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Encyclopedia > Mormon Trail
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Echo Canyon, Utah on Mormon Trail
Location Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah, USA
Nearest city Nauvoo, Illinois
Established November 10, 1978
Governing body National Trails System

The Mormon Trail or Mormon Pioneer Trail is the 1,300 miles (2,092 km) route that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846-1857. Today the Mormon Trail is a part of the United States National Trails System, as the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Echo_Canyon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew NÃ¥vu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Trails System was created by an act of Congress in 1968. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The National Trails System was created by an act of Congress in 1968. ... National Historic Trail is a designation for a protected area in the United States containing historic trails and surrounding areas. ...

Contents

Background

Under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Jr., Latter Day Saints (LDS) established several communities throughout the United States between 1830 and 1844, most notably in Kirtland, Ohio, Independence, Missouri, and Nauvoo, Illinois. However, the Saints were driven out of each of them in turn due to internal disagreements and conflicts with other settlers (see History of the Latter Day Saint movement). They were finally forced to abandon Nauvoo in 1846. Joseph Smith redirects here. ... A Latter Day Saint (LDS) is a person who identifies with the Latter Day Saint movement and is a follower of Mormonism. ... Kirtland is a city in Lake County, Ohio, USA. The population was 6,670 at the 2000 census. ... Independence is a city in Missouri, in the Kansas City metropolitan area. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement within Christian Restorationism beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous Latter Day Saint churches. ...


Although the movement had schismed into several denominations after Smith's death in 1844, most members aligned themselves with Brigham Young and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Under Young's leadership, about 14,000 Mormon citizens of Nauvoo set out to find a new home in the West.[1] The Succession Crisis in the Latter Day Saint movement occurred after the assassination of the movements founder, Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Main article: Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ...


The Trek West

Main article: Mormon pioneers

As the senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles after Joseph Smith's death, Brigham Young assumed responsibility of the leadership of the church. He would later be sustained as President of the Church and prophet. A statue commemorating the Mormon pioneers The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of... This is the current Mormon collaboration of the month! Please help improve it to meet the ideal article standard. ... The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... Prophet, seer, and revelator is an ecclesiastical title used in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that is applied to the members of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. ...


Young now had to lead the Saints into the far west, without knowing exactly where to go or where they would end up. He insisted the Mormons should settle in a place no one else wanted and felt the isolated Great Basin would provide the Saints with many advantages. Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. ...


Young reviewed information on the Great Salt Lake Valley and the Great Basin, consulted with mountain men and trappers and met with Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary familiar with the region. He organized a vanguard company to break trail to the Rocky Mountains, evaluate trail conditions, find sources of water, and select a central gathering point in the Great Basin. A new route on the north side of the Platte and North Platte rivers was chosen to avoid potential conflicts over grazing rights, water access and campsites with travelers using the established Oregon Trail on the river’s south side. Pierre-Jean De Smet Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, (30 January 1801 at Dendermonde, Belgium – 23 May 1873 at St. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... This article is about the Platte River in Nebraska. ... The North Platte River The North Platte River is a tributary of the Platte River, approximately 680 mi (1,094 km) long, in the U.S. states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. ... For other uses, see Oregon Trail (disambiguation). ...


The Quincy Convention of October 1845 passed resolutions demanding that the Latter-day Saints withdraw from Nauvoo by May 1846. A few days later, the Carthage Convention called for establishment of a militia that would force them out if they failed to meet the May deadline.[2] To try to meet this deadline and to get an early start on the trek to the Great Basin, the Latter-day Saints began leaving Nauvoo in February 1846. Young originally planned to lead an express company of about 300 men to the Great Basin during the summer of 1846. He believed they could cross Iowa Territory and reach the Missouri River in four to six weeks. The actual trip across Iowa, however, was slowed by rain, mud, swollen rivers, and poor preparation, and required sixteen weeks—nearly three times longer than planned. It was apparent that the Latter-day Saints could not make it to the Great Basin that season and would have to winter on the Missouri River.[3] This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The Vanguard Company of 1847

In April 1847, chosen members of the Vanguard Company gathered, final supplies were packed, and the group was organized into 14 military companies. A militia and night guard was formed. The company consisted of 143 men, including three black slaves and eight members of the Council of the Twelve, three women, and two children. The train contained 73 wagons, draft animals, and livestock and carried enough supplies to provision the group for one year. On April 5th, the wagon train moved west from Winter Quarters toward the Great Basin. In Mormonism, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Quorum of the Twelve, the Council of the Twelve, or the Twelve) is one of the governing bodies of church hierarchy in many Latter Day Saint denominations. ...


