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Encyclopedia > Morocco
المملكة المغربية
Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya
Tagldit n Lmeghrib
Royaume du Maroc
Kingdom of Morocco
Flag of Morocco Coat of arms of Morocco
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Allāh, al Waţan, al Malik"  (transliteration)
"God, Nation, King"
Anthem
Hymne Chérifien
The striped area on the map shows Western Sahara, most of which is de facto administered by Morocco as its "Southern Provinces". Its sovereignty, however, is currently in dispute.
Capital Rabat
34°02′N, 6°51′W
Largest city Casablanca
Official languages de jure:   Arabic[1]
de facto:  French1
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Mohammed VI
 -  Prime Minister Driss Jettou
Independence
 -  from France March 2, 1956 
 -  from Spain April 7, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 446,550* km² (57th)
172,414 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 250km²
Population
 -  2005 estimate 33,241,259 (37th)
 -  Density 70 /km² (122nd)
181 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $152.5 billion (54th)
 -  Per capita $5,000 (109th)
HDI (2004) 0.640 (medium) (123rd)
Currency Moroccan dirham (MAD)
Time zone UTC (UTC+0)
Internet TLD .ma
Calling code +212
*All data excludes Western Sahara, much of which is under Moroccan de facto administrative control.
1 French is equally used as an administrative language though not on an official basis. Moroccan Arabic, an Arabic vernacular is the most common native language. Amazigh is also widely spoken.

Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Amazigh: Tagldit n Lmeghrib, Arabic: المملكة المغربية), is a country in North Africa with a population of 33,241,259. It has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has international borders with Algeria to the east, Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with two small Spanish-occupied autonomous cities, Ceuta and Melilla), and Mauritania to the south.[2] Morocco could refer to: The country of Morocco The 1930 film Morocco (1930 movie) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Morocco. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Morocco and the story behind its symbols At the time of the Merinid and Saadi dynasties ruling, the Moroccan flag used to be completely white. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Hymne Chérifien, written by Léo Morgan, has been the anthem of the Kingdom of Morocco since the country gained its independence in 1956. ... Image File history File links LocationMorocco_striped. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Moroccan name for Western Sahara. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Motto Allāh, al WaÅ£an, al Malik(transliteration) God, Nation, King Anthem Hymne Chérifien The striped area on the map shows Western Sahara, most of which is de facto administered by Morocco as its Southern Provinces. Its sovereignty, however, is currently in dispute. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ... US President George W. Bush talks with His Majesty King Mohammed VI of Morocco in the Oval Office Tuesday, 23 April 2002 King Mohammed VI (Arabic: الملك محمد السادس للمغرب), also King Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan is the current King of Morocco. ... The Prime Minister is the head of the government of Morocco. ... Driss Jettou (Arabic: إدريس جطو) (born May 24, 1945 in El Jadida) is the Prime Minister of Morocco. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The dirham is the currency of Morocco. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ma is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Morocco. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ...


Morocco is the only African country that is not currently a member of the African Union. However, it is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, Mediterranean Dialogue group, and Group of 77, and is a major non-NATO ally of the United States. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Spanish(Eq. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994 is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean with the aim of contributing to regional security and stability by achieving mutual understanding and dispelling misconceptions about NATO among Dialogue countries. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ...

Contents

Name

The word Morocco is directly derived from the Amazigh word Mur-Akush meaning Land of God. The full Arabic name of Morocco, Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiya, translates to "The Western Kingdom". Al Maghrib (meaning "The West") is commonly used. For historical references, historians used to refer to Morocco as Al Maghrib al Aqşá ("The Farthest West"), disambiguating it from the historical region called the Maghreb. The name "Morocco" in many other languages originates from the name of the former capital, Marrakech. The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...


History

Main article: History of Morocco

The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, in a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ...

Berber Morocco

The area of modern Morocco has been inhabited since Neolithic times, at least 8000 BC, as attested by signs of the Capsian culture, in a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. Many theorists believe the "Amazigh" commonly referred to as Berber language probably arrived at roughly the same time as agriculture (see Berber), and was adopted by the existing population and the immigrants that brought it. Modern genetic analyses have confirmed that various populations have contributed to the present-day population, including (in addition to the main Berber and Arab groups) Jews and sub-Saharan Africans. The Berbers, often referred to in modern ethnic activist circles as "Amazigh" are more commonly known as "Berber" or by their regional ethnic identity, such as Chleuh. In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, although this should not be confused with the modern country of Mauritania. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa) was a Mesolithic culture of the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10000 BC to 6000 BC. It was concentrated mainly in modern Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, with some sites attested in Cyrenaica (Libya). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ...


Roman and pre-Roman Morocco

North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the late Classical period. The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement with the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, as Mauretania Tingitana. In the fifth century, as the Roman Empire declined, the region fell to the Vandals, Visigoths, and then Byzantine Greeks in rapid succession. During this time, however, the high mountains of most of modern Morocco remained unsubdued, and stayed in the hands of their Berber inhabitants, Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2070x1131, 2152 KB) Homme à cheval sur un ane. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2070x1131, 2152 KB) Homme à cheval sur un ane. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Volubilis (Arabic: Walili) is an archaeological site in Morocco situated near Meknes between Fez and Rabat. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Medieval Morocco

By the seventh century, Islamic expansion was at its greatest. In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. His delegates went to what is now Morocco, which he called "Maghreb al Aqsa" or "The Far West," in the year 683. The delegates supported the assimilation process that took about a century. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Uqba ibn Nafi (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) (also referred to as Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba Ibn al Nafia, or Akbah) (622–683) was an Arab general under the Umayyad dynasty, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day western Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...


