the beginning or internally within the character. Thus, the following Morse code sequence:

 M O R S E C O D E -- --- ·-· ··· · / -·-· --- -·· · 

is verbally:


Dah-dah dah-dah-dah di-dah-dit di-di-dit dit, Dah-di-dah-dit dah-dah-dah dah-di-dit dit.


Note that there is little point in learning to read written Morse as above; rather, the sounds of all of the letters and symbols need to be learned, for both sending and receiving.


Letters, numbers, punctuation

(audio) This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Wikipedia Media help.
Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code
A · — J · — — — S · · · 1 · — — — — Period [.] · — · — · — Colon [:] — — — · · ·
B — · · · K — · — T 2 · · — — — Comma [,] — — · · — — Semicolon [;] — · — · — ·
C — · — · L · — · · U · · — 3 · · · — — Question mark [?] · · — — · · Double dash [=] — · · · —
D — · · M — — V · · · — 4 · · · · — Apostrophe ['] · — — — — · Plus [+] · — · — ·
E · N — · W · — — 5 · · · · · Exclamation mark [!] — · — · — — Hyphen, Minus [-] — · · · · —
F · · — · O — — — X — · · — 6 — · · · · Slash [/], Fraction bar — · · — · Underscore [_] · · — — · —
G — — · P · — — · Y — · — — 7 — — · · · Parenthesis open [(] — · — — · Quotation mark ["] · — · · — ·
H · · · · Q — — · — Z — — · · 8 — — — · · Parenthesis closed [)] — · — — · — Dollar sign [$] · · · — · · —
I · · R · — · 0 — — — — — 9 — — — — · Ampersand [&], Wait · — · · · At sign [@] · — — · — ·

There is no standard representation for the exclamation mark (! ), although the KW digraph (— · — · — —) was proposed in the 1980s by the Heathkit Company (a vendor of assembly kits for amateur radio equipment). While Morse code translation software prefers this version, on-air use is not yet universal as some amateur radio operators in Canada and the USA continue to prefer the older MN digraph (— — — ·) carried over from American landline telegraphy code. Image File history File links Gnome-speakernotes. ... Image File history File links A_morse_code. ... Image File history File links J_morse_code. ... Image File history File links S_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 1_number_morse_code. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... Image File history File links B_morse_code. ... Image File history File links K_morse_code. ... Image File history File links T_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 2_number_morse_code. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ... Image File history File links C_morse_code. ... Image File history File links L_morse_code. ... Image File history File links U_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 3_number_morse_code. ... ? redirects here. ... See also the disambiguation page title equality. ... Image File history File links D_morse_code. ... Image File history File links M_morse_code. ... Image File history File links V_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 4_number_morse_code. ... An apostrophe ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... Image File history File links E_morse_code. ... Image File history File links N_morse_code. ... Image File history File links W_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 5_number_morse_code. ... an exclamation mark An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... Image File history File links F_morse_code. ... Image File history File links O_morse_code. ... Image File history File links X_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 6_number_morse_code. ... Due to technical limitations, /. redirects here. ... For other meanings of the word fraction, see fraction (disambiguation) A cake with one quarter removed. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Image File history File links G_morse_code. ... Image File history File links P_morse_code. ... Image File history File links Y_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 7_number_morse_code. ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... Quotation marks or inverted commas (also called quotes and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. ... Image File history File links H_morse_code. ... Image File history File links Q_morse_code. ... Image File history File links Z_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 8_number_morse_code. ... $ redirects here. ... Image File history File links I_morse_code. ... Image File history File links R_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 0_number_morse_code. ... Image File history File links 9_number_morse_code. ... An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... Not to be confused with commercial art. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Heathkits were products of the Heath Company, Benton Harbor, Michigan. ...


The &, $ and the _ sign are not defined inside the ITU recommendation on morse code. But the $ sign code was defined inside the Phillips Code (huge collection of abbreviations used on land line telegraphy) as a SX representation. The above given representation for the &-sign is the morse pro sign used for wait.


On May 24, 2004—the 160th anniversary of the first public Morse telegraph transmission—the Radiocommunication Bureau of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) formally added the "@" ("commercial at" or "commat") character to the official Morse character set, using the sequence denoted by the AC digraph (· — — · — ·). This sequence was reportedly chosen to represent "A[T] C[OMMERCIAL]" or the letter "a" inside the swirl appearing to be a "C".[11] The new character facilitates sending electronic mail addresses by Morse code and is notable since it is the first official addition to the Morse set of characters since World War I. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is a standards body subcommittee of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) relating to radio communication. ... Not to be confused with commercial art. ... Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail or email, is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Prosigns

Character(s) Code Character(s) Code Character(s) Code
Wait · - · · ·  Error · · · · · · · ·  Understood · · · - · 
Invitation to transmit - · - End of work · · · - · - Starting Signal - · - · -

Defined in the ITU recommendation.