The journey from Winter Quarters to Fort Laramie took six weeks, with the company arriving at the fort on June 1st. While at Fort Laramie, the vanguard company was joined by members of the Mormon Battalion who had been excused due to illness and sent to winter in Pueblo, Colorado and a group of Church members from Mississippi. At this point, the now larger company took the established Oregon Trail toward the trading post at Fort Bridger. Winter Quarters, Nebraska, was an encampment formed by approximately 3,500 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as they awaited better conditions for their trek westward during the winter of 1846-1847. ... Grounds of Fort Laramie Fort Laramie, located in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming in the United States, was a significant 19th century trading post and later a military outpost of the United States Army. ... The Mormon Battalion was the only religious unit in American military history serving from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. ... The City of Pueblo (IPA: //) is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Pueblo County, Colorado, USA. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek. ... Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ...


Young met mountain man Jim Bridger on June 28. They discussed routes into the Salt Lake Valley, and the feasibility of viable settlements in the mountain valleys of the Great Basin. The company pushed on through South Pass, rafted across the Green River and arrived at Fort Bridger on July 7. About the same time, they were joined by thirteen more members of the sick detachment of the Mormon Battalion. Jim Bridger Jim Bridger (right) is honored along with Pony Express founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Now facing a more rugged and hazardous journey, Young chose to follow the trail used by the Donner-Reed party on their journey to California the previous year. As the vanguard company traveled through the rugged mountains, they divided into three sections. Young and several other members of the party suffered from a fever, generally accepted as a “mountain fever” induced by wood ticks. The small sick detachment lagged behind the larger group, and a scouting division was created to move farther ahead on the designated route. The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ...


Scouts Erastus Snow and Orson Pratt entered the Salt Lake Valley on July 21. On July 23, Pratt offered a prayer dedicating the land to the Lord. Ground was broken, irrigation ditches were dug, and the first fields of potatoes and turnips were planted. On July 24, Young first saw the valley from a “sick” wagon driven by his friend Wilford Woodruff. According to Woodruff, Young expressed his satisfaction in the appearance of the valley and declared This is the right place, drive on. Erastus Snow (November 9, 1818 – May 27, 1888) was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints from 1849 to 1888. ... Orson Pratt Orson Pratt (September 19, 1811 – October 3, 1881) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilford Woodruff (March 1, 1807 – September 2, 1898) was the fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1889 until his death. ...


In August 1847, Young and selected members of the vanguard company returned to Winter Quarters to organize the companies scheduled for following years. By December 1847, more than two thousand Mormons had completed the journey to the Salt Lake Valley.


Ongoing migration

Each year during the Mormon migration, people continued to be organized into "companies", each company bearing the name of its leader and subdivided into groups of 10 and 50. The Saints travelled the trail broken by the Vanguard company, splitting the journey into two sections. The first segment began in Nauvoo and ended in Winter Quarters, Nebraska, near modern-day Omaha. The second half of the journey took the Saints through Nebraska and Wyoming before finishing their journey in the Salt Lake Valley in present-day Utah. The earlier groups used covered wagons pulled by oxen to carry their supplies across the country. Later companies used handcarts and traveled by foot. Winter Quarters, Nebraska, was an encampment formed by approximately 3,500 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as they awaited better conditions for their trek westward during the winter of 1846-1847. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Omaha redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


By 1849 many of the Latter-day Saints who remained in Iowa or Missouri were poor and unable to afford the costs of the wagon, teams of oxen, and supplies that would be required for the trip. The LDS Church established a revolving fund known as the Perpetual Emigration Fund to enable the poor to emigrate. By 1852, most of the Latter-day Saints from Nauvoo who wished to emigrate had done so, and the church abandoned its settlements in Iowa. However, many church members from the eastern states and from Europe continued to emigrate to Utah, often assisted by the Perpetual Emigration Fund.[4] The Perpetual Emigration Fund (PEF), established by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the Mormon Church or LDS Church) in 1849, provided economic assistance to more than 30,000 individuals who sought to settle in Utah and surrounding regions. ...