What became modern Morocco in the seventh century, was the area influenced by the Arabs, who brought their customs, culture, and Islam, to which most of the Berbers converted, forming states and kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Nekor and Barghawata, sometimes after long-running series of civil wars. Under Idris ibn Abdallah who founded the Idrisid Dynasty, the country soon cut ties and broke away from the control of the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and the Umayyad rule in Al-Andalus. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of learning and a major regional power. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Kingdom of Nekor was an emirate in the Rif area of modern day Morocco, with its capital initially at Temsaman but later at Nekor. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Idris I, The founder of the Idrisid dynasty in the Maghreb, modern Morocco. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ...


After the reign of the Idrisids, Arab settlers lost political control within Morocco. After adopting Islam, several Berber dynasties formed their own Islamic dynasties and reigned over the country. This situation lasted until the Arab Saadi dynasty took over in the 16th century. The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima...


Morocco would reach its height under a series of Berber origin dynasties that would replace the Arab Idrisids after the 11th century. The Almoravids, the Almohads, then the Marinid and finally the Saadi dynasties would see Morocco rule most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia, or Al-Andalus. Under Islamic rule, Spanish cities such as Sevilla and Granada as well as Fes and Marrakech in Morocco became places where the citizenry prospered under a tolerant rule which also focused on scholarly advances in science, mathematics, astronomy, geography as well as medicine. Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article is about the city in Spain. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...


However, Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula ended with the fall of Granada to the forces of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Under the Catholic Inquisition, troops pillaged Granada amongst other Islamic cities and persecuted its citizens, Muslims and Jewish. Rather than face persecution and possible execution, many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco. The Inquisitors, eager to abolish any trace of Islamic culture, destroyed the libraries in Muslim Spain, where thousands of priceless texts were kept. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... Islam ▶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ...


Alaouite Dynasty 1666–1912

The last page of 1786 treaty of friendship sealed by Mohammed III of Morocco, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams

After the Saadi the Alaouite Dynasty eventually gained control. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire that was sweeping westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region it remained quite wealthy. In 1684, they annexed Tangier. Image File history File links US-Morocco_treaty_1786. ... Image File history File links US-Morocco_treaty_1786. ... // The 1786 Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship was signed by President Thomas Jefferson and the great Moroccan king Muhammad III.[1] Muhammad III, or Sidi Muhammad ibn Abdallah, came to power towards the end of the 18th Century. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Mohammed III can refer to: Mohammed III of Alamut, leader of the Hashshasin from 1221 to 1255 Mehmed III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 to 1603. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... John Adams, Jr. ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ...


Morocco was the first nation, in 1777, to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation. In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates while sailing the Atlantic Ocean. At this time, American envoys tried to obtain protection from European powers, but to no avail. On 20 December 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sidi Mohammed III Ben Abdellah al-Qatib (17??-1790) (Arabic: محمد الثالث بن عبد الله الخطيب) was Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite Dynasty and originating from the Moasmouda tribe. ...


The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty. Signed by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, it has been in continuous effect since 1786. Following the reorganization of the U.S. federal government upon the 1787 Constitution, President George Washington wrote a now venerated letter to the Sultan Sidi Mohamed strengthening the ties between the two countries. The United States legation (consulate) in Tangier is the first property the American government ever owned abroad. The building now houses the Tangier American Legation Museum. // The 1786 Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship was signed by President Thomas Jefferson and the great Moroccan king Muhammad III.[1] Muhammad III, or Sidi Muhammad ibn Abdallah, came to power towards the end of the 18th Century. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... John Adams, Jr. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Tangier American Legation Museum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


European influence

The French legation in Tangier

Successful Portuguese efforts to invade and control the Atlantic coast in the fifteenth century did not profoundly affect the Mediterranean heart of Morocco. After the Napoleonic Wars, Egypt and the North African maghreb became increasingly ungovernable from Istanbul, the resort of pirates under local beys, and as Europe industrialized, an increasingly prized potential for colonization. The Maghreb had far greater proven wealth than the unknown rest of Africa and a location of strategic importance affecting the exit from the Mediterranean. For the first time, Morocco became a state of some interest in itself to the European Powers. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830[citation needed]. Recognition by the United Kingdom in 1904 of France's sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a German reaction; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference, Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco to France and Spain jointly. A second Moroccan crisis provoked by Berlin, increased tensions between European powers. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year. Image File history File links French_legation,_tangier. ... Image File history File links French_legation,_tangier. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. ... SMS Panther, a famous gunboat diplomat. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... By the Treaty of fez, signed March 30, 1912, sultan Abdelhafid gave up the sovereignty of Morocco to the French, making the country a protectorate. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... In diplomatic usage, the term protecting power refers to a relationship that may occur when two countries do not have diplomatic relations. ... Satellite image The Sahara (Arabic: , aá¹£-á¹£aḥrā´ al-kabÄ«r, The Great Desert, ( )) is the worlds largest hot desert, and second largest desert after Antarctica. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares). // Introduction The Goumiere were the Algerian and Moroccon troops who fought alongside the Allied forces during their campaigns in WWII. From November 17, 1942 to July 14, 1943 their unrivalled persistence, and love of night invasion brought trembling and many a sleepless night into the hearts of the Italians and... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Regulares (Spanish for Regulars, officially called the Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas) was the name commonly used to designate the volunteer infantry and cavalry units of the Spanish Army recruited in Spanish Morocco. ...