Non-English extensions to the Morse code

Char. Code Char. Code Char. Code Char. Code Char. Code
ä (also æ) · — · — ch — — — — é · · — · · ĵ · — — — · ŝ · · · — ·
à (also å) · — — · — ð · · — — · ĝ — — · — · ñ — — · — — þ · — — · ·
ç (also ĉ) — · — · · è · — · · – ĥ — · — — · ö (also ø) — — — · ü (also ŭ) · · — —

Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... For Æ, the Irish writer, see George William Russell. ... CH can mean: Cargo helicopter (U.S. military helicopter alpha-numeric prefix) Companion of Honour, a member of the Order of the Companions of Honour, which is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... (e-acute) is a letter of Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, and Uyghur language. ... Ĵ or ĵ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ŝ or ŝ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese, and other languages. ... The letter Å represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Ĝ or ĝ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Ĉ or ĉ (C circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiceless postalveolar affricate (either palato-alveolar or retroflex), and is equivalent to or in the IPA. Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for all four of its postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets. ... È can be: The letter E with a Grave accent. ... ĥ in different fonts (Code2000, Sylfaen, Pragmatica Esperanto Ĥ, or ĥ, is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... // For the similarly named Danish land, see Ø, Denmark. ... Ü, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Ŭ or ŭ is a letter in the Belarusian language, when written in the Łacinka alphabet (based on the Latin alphabet), and is also a letter in the Esperanto alphabet. ...

Non-Latin extensions to Morse code

See Other alphabets in Morse code. For Chinese, Chinese telegraph code is used to map Chinese characters to four-digit codes and send these digits out using standard Morse code. This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin. ... The Chinese telegraph code ( / Zhōngwén diànmǎ or / Zhōngwén diànbàomǎ[1]) is a four-digit decimal code for electrically telegraphing messages written with Chinese characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Alternative display of more common characters for the international code

Some methods of teaching or learning morse code use the dichotomic search table below. In computer science, a dichotomic search is a search algorithm that operates by selecting between two distinct alternatives (dichotomies) at each step. ...

A graphical representation of the dichotomic search table: the user branches left at every dit and right at every dah until the character is finished.
A graphical representation of the dichotomic search table: the user branches left at every dit and right at every dah until the character is finished.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2480x797, 119 KB) Summary A binary tree of the Morse Code adapted from the dichotomic search table in the morse code Wikipedia entry. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2480x797, 119 KB) Summary A binary tree of the Morse Code adapted from the dichotomic search table in the morse code Wikipedia entry. ...

Morse code in popular culture

Morse code has been used many times in music, print advertising, artwork, and as a plot device in films, television, and novels.


The theme music of the television series Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em, composed by Ronnie Hazlehurst, spells out the programme's title in Morse code. Frank Spencer sporting his trademark beret in a scene with Broadcaster David Jacobs Some Mothers Do Ave Em (1973-1978) was a BBC situation comedy, written by Raymond Allen and starring Michael Crawford and Michele Dotrice. ... Ronnie Hazlehurst (13 March 1928 – 1 October 2007) was an English composer who, having joined the BBC in 1961, became its Light Entertainment Musical Director. ...


See also

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ... For most of the 20th century, the radio frequency 500 kHz (known as 600 meters or 500 kc for most of the century, before kilohertz replaced kilocycle) was the international calling and distress frequency for ships on the high seas. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... 1911 Chart of the Standard American Morse Characters (now obsolete) American Morse Code — also known as Railroad Morse — is is the latter-day name for the now-obsolete version of the Morse Code specification originally developed in the mid-1840s, by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail for their electric telegraph. ... Signaling with heliograph, 1910 A heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. ... High Speed Telegraphy (HST) competitions challenge individuals to correctly receive and copy Morse code transmissions sent at very high speeds. ... Instructograph - A paper tape based machine used for the study of Morse code. ... Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. ... September 2006 cover The K9YA Telegraph is a free, monthly, general interest amateur radio e-zine first published in January 2004. ... Abbreviations differ from prosigns for Morse Code in that they observe normal interletter spacing; that is, they are not run together the way prosigns are. ... Due to the fact that associating letters and numbers with audible dits and dahs can be dificult, many people have developed mnemonics to help remember the morse code equivalent of characters. ... FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... Prosigns or procedural signals are dot/dash sequences that have a special meaning in Morse Code transmissions. ... Roger J. Wendell (born November 12, 1955) is an environmental activist, ecologist, and radio interviewer. ... The Q code is a standardized collection of three-letter message encodings, all starting with the letter Q, initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication, and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ... Telegraph key Telegraph key (also known as the Morse key) is a generic term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. ... Wabun Code is a form of Morse Code used to send Japanese language text. ... The Chinese telegraph code ( / Zhōngwén diànmǎ or / Zhōngwén diànbàomǎ[1]) is a four-digit decimal code for electrically telegraphing messages written with Chinese characters. ... YYZ is an instrumental song by Rush, from the 1981 album Moving Pictures. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Inspector Morse was a television series, based on the popular novels, also called Inspector Morse for the British TV network ITV. The series was made by Zenith Productions for Central (a company later acquired by Carlton). ...

References

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Morse code

  Results from FactBites:
 
Morse code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3727 words)
Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as "dots" and "dashes" — for the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message.
Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, as a radio signal with short and long pulses or tones, or as a mechanical or visual signal (e.g.
Morse code was used as an international standard for maritime communication until 1999 when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress Safety System.
Morse code - tScholars.com (3774 words)
Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as "dots" and "dashes" — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message.
Morse code is the only digital modulation mode designed to be easily read by humans without a computer, making it appropriate for sending automated digital data in voice channels.
Morse's original code specification, largely limited to use in the United States, became known as Railroad or American Morse code, and is now very rarely used.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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