In 1856, the church inaugurated a system of handcart companies in order to enable poor European emigrants to make the trek more cheaply. The emigrants would carry their goods and provisions on small handcarts, which they pushed or pulled along the trail. Five companies made the trek in 1856, and the last two—the Willie and Martin Handcart Companies—met disaster when they left very late and encountered heavy snow and freezing weather in Wyoming. Young organized a rescue effort that brought the companies in, but more than 210 of the 980 emigrants in the two parties died.[5] // A statue commemorating Mormon handcart pioneers on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts... // A statue commemorating Mormon handcart pioneers on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts...


The handcart companies continued with more success until 1860, and traditional ox-and-wagon companies also continued for those who could afford the higher cost. After 1860 the church began sending wagon companies east each spring, to return to Utah in the summer with the emigrating Latter-day Saints. Finally, with the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, future emigrants were able to travel by rail, and the era of the Mormon pioneer trail came to an end. A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ...


At the shore of the Great Salt Lake, then in Mexican territory, they finally settled down. Farming the land was initially difficult, as the shares broke when they tried to plow the dry ground. An irrigation system was designed and the land flooded before plowing, with the system providing supplemental moisture during the year. Salt Lake City was laid out and designated as Church headquarters. Hard work produced a prosperous community. In their new settlement, entertainment was also important, and the first public building was a theater. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ...


It did not take long, however, until the United States caught up with them, and in 1848, after the end of the war with Mexico, the land in which they settled became part of the United States. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Sites along the trail

Map of Mormon Trail
Daguerreotype of Nauvoo in 1846 at the time of the Mormon exodus (LDS Church Archives).
Daguerreotype of Nauvoo in 1846 at the time of the Mormon exodus (LDS Church Archives).

The following are major points along the trail at which the early Mormon pioneers stopped, established temporary camps, or used as landmarks and meeting places. The sites are categorized by their location in respect to modern day US states. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x816, 629 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1056x816, 629 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Daguerreotype of Nauvoo, Illinois in 1846 (probably taken by Lucien Foster) This is the only known photograph of Nauvoo, Illinois during the time it was the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...


Illinois

  • Nauvoo — Nauvoo was the starting point for the Mormon trail and the early home base for LDS migrants.

Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew NÃ¥vu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ...

Iowa

For a detailed National Park Service guide to the Mormon National Tail in Iowa see: Plan your visit to the Iowa portion of the Mormon Trail and National Mormon National Trail itinerary in Iowa This article is about the U.S. state. ...