Resistance

Nationalist political parties, which subsequently arose under the French protectorate, based their arguments for Moroccan independence on such World War II declarations as the Atlantic Charter (a joint U.S.-British statement that set forth, among other things, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live). A manifesto of the Istiqlal Party (Independence party in English) in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement. Churchill meets FDR aboard USS Augusta at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia, Newfoundland. ... Istiqlal offices in Casablanca The Istiqlal or Independence Party (Arabic: حزب الإستقلال hizb al-istiqlāl, French: Parti de lIstiqlal) is a political party in Morocco. ...


France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, whose reign was perceived as illegitimate, sparked active opposition to the French protectorate all over the country. The most notable occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. Operations by the newly created "Jaish al-tahrir" (Liberation Army), were launched on October 1, 1955. Jaish al-tahrir was created by "Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe" (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo, Egypt to constitute a resistance movement against occupation. Its goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia as well. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Mohammed V (August 10, 1909–February 26, 1961) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1961. ... Mohammed Ben Aarafa, or Ben Arafa (1889 - 1976) a distant relative of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco (Arabic: محمد بن عرفة بن محمد), was put in Mohammed Vs place by the French after they exiled Mohammed V. Ben Aarafa was installed in August 1953, he abdicated in October 1955, while Mohammed V was still... Oujda is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


All those events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the newly returned king. For this reason, the revolution that Morocco knew was called "Taourat al-malik wa shaab" (The revolution of the King and the People) and it is celebrated every August 20. Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern Morocco

On November 18, 2006, Morocco celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956 and on April 7 France officially relinquished its protectorate. Through agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Moroccan control over certain Spanish-ruled areas was restored, though attempts to claim other Spanish colonial possessions through military action were less successful. The internationalized city of Tangier was reintegrated with the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956 (see Tangier Crisis). Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. His early years of rule would be marked by political unrest. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was reintegrated to the country in 1969. Morocco annexed Western Sahara during the 1970s after demanding its reintegration from Spain since independence, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. (See History of Western Sahara.) is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Ifni War, also known as the 1957 Invasion of Spanish Sahara and, in Spain, the Forgotten War (la Guerra Ignorada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents and indigenous Sahrawi rebels that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... Tangier Protocol is an agreement signed between France, Spain and the United Kingdom by which Tangier became an international zone. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Moroccan Crisis refers to the international crisis brought about by the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to Tangier in Morocco on March 31, 1905. ... King Hassan, pictured late in life. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ifni was a Spanish province on the African coast in what is now Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands. ... // Western Sahara area has never formed a state in the modern sense of the word. ...


Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Morocco was granted Major non-NATO ally status in June 2004 and signed free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union. Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


In 2003, Morocco's largest city, Casablanca suffered from terrorist attacks. The attacks were targeted against Western and Jewish places and left 33 civilians dead and more than 100 people injured, mostly Moroccans. For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Morocco

Morocco is a de jure constitutional monarchy, with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco, with vast executive powers, can dissolve government and deploy the military, among other prerogatives. Opposition political parties are legal, and several have been formed in recent years. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... US President George W. Bush talks with His Majesty King Mohammed VI of Morocco in the Oval Office Tuesday, 23 April 2002 King Mohammed VI (Arabic: الملك محمد السادس للمغرب), also King Mohammed Ben Al-Hassan is the current King of Morocco. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for April, 2002. ... The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ...


Human rights and reforms

Morocco's history after independence and in the beginning of the reign of Hassan II was marked by the period of political tensions between the monarchy and opposition parties. Those years of tension are labelled by the opposition as the Years of Lead. Politically motivated persecutions were common especially when Gen. Oufkir became responsible for home security. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morocco. ... Hassan II (July 9, 1929-July 23, 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 to his death. ... The Years of lead was a period in the history of Morocco marked by state violence against dissidents and democracy activists. ...


However, during the last decade of the rule of King Hassan II and especially under the reign of Mohammed VI, and with the launch of Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER) to investigate into the abuses committed in the name of the state, Morocco is trying to reconciliate with the victims. Many new laws and codes concerning all aspects of life are being launched. The most notable event was the creation of the Mudawana — a family code which was the first unique initiative of its kind in the Arab and Muslim world. The code gives women more rights. Other issues such as the abolition of capital punishment and the reform of the Moroccan nationality law are being debated. The Moroccan parliament is due to vote on these issues in spring 2007. His Majesty King Mohammed VI (Arabic: الملك محمد السادس للمغرب) a. ... The Equity and Reconciliation Commission (Arabic: ‎ (French acronym IER for Instance Equité et Réconciliation) is a Moroccan human rights and truth commission created on January 7, 2004 by King Mohammed VI in order to reconciliate victims of human rights abuses and attrocities- committed by Makhzen (the governing elite) during... Mudawana is new Moroccan family code introduced in February 2004 by King Mohammed VI. The code has angered some fundamentalists. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Moroccan nationality law is the subject of the Moroccan Dahir (decree) of September 6, 1958, official Bulletin Number 2394. ... The Parliament of Morocco is located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. ...


