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Encyclopedia > Morrison Waite
Morrison Remick Waite


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2868x3475, 711 KB) Chief Justice of the United States Morrison Waite. ...


In office
March 4, 1874 – March 23, 1888
Nominated by Ulysses S. Grant
Preceded by Salmon P. Chase
Succeeded by Melville Fuller

Born November 29, 1816
Lyme, Connecticut
Died March 23, 1888 (aged 71)
Washington, DC

Morrison Remick Waite (November 29, 1816March 23, 1888) was the Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to 1888. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Melville Weston Fuller (February 11, 1833 – July 4, 1910) was the Chief Justice of the United States between 1888 and 1910. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Lyme is a town located in New London County, Connecticut. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of...


He was born at Lyme, Connecticut, the son of Henry Matson Waite, who was a judge of the Superior Court and associate judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 1834-1854 and chief justice of the latter in 1854-1857. Lyme is a town located in New London County, Connecticut. ... The Connecticut Supreme Court is in most respects a typical American state supreme court. ...


He graduated from Yale as a member of the Skull and Bones Society in 1837, and soon afterwards moved to Maumee, Ohio, where he studied law in the office of Samuel L. Young and was admitted to the bar in 1839. In 1850, he moved to Toledo, and he soon came to be recognized as a leader of the state bar. In politics, he was first a Whig and later a Republican, and, in 1849-1850, he was a member of the Ohio Senate. Before the Civil War, Waite opposed slavery and the southern slave states withdrawal from the Union. In 1871, with William M. Evarts and Caleb Cushing, he represented the United States as counsel before the Alabama Tribunal at Geneva, and, in 1874, he presided over the Ohio constitutional convention. In the same year he was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to succeed Judge Salmon P. Chase as Chief Justice of the United States, and he held this position until his death at March 23, 1888 in Washington, D.C. The nomination was not well-received. Former Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles remarked of the nomination that "It is a wonder that Grant did not pick up some old acquaintenance, who was a stage driver or bartender, for the place," and the political journal "The Nation" said "Mr Waite stands in the front-rank of second-rank lawyers." “Yale” redirects here. ... Emblem of the Skull and Bones society The Order of Skull and Bones, once known as The Brotherhood of Death[1], is a secret society based at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, and one of the earliest-established of student secret societies to rival Phi Beta Kappa, also originally... Maumee is a city located in Lucas County, Ohio. ... Nickname: The Glass City Location in the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... Caleb Cushing (January 17, 1800–January 2, 1879) was an American statesman and diplomat who served as a U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts and Attorney General under President Franklin Pierce. ... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... A constitutional convention is a gathering of delegates for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ...

Contents

The Waite Court, 1874-1888

In the cases which grew out of the American Civil War and Reconstruction, and especially in those which involved the interpretation of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments, he sympathized with the general tendency of the court to restrict the further extension of the powers of the Federal government. In a particularly notable ruling in United States v. Cruikshank, he struck down the Enforcement Act, ruling that "The very highest duty of the States, when they entered into the Union under the Constitution, was to protect all persons within their boundaries in the enjoyment of these 'unalienable rights with which they were endowed by their Creator.' Sovereignty, for this purpose, rests alone with the States. It is no more the duty or within the power of the United States to punish for a conspiracy to falsely imprison or murder within a State, than it would be to punish for false imprisonment or murder itself." He concluded that "We may suspect that race was the cause of the hostility but is it not so averred" . His belief was that white moderates should set the rules of racial relations in the South which reflected the majority of the Court and the people of the United States which was tired of the bitter racial strife involved with the affairs of Reconstruction. This decisions practically overturned the Fourteenth Amendment. This belief backfired when arch-segregationists in the South regained power and legislated the infamous Jim Crow laws that disenfranchised African-Americans in the South. These laws lasted long into the Twentieth Century. This article is becoming very long. ... Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments, intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... United States v. ...


In his opinion of Munn vs Illinois (1877) which was one of a group of six Granger cases involving Populist-inspired state legislation to fix maximum rates chargable by grain elevators and railroads he said when a business or private property was "affected with a public interest" it was subject to governmental regulation. Thus he was ruling against charges that Granger laws constituted encroachment of private property without due process of law and conflicted with the Fourteenth Amendment. The ardent New Dealers in the Franklin Roosevelt administration looked to Munn vs Illinois to guide them in matters like due process, commerce and contract clauses .