  • Sugar Creek (7 miles west of Nauvoo) — Beginning with their first ferry crossing of the Mississippi River on February 4, 1846, months before many of them were ready, the Latter-day Saints started gathering at the frozen banks of Sugar Creek. More refugees continued to cross into Iowa for a number of months many taking advantage of the freezing of the Mississippi river a few weeks later. The poorly prepared emigrants suffered from severe winter weather while camped there. Sugar Creek was the staging area for the westward trek across Iowa. Ultimately about 2,500 refugees and 500 wagons started west on March 1, 1846. Several thousand more would follow on later as they sold their property for what they could get and continued to leave Nauvoo, Illinois.
  • Richardson's Point (35 miles west) — The emigrants made their way past Croton and Farmington to ford the Des Moines River at Bonaparte. In early March 1846 the party was halted for 10 days by heavy rain at a wooded area known as Richardson's Point. Some of the first deaths of the pioneers occurred at this location.
  • Chariton River Crossing (80 miles west) — The trail continues past the modern towns of Troy, Drakesville, and West Grove to reach the Chariton River. At this crossing, on March 27, Young organized the lead group of the migration, forming three camps of 100 families, each led by a captain. This military-style organization would be used for all subsequent Mormon emigrant companies.
  • Locust Creek (103 miles west) — The trail proceeds past Cincinnati to Locust Creek. There on April 13 William Clayton, scribe for Brigham Young, composed "Come, Come Ye Saints," the most famous and enduring hymn from the Mormon Trail.
  • Garden Grove (128 miles west) — On April 23 the emigrants arrived at the location of their first semi-permanent settlement, which they named Garden Grove. They enclosed and planted 715 acres (2.89 km²) to supply food for later emigrants and established a village that is still in existence today. About 600 Latter-day Saints settled at Garden Grove. By 1852 they had moved on to Utah.[6]
  • Mount Pisgah (153 miles west) — As they entered Potawatomi territory, the emigrants established another semi-permanent settlement that they named Mount Pisgah. Several thousand acres were cultivated and a settlement of about 700 Latter-day Saints thrived there from 1846 to 1852. Now the site is marked by a 9 acre park, which contains exhibits, historical markers, and a reconstructed log cabin. However, little remains from the 19th century except a cemetery memorializing the 300 to 800 emigrants who died there.[7]
  • Nishnabotna River Crossing (232 miles west) — From Mount Pisgah the trail proceeds past the modern towns of Orient, Bridgewater, and Lewis. Just west of Lewis, the 1846 emigrants passed a Potawatomi encampment on the Nishnabotna River. The Potawatomis were also refugees; 1846 was their last year in the area.
  • Grand Encampment (255 miles west) — From the Nishnabotna River, the trail proceeds past present-day Macedonia to Mosquito Creek on the eastern outskirts of present-day Council Bluffs. The first emigrant company arrived on June 13, 1846. At this open area, where the Iowa School for the Deaf is now located, the LDS emigrant companies paused and camped, forming what was called the Grand Encampment. From this site on July 16, the Mormon Battalion was mustered into military service for the Mexican-American War.
  • Kanesville (later Council Bluffs) (265 miles west) — The emigrants established an important settlement and outfitting point at this site on the Missouri River, originally known as Miller's Hollow. The emigrants renamed the settlement as Kanesville, honoring Thomas L. Kane, a non-LDS attorney who was politically well connected and used his influence to assist the Latter-day Saints. From 1846 to 1852, it was an important LDS settlement and the outfitting point for companies traveling to Utah. Orson Hyde, an Apostle and ecclesiastical leader of the settlement, published a newspaper called the Frontier Guardian. In 1852 the major LDS settlements at Kanesville, Mount Pisgah, and Garden Grove were closed as the settlers moved on to Utah. After 1852, however, the Church continued to outfit and supply emigrant companies (mostly LDS converts coming from Europe) at this community, now renamed Council Bluffs, until the mid-1860s, when the terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad was extended to the west.

For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... Farmington is a city located in Van Buren County, Iowa. ... Des Moines River - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Bonaparte is a city in Van Buren County, Iowa, United States. ... Drakesville is a city located in Davis County, Iowa. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cincinnati is a city located in Appanoose County, Iowa. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Clayton (1814 - 1879) was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and acted as a clerk and scribe to the Mormon religious leader Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Garden Grove is a city located in Decatur County, Iowa. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mt. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... The Nishnabotna River is a tributary of the Missouri River in southwestern Iowa and northwestern Missouri in the United States. ... Orient is a city located in Adair County, Iowa. ... Bridgewater is a city located in Adair County, Iowa. ... Lewis is a city in Cass County, Iowa, United States, along the East Nishnabotna River. ... Satellite photo showing Council Bluffs and Omaha, Nebraska Council Bluffs is a city located in Pottawattamie County, Iowa. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mormon Battalion was the only religious unit in American military history serving from July 1846 to July 1847 during the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Thomas Leiper Kane (1822-1883) was an American attorney, abolitionist and military officer who was influential in the western migration of the Latter-day Saint movement and served as a Union colonel and general of volunteers in the American Civil War. ... Satellite photo showing Council Bluffs and Omaha, Nebraska Council Bluffs is a city located in Pottawattamie County, Iowa. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Thomas Leiper Kane (1822-1883) was an American attorney, abolitionist and military officer who was influential in the western migration of the Latter-day Saint movement and served as a Union colonel and general of volunteers in the American Civil War. ... Orson Hyde Orson Hyde (January 8, 1805 – November 28, 1878) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles. ... This is the current Mormon collaboration of the month! Please help improve it to meet the ideal article standard. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ...