The 2003 Casablanca bombings and the need to fight the terrorist threat have led the government to pass a controversial anti-terrorism law that cracked down on terrorist suspects. Moroccan and International organisations continue to have criticism against the human rights situation in Morocco, mainly the arrests of suspected Islamist extremists during 2004 and 2005 related to 2003 Casablanca bombings), and in Western Sahara.[3] The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ... The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ...


In mid-February 2007, a study published by the Center for Strategic and International Studies called "Arab Reform and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Morocco" concluded that Morocco provides a valuable lesson in political and economic reform, which others in the Arab world can draw on and that the Moroccan model confirms that it is possible to adopt both reforms simultaneously.[4] The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ...


Regions and prefectures

Different versions of maps of Morocco.
Different versions of maps of Morocco.

Morocco is divided into 16 regions,[5] and subdivided into 62 prefectures and provinces.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x736, 51 KB) Summary 3 different types of maps often used to show Morocco. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x736, 51 KB) Summary 3 different types of maps often used to show Morocco. ... Regions of Morocco Regions of Morocco - As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature 16 new regions (provided below) were created (capitals in parentheses). ... In Morocco, the second-level administrative subdivisions are prefectures and provinces. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature, sixteen new regions were created. These regions are:

  • Chaouia-Ouardigha
  • Doukkala-Abda
  • Fès-Boulemane
  • Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen
  • Greater Casablanca
  • Guelmim-Es Semara
  • Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra*
  • Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz
  • Meknès-Tafilalet
  • Oriental
  • Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira*
  • Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ
  • Tadla-Azilal
  • Tangier-Tétouan
  • Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

Chaouia-Ouardigha Chaouia-Ouardigha (Arabic: ‎) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Doukkala-Abda Doukkala-Abda (Arabic: ‎) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Fès-Boulemane Fès-Boulemane (Arabic: فاس بولمان) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Grand Casablanca Greater Casablanca (French: Grand Casablanca; Arabic: جهة الدار البيضاء الكبرى) is one of sixteen administrative regions of Morocco. ... Guelmim-Es Semara Guelmim-Es Semara is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Marrakech Tensift Al Haouz Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz(Arabic: ) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Meknès-Tafilalet Meknès-Tafilalet (Arabic: ) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Oriental Region Oriental (Arabic: الجهة الشرقية) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Souss-Massa-Draâ Souss-Massa-Draâ is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Tadla-Azilal Tadla-Azilal is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Tangier-Tétouan Tangier-Tétouan (Arabic: طنجة تطوان) is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ... Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. ...

Western Sahara status

Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra" and "Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira" is disputed.


The government of Morocco has suggested that a self-governing entity, through the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The stalemating of the Moroccan proposal options has led the UN in the recent "Report of the UN Secretary-General" to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[7] Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... The Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS) (French: Conseil royal consultatif pour les affaires sahariennes) is an appointed body of advisors to the Moroccan government working in the Southern Provinces, i. ... In 2006 the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs CORCAS has proposed a plan for the autonomy of Western Sahara and made visits to a number of countries to explain the proposal. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Morocco
See also List of cities in Morocco and Western Sahara

At 172,402 sq.mi (446,550 sq.km), Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan). It is comparable in size to Iraq, and is somewhat larger than the US state of California. Location: Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara A large part of Morocco is mountainous, the Atlas mountains are located mainly in the center and the south of the country and are inhabited by Berber... This is the list of cities and towns in the country of Morocco and Western Sahara: Morocco Map of Morocco Agadir Beni Mellal Bou Arfa Casablanca El Jadida Essaouira Fes Al-Hoceima Kenitra Marrakech Meknes Mohammedia Ouarzazat Ouezzane Oujda Rabat Safi Salè Tangier Tan-Tan Tarfaya (Cabo Juby) Tetouan Tiznit... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

A dune in Morocco
A dune in Morocco

Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994. There are also four Spanish enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, and the Chafarinas islands, as well as the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north, Morocco is bordered by and controls part of the Strait of Gibraltar, giving it power over the waterways in and out of the Mediterranean sea. The Rif mountains occupy the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the north east. Most of the south east portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south is the desert. To the south, lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March).[2] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A diagram showing the formation of a dune with a slipface. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera is one of the Spanish territories on North Africa off the Moroccan coast (Plazas de soberanía), along with the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, the island... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Peñón de Alhucemas Peñón de Alhucemas, or Lavender Rock, is one of the Spanish territories in North Africa off the Moroccan coast, along with the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, the island of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Chafarinas. Islas Chafarinas are a group of three small islands located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Morocco, 45 km to the east of Melilla and 3. ... A satellite NASA World Wind caption of Isla Perejil seen as a tiny island (top middle) The Isla Perejil (Parsley Island in English; Arabic: Leila, night , local, i. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... This article is about the historical event. ... The Moroccan name for Western Sahara. ...


Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ...


Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Mohammadia, Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salè, Tangier and Tétouan. Panorama of the seaside from the Kasbah Agadir (Arabic: أكادير, Berber (Amazigh): ) is a city in southwest Morocco, capital of the Souss-Massa-Dra region. ... Location of Essaouira Essaouira (Arabic: ‎, eá¹£-á¹£auÄ«rah; formerly known as Mogador, its old Portuguese name) is a city and tourist resort in Morocco, on the Atlantic coast. ... FES is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Family Expenditure Survey, a national survey in UK Functional electrical stimulation, a neurological treatment technique Flat Earth Society, an organization that advocates the belief that the Earth is flat Flywheel energy storage Fellowship of Evangelical Students Foundation for Ecological Security... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Medresa Bou Inania in Meknes Meknes (Arabic: مكناس) is a city in northern Morocco, located 130 kilometres from the capital Rabat and 60 kilometres from Fes. ... Mohammedia (also called Fedhala) (in Arabic: المحمدية) is a port city located 15 miles northeast of Casablanca in western Morocco. ... Oujda is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants. ... Asfi (french Safi) is a city located in western Morocco, by the Atlantic Ocean. ... Salé is the twin city to Rabat, captital of Morocco. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... henry is gay World Heritage Site | WHS = Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin) | Image = | State Party = Morocco | Type = Cultural | Criteria = ii, iv, v | ID = 837 | Region = Arab States | Year = 1997 | Session = 21st | Link = http://whc. ...

Satellite image of a dust plume off the coast of Morocco
Satellite image of a dust plume off the coast of Morocco

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4449x3156, 5181 KB) class=boilerplate id=pd File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morocco Geography of Morocco ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4449x3156, 5181 KB) class=boilerplate id=pd File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morocco Geography of Morocco ...

Climate

The climate is Mediterranean, which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions where it is mountainous. The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone for agriculture. Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%. 5% is irrigated.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A deciduous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ...


Wildlife

Morocco is known for its wildlife biodiversity. Birds represent the most important fauna.[8] The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 487 species, of which 1 has been introduced by humans, and 32 are rare or accidental. 2 species listed are extirpated in Morocco and are not included in the species count. 15 species are globally threatened.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...

Further information: List of birds of Morocco

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Morocco. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Morocco

According to the African Development Bank, the GDP of Morocco accounts for 7% of the African continent.[10] Morocco is the fifth economic power of Africa with an annual GDP of $152 billion, after South Africa, Egypt, Algeria and Nigeria.(2001)[10] Moroccos economy is considered a liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand although certain economic sectors still remain in the hands of the government. ... Image File history File links Twincenter. ... Image File history File links Twincenter. ... The Casablanca Twin Centre is a complex of two Skyscrapers located at Casablanca, Morocco. ... The African Development Bank (ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of States dollar|$]]47. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Morocco's largest industry is the mining of phosphates. Its second largest source of income is from nationals living abroad who transfer money to relatives living in Morocco. The country's third largest source of revenue is tourism. In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... Remittance advertising in Oxford Street, London with Russian slogans. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ...


Morocco ranks among the world’s largest producers and exporters of cannabis, and its cultivation and sale provide the economic base for much of the population of northern Morocco. The cannabis is typically processed into hashish. This activity represents 0.57% of Morocco's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), estimated at US$ 37.3 billion. A UN survey[11] estimated cannabis cultivation at about 1,340 square kilometres (515 sq mi) in Morocco's five northern provinces. This represents 10 % of the total area and 27% of the arable lands of the surveyed territory and 1.5% of Morocco's total arable land. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and in 1992 Morocco passed legislation designed to implement the Convention. Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Confiscated hashish. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Morocco has an unemployment rate of 7.7% (2006 Data) and a 1999 estimate by the CIA puts 19% of the Moroccan population under the poverty line.[12]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Though working towards change, Morocco historically has utilized child labor on a large scale. In 1999, the Moroccan Government stated that over 500,000 children under the age of 15 were in the labor force.[13]


Morocco has signed Free Trade Agreements with the European Union (to take effect 2010) and the United States of America. The United States Senate approved by a vote of 85 to 13, on July 22, 2004, the US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement, which will allow for 98% of the two-way trade of consumer and industrial products to be without tariffs. The agreement entered into force in January 2006. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (or Morocco FTA) is a bilateral Free Trade Agreement between USA and Morocco. ...


Demographics

Ethnolinguistic groups in Morocco.
Ethnolinguistic groups in Morocco.