He concurred with the majority in the Head Money Cases (1884), the Ku-Klux Case (United States v. Harris, 1883), the Civil Rights Cases (1883) and the Legal Tender Case (Juillard v. Greenman) (1883). Among his own most important decisions were those in the Enforcement Act Cases (1875), the Sinking Fund Cases (1878), the Railroad Commission Cases (1886) and the Telephone Cases (1887). The Head Money cases (112 U.S. 580) were the subject of an important United States Supreme Court decision. ... United States v. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Holding The Equal Protection clause applies only to state action, not segregation by privately owned businesses. ...


In 1876 when there was talk about a third term for President Grant some Republicans turned to Waite as they believed he was a better presidential nominee for the Republican Party than the scandal-tainted Grant. Waite turned down the idea arguing "my duty was not to make it a stepping stone to someone else but to preserve it's purity and make my own name as honorable as that of any of my predecessors" . In the aftermath of the presidential election of 1876 he refused to sit on the Electoral Commission which decided the electoral votes of Florida because of his close friendship of GOP presidential nominee Rutherford Hayes.


As Chief Justice he swore in Presidents Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur and Grover Cleveland.


There is reason to believe that Justice Waite was not highly regarded by every one. One quote, attributed to one of his brother Justices, call him "an experiment no President has a right to make with our Court"


Black education and administration of the Court

He was one of the Peabody Trustees of Southern Education and was a vocal advocate to aiding schools for the education of blacks in the south.


Like his successor Melville Fuller, he is regarded as a capable and competent administrator of the Supreme Court. While his Court was sceptical of the women vote he himself sympathized with the women's rights movement and supported admission of women to the Supreme Court bar.


Frankfurters view of Waite

Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter said of him - "he did not confine the constitution within the limits of his own experience...The disciplined and disinterested lawyer in him transcended the bounds of the environment within which he moved and the views of the client whom he served at the bar" .


See also

This is a chronological list of notable cases decided by the United States Supreme Court during the tenures of Chief Justices John Jay, John Rutledge, Oliver Ellsworth, John Marshall, Roger Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Morrison Waite, Melville Fuller, Edward Douglass White, and William Howard Taft (October 19, 1789 through February...

External links

  • Oyez: Morrison R. Waite Biography
  • Supreme Court Historical Society: Waite

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by
Salmon P. Chase
Chief Justice of the United States
March 4, 1874March 23, 1888
Succeeded by
Melville Fuller
The Waite Court Seal of the U.S. Supreme Court
1874–1877: N. Clifford | N.H. Swayne | S.F. Miller | D. Davis | S.J. Field | Wm. Strong | J.P. Bradley | W. Hunt
1877–1880: N. Clifford | N.H. Swayne | S.F. Miller | S.J. Field | Wm. Strong | J.P. Bradley | W. Hunt | J.M. Harlan
1881: N. Clifford | S.F. Miller | S.J. Field | J.P. Bradley | W. Hunt | J.M. Harlan | Wm. B. Woods | Th. S. Matthews
1882–1887: S.F. Miller | S.J. Field | J.P. Bradley | J.M. Harlan | Wm. B. Woods | Th. S. Matthews | H. Gray | S. Blatchford
1888: S.F. Miller | S.J. Field | J.P. Bradley | J.M. Harlan | Th. S. Matthews | H. Gray | S. Blatchford | L.Q.C. Lamar II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Morrison Remick Waite - Encyclopedia.com (345 words)
Waite, Morrison Remick, 1816-88, American jurist, seventh Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1874-88), b.
It was Waite's task as Chief Justice to help interpret the amendments to the Constitution that were adopted after the Civil War.
Waite maintained that only businesses "clothed with a public interest" might be subject to economic regulation by the states; e.g., a state might set the rates charged by a grain elevator but not the prices of a haberdasher.
Morrison Waite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (340 words)
Morrison Remick Waite served as the Chief Justice of the United States.
Morrison Remick Waite (November 29, 1816 March 23, 1888) was the Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to 1888.
He was born at Lyme, Connecticut, the son of Henry Matson Waite, who was a judge of the Superior Court and associate judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 1834-1854 and chief justice of the latter in 1854-1857.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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