Morocco is the fourth most populous Arab country, after Egypt, Sudan and Algeria. Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber stock. About three-quarters of all present-day Moroccans are of Berber descent, while Arabs form the second largest ethnic group.[citation needed] The Arabs invaded Morocco in the seventh century and established their culture there. Morocco's Jewish minority has decreased significantly and numbers about 7,000 (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands). Prior to mass emigration, Morocco was home to more Jews than any other Muslim country in the world. The Jewish community of Morocco, which dates back more than 2,000 years, has experienced various waves of both tolerance and discrimination. The worst outbreaks of antisemitic violence occurred during the Middle Ages, when Jews were massacred in Fez in 1033 and in Marrakech in 1232. Following the establishment of the French protectorate in 1912, Jews began to enjoy greater equality. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (908x627, 103 KB) Morocco - Ethnolinguistic Groups in 1973 File from University of Texas Libraries are in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (908x627, 103 KB) Morocco - Ethnolinguistic Groups in 1973 File from University of Texas Libraries are in the public domain. ... Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber stock. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Following the establishment of the state of Israel there were numerous attacks on Jewish individuals and premises. In June 1953 forty-three Jews were murdered, and violence persisted until Morocco gained independence in 1956. Jews were granted full suffrage and complete freedom of movement but emigration was restricted (although thousands of Jews continued to leave for Israel clandestinely). After the 1967 Six-Day War many middle-class Jews emigrated because of worsening conditions, including a virulent antisemitic and anti-Israel press campaign that increased in tandem with the popularity of the regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt.[1]


Most of the 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish; many are teachers or technicians and more and more retirees, especially in Marrakech. For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...


There is no significant genetic difference between Moroccan Arabs and Moroccan non-Arabs (i.e. Berbers). Thus, it is likely that Arabization was mainly a cultural process without genetic replacement.[14] However, and according to the European Journal of Human Genetics, North-Western Africans were genetically closer to Iberians and to other Europeans than to sub-Saharan Africans.[15] DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... EJHG (Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2006)) The European Journal of Human Genetics is an official monthly Human genetics publication. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to deonte Shepard Club Of America Free burgers for new members the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to...


Morocco's official language is classical Arabic. The country's distinctive Arabic dialect is called Moroccan Arabic. Approximately 12 million (40% of the population), mostly in rural areas, speak Berber – which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhiyt, and Tamazight) – either as a first language or bilingually with the spoken Arabic dialect.[16] French, which remains Morocco's unofficial second language, is taught universally and still serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics. It also is widely used in education and government. About 20,000 Moroccans in the northern part of the country speak Spanish as a second language in parallel with Tarifit. English, while still far behind French and Spanish in terms of number of speakers, is rapidly becoming the third foreign language of choice among educated youth (after Arabic and French). As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English will be taught in all public schools from the fourth year on. French however, will remain the second foreign language because of Morocco's close economic and social links with France. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Tarifit is a Northern Berber language of the Zenati subgroup, spoken mainly in the Moroccan Rif by about 2 million people. ... Tashelhiyt (sometimes Shilha or Sous Berber, native name: taÅ¡lḥiyt, French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is a Berber language of southern Morocco, spoken by between 8 and 10 million people. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Tarifit is a Northern Berber language of the Zenati subgroup, spoken mainly in the Moroccan Rif by about 2 million people. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert. Casablanca is the center of commerce and industry and the leading port; Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port; Fez is the cultural and religious center; and Marrakech is a major tourist center. Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ...


Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school (age 15). Nevertheless, many children – particularly girls in rural areas – still do not attend school. The country's illiteracy rate has been stuck at around 50% for some years, but reaches as high as 90% among girls in rural regions. On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries; Cuba, Pakistan, Rajastan (India) and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[17] World illiteracy rates by country Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ...


Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in fourteen public universities. The Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (a private university) are highly regarded. Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-language American-style university comprising about 1,000 students. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, is considered the oldest university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years. Mohammed V University (Rabat, Morocco) is- with the exception of Al Karaouiyine in Fes, the first modern university in Morocco. ... Al Akhawayn University or AUI (literally meaning The two Brothers University, in Arabic جامعة الأخوين) is located in Ifrane, Morocco, just 60 kilometers from the imperial city of Fez, in the midst of the Middle Atlas Mountains. ... Ifrane (Arabic: ‎) is a town and ski resort in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco. ... King Hassan, pictured late in life. ... King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: ‎, 1921 – August 1, 2005) was the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Interior of the Al Karaouine Mosque and University The University of Al Karaouine (Arabic: ‎) (other transliterations of the name include Kairouyine, Qaraouyine, Quarawin, Al-Qarawiyin, Kairaouine, Karaouine and El Qaraouiyn) is a university located in Fes, Morocco. ...


Culture

A church in Tetouan
A church in Tetouan
Main article: Culture of Morocco

Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Through Moroccan history, Morocco hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Vandals, Andalusians (including Moors and Jews)). All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tétouan (Arabic: Titwan or Tittawen) is the capital and cultural centre of the region Tanga (Tangiers) in the north of Morocco. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1350x1800, 366 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Morocco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1350x1800, 366 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Morocco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Hassan II Mosque Hassan II Mosque Interior From the inside The Hassan II Mosque (Arabic مسجد الحسن الثاني, French Mosquée Hassan II) is a mosque located in Casablanca, Morocco. ... Zellige, the Moroccan mosaic Culture of Morocco - Morocco is a country of multi-ethnic groups with a rich culture and civilization. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Central New York City. ... The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, in a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... An Arab (Arabic: ) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to deonte Shepard Club Of America Free burgers for new members the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Moors are the Muslim African and Arab inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including the Maghreb (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage. Central New York City. ...


Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles.


Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Morocco

Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is a mix of Berber, Spanish, Corsican, Portuguese, Moorish, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and African cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco has been influenced by the native Berber cuisine, the Arabic Andalusian cuisine brought by the Moriscos when they left Spain, the Turkish cuisine from the Turks and the Middle Eastern cuisines brought by the Arabs, as well as Jewish cuisine. Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. ... The Berber cuisine is considered as a traditional cuisine which evolved little in the course of time. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various cuisines of the Middle East. ... Jewish cuisine isnt one unified cuisine, but rather a collection of international cookery traditions, loosely linked by kashrut, the Jewish dietary laws. ...


Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred, but is relatively expensive. Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. The most popular drink is green tea with mint. The tea is accompanied with hard sugar cones or lumps. External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... MiNT (MiNT is Now TOS) is an alternative operating system (OS) kernel for the Atari ST computer and its successors which is free software. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Binomial name (L.) Burm. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... Couscous with vegetables and chickpeas Couscous (IPA - Berber Seksu - Arabic: [1]) is a food of the Maghreb of Berber origin. ... Pastilla, Bsteeya, Bastilla or Bstilla (pronounced Pastiya) is a North African dish made usually of pigeon. ... A tajine is a Moroccan dish as well as a special pot for preparing this dish. ... Harira served at fasting time along with sweets and dates Harira is the traditional Moroccan soup. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ...


Literature

Main article: Literature of Morocco

Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber or French, and particularly by people of Morocco. It also contains literature produced in Al-Andalus. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library. Moroccan Folktales by Jilali El Koudia Moroccan literature is a literature written in (Moroccan) Arabic, Berber or French, and of course particularly by people of Morocco. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... The Koutoubia Mosque is the largest mosque in Marrakech, Morocco. ... Abu Yaqub Yusuf or Yusuf I (died on July 29, 1184), was the second Almohad caliph. ... The Casbah (French) or as transliterated from Arabic Qasbah (from qasbah, قصبة, citadel) is specifically the citadel of Algiers and the traditional quarter clustered round it. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ...


Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe. Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williams and William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohammed Zefzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh. Paul Frederic Bowles (December 30, 1910 - November 18, 1999), was an American composer, author, and traveler. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) - August 2, 1997), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs (pronounced ), was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Mohamed Choukri (Arabic:محمد شكري) (b. ... Driss Chraïbi (born July 15, 1926) is a Moroccan author whose novels deal with colonialism and are often semi-autobiographical. ... Fouad Laroui (1958 -) is a Moroccan economist and writer, born in Oujda, Morocco. ... Mohammed Berrada (Arabic:محمد برادة) (born 1938 in Rabat) is a Moroccan novelist, literary critic and translator writing in Arabic. ... Leila Abouzeid (Arabic: ليلة أبو زيد) is a Moroccan author. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Morocco

Moroccan music is predominantly of Amazight(Berber)origins. There also exist other varieties of Berber folk music. Andalusian and other imported influences have had a major effect on the country's musical character. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance music with historical origins in Muslim music. Gnawa musicians in Morocco Morocco is a North African country inhabited mostly by Arabs along with Berbers and other minorities. ... The Berbers are an ethnic group in North and West Africa. ... Andalusia is a region in Spain that is best-known for flamenco, a form of music and dance that is mostly performed by Gypsy people and popular throughout the world. ... Chaabi is the popular music of North Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ...


Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. It evolved under the Moors in Andalusian, Spain Cordoba. The Persian-born musician Ziryab is often credited with its invention. Al-Andalus was an important time historically because it was a time when Muslims, Jews and Christians lived together in peace and harmony. In 1492, the Moors and Jews were forcibly expelled from Andalusian, Spain. Many fled to Morocco where they founded cities like Tetuan. Morocco has historically lived peacefully with Jewish and Christian peoples although it is predomently a Muslim country. Musicians of diverse religions, such as in the medieval court of King Alfonso the 13th find a home in Contemporary Andalusian Music of today. Andalusian classical music is a style of classical music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 10th and 15th centuries. ... Abû al-Hasan Alî Ibn Nâfi (c. ...


Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at celebrations and gatherings. Chaabi is the popular music of North Africa. ...


Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop as well as Contemporary Andalusian Music. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Heavy metal is a form of rock music characterized by aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, generally with grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Morocco

// 1907 km standard-gauge, 1003 km electrified with 3 kV DC. There are connections to Algeria, and consecutively Tunisia, but since the 90 the connections are closed. ...

Military

Main article: Military of Morocco

The military of Morocco is composed of the following main divisions: Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,393,772 (2002 est. ...

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Naval Ensign of Morocco The Royal Moroccan Navy is the naval branch of the military of Morocco. ... Royal Moroccan Air Force Insignia. ... The was founded in 1957 by His Majesty late Mohammed V. The structure of its functions has been determined by the two major different but complementary traditions. ... Moroccan Royal Guard is the official Royal Guard of Morocco. ... Marche Verte (English: Green March) is the aerobatic demonstration team of the Royal Moroccan Air Force and the official national aerobatic team of Morocco. ...

Media

Main article: Media of Morocco

// Early history The first newspaper to appear in Morocco was published in English and was called Maghreb Al Aksa. It was a weekly newpaper and strated in 1877. ...

Technology

Casablanca Technopark is an information technology complex located at Casablanca, Morocco. ...

Universities

This is a list of universities in Morocco Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane University of Al Karaouine, Fes Mohammed V University, Rabat Mohammed V University at Agdal, Rabat Mohammed V University at Souissi, Rabat Hassan II Ain Chok University , Casablanca Hassan II Mohammedia University , Mohammedia Sidi Mohamed Benabdellah University , Fez Mohamed...

Sport

Main article: Sport in Morocco

International rankings

Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Affiliations

Organization Dates
United Nations since November 12, 1956
Arab League since October 1, 1958
International Olympic Committee since 1959
Organization of African Unity co-founder May 25, 1963; withdrew November 12, 1984
Group of 77 since June 15, 1964
Organization of the Islamic Conference since September 22, 1969
World Trade Organization since January 1, 1995
Mediterranean Dialogue group since February 1995
Major non-NATO ally since January 19, 2004

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Largest cities Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Khartoum Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Olympic_flag. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB)G77 Countries (does not include small island countries for practical purposes) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The World Trade Organization (WTO), (OMC - Spanish: , French: ), is an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994 is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean with the aim of contributing to regional security and stability by achieving mutual understanding and dispelling misconceptions about NATO among Dialogue countries. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_NATO.svg The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bilateral and multilateral agreements

GAFTA Members Arab League members “GAFTA” redirects here. ... Map of the Agadir Agreement Members It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Barcelona Conference. ... The U.S. MEFTA initiative started in 2003 with the purpose of creating a U.S. Middle East Free Trade Area. ... The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main purpose was to reduce barriers to international trade. ... The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MEFTA) is based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). ... US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (or Morocco FTA) is a bilateral Free Trade Agreement between USA and Morocco. ...

See also

Morocco Portal
Main article: List of Morocco-related topics

Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... This is a list of topics related to Morocco. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... French Morocco (Fr. ... Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morocco. ... // Early history The first newspaper to appear in Morocco was published in English and was called Maghreb Al Aksa. It was a weekly newpaper and strated in 1877. ... Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,393,772 (2002 est. ... Public holidays in Morocco:   Categories: | ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Railways total: 1,907 km standard gauge: 1,907 km 1. ... Embassy of Morocco in Ottawa, Canada Morocco maintains close relations with the European Union, especially the former colonial rulers, France and Spain. ... The Years of lead (French: les années de plomb) is the term used especially by former oponents to the rule of King Hassan II to describe a period of his rule (mainly the 1960s through the 1980s) marked by state violence against dissidents and democracy activists. ...

Notes

  1. ^ La Constitution "Le Royaume du Maroc, État musulman souverain, dont la langue officielle est l'arabe, constitue une partie du Grand Maghreb Arabe."
  2. ^ a b Pending resolution of the Western Sahara conflict.
  3. ^ Human rights overview on Morocco, HRW.
  4. ^ Arab Reform and Foreign Aid: Lessons from MoroccoPDF (855 KiB) - Center for Strategic and International Studies by Haim Malka and John Alterman
  5. ^ Regions of Morocco, statoids.com
  6. ^ Regions of Morocco, statoids.com
  7. ^ Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara (13 April 2007) (ped). UN Security Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  8. ^ Profile on Morocco. African Conservation Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  9. ^ Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World (Morocco). Avibase. Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  10. ^ a b Morocco, 5th economical power in Africa (French)
  11. ^ Europe's Drug Consumption Stimulates Cannabis Cultivation in Morocco UN Information Service
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook
  13. ^ Child labour rife in Morocco BBC Online
  14. ^ Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysisPDF (108 KiB)
  15. ^ European Journal of Human Genetics (2000) 8, 360–366
  16. ^ Berber (people) Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2006
  17. ^ 2006 UNESCO Literacy Prize winners announced. UNESCO.org. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.

// The Western Sahara area has never formed a state in the modern sense of the word. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Morocco by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Government
  • Kingdom of Morocco (official portal)
  • (French) (Arabic) Parliament of Morocco (official site)
  • (French) (Arabic) Public services website
  • Maghreb Arabe Presse (government news agency)
Overviews
Directories
Communities
Trade and external relations
Surveys and Studies
  • Hashish production and trafficking in the Rif area of Morocco
  • Human Rights Watch on Morocco
  • Genetic structure of north-west AfricaPDF (108 KiB) revealed by STR analysis
  • Arab Reform and Foreign Aid - Lessons from MoroccoPDF (855 KiB) (CSIS - The Center for Strategic and International Studies)
Tourism and culture
  • Morocco travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Official Morocco tourism website
  • Biodiversity of South Western Morocco (Flora and Plant Communities of Morocco)
Geographic locale
International membership

  Results from FactBites:
 
The EU's relations with Morocco - Overview (2441 words)
Morocco is a member of the League of Arab States, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, and the Arab Maghreb Union.
Morocco and the European Union are doing their utmost to continue the fight against illegal immigration, with particular attention being paid to the increase flow of immigrants through Morocco.
Morocco is a participant to the ENP, which it sees as a possibility to obtain an "advanced status" in its relations with the EU as expressed by the King of Morocco.
Morocco - MSN Encarta (872 words)
Morocco is a fabled destination for travelers, known for its spectacular mountain scenery, its colorful bazaars, and its ancient capitals at Fès and Marrakech.
Morocco is a constitutional monarchy, with a king as head of state and a prime minister as head of the government.
Morocco borders the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to its north and east, and the Sahara to its south.
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