Nebraska

  • Winter Quarters (266 miles west) — Although Brigham Young had originally planned to travel all the way to the Salt Lake Valley in 1846, the emigrants' lack of preparation had become apparent during their difficult crossing of Iowa. Furthermore, the departure of the Mormon Battalion left the emigrants short on manpower. Young decided to settle for the winter along the Missouri River. The emigrants were located on both sides of the river, but their settlement at Winter Quarters on the west side was the largest. There they built 700 dwellings where an estimated 3,500 Latter-day Saints spent the winter of 1846-47; many would also reside there during the winter of 1847-48. Conditions such as scurvy, consumption, chills and fever were common; the settlement recorded 359 deaths between September 1846 and May 1848. However, while at Winter Quarters the LDS emigrants were able to save or trade for the equipment and supplies that they would need to continue the westward trek. The settlement was later renamed Florence and is now located in Omaha.[8]
  • Elkhorn River (293 miles west)
  • Platte River (305 miles west) - All emigrants leaving Missouri traveled along the Great Platte River Road for hundreds of miles. There was a prevailing opinion that the North side of the river was healthier, so most Latter-day Saints generally stuck to that side, which also separated them from unpleasant encounters with potential former enemies, like emigrants from Missouri or Illinois. In 1849, 1850 & 1852, traffic was so heavy along the Platte that virtually all feed was stripped from both sides of the river. The lack of food and the threat of disease made the journey along the Platte a deadly gamble.[9]
  • Loup Fork (352 miles west) - Crossing the Loup Fork was, like the Elkhorn, one of the early and very difficult crossings during the trek west from Council Bluffs.[10]
  • Fort Kearny (469 miles west) - This fort, named after Stephen Watts Kearny, was established in June 1848. Another fort named after Kearny was established in May 1846, but was abandoned in May 1848. Due to this, the second Fort Kearny is sometimes called New Fort Kearny. The site for the fort was purchased from the Pawnee Indians for $2,000 in goods.[11]
  • Confluence Point (563 miles west) - On May 11, 1847, three-fourths of a mile north of the confluence of the North and South Platte Rivers, a "roadometer" was attached to Heber C. Kimball's wagon driven by Pilo Johnson. Although they didn't invent the device, the measurements of the version they used were accurate enough to be used by William Clayton in his famous Latter-day Saints' Emigrants' Guide.[12]
  • Ash Hollow (646 miles west) - Many passing diarists noted the beauty of Ash Hollow, although this was ruined by thousands of passing emigrants. The Sioux Indians were often on location and were at the site and General William S. Harney's troops won a battle over the Sioux there in September, 1855 - the Battle of Ash Hollow. The site is also the burial ground of many who died of cholera during the gold rush years.[13]
  • Chimney Rock (718 miles west) - Chimney Rock is perhaps the most significant landmark on the Mormon Trail. Emigrants commented in their diaries that the landmark appeared closer than it actually was, and many sketched or painted it in their journals and carved their names into it.[14]
  • Scotts Bluff (738 miles west) - Hiram Scott was a Rocky Mountain Fur Company trapper abandoned on the bluff that now bears his name by his companions when he became ill. Accounts of his tragic death are noted by almost all those who kept journals that traveled on the north side of the Platte. The grave of Rebecca Winters, a Latter-day Saint mother who fell victim to cholera in 1852, is also located near this site, although it has since been moved and rededicated.[15]

For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Winter Quarters, Nebraska, was an encampment formed by approximately 3,500 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as they awaited better conditions for their trek westward during the winter of 1846-1847. ... Florence is a neighborhood in Omaha, Nebraska on the citys north end. ... North Omaha is in the Missouri River bluffs above Eppley Airfield and Carter Lake Further information: List of articles related to North Omaha, Nebraska North Omaha is an area in Omaha, Nebraska, United States, that is defined by its historical and modern neighborhoods, as well as its diverse racial and... For other places with the same name, see Elkhorn River (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Platte River in Nebraska. ... The Loup River in Nebraska, showing the North and South Loup rivers This article is on the Loup River in Nebraska, USA; for information on the Loup River in southeast France, see Loup River (France). ... Fort Kearny was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U.S. during the middle and late 19th century. ... Stephen Watts Kearny (August 30, 1794–October 31, 1848) was a United States Army officer, noted for action during the Mexican American War. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... William Selby Harney (22 August 1800 - 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ... Chimney Rock is a famous, prominent geological formation in Morrill County in western Nebraska. ... Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska includes an important 19th century landmark on the Oregon Trail. ...

Wyoming

Independence Rock, a site along the Mormon Trail.
Independence Rock, a site along the Mormon Trail.
  • Fort Laramie (788 miles west) — This old trading and military post served as a place for the emigrants to rest and restock provisions. The 1856 Willie Handcart Company was unable to obtain provisions at Fort Laramie, contributing to their subsequent tragedy when they ran out of food while encountering blizzard conditions along the Sweetwater River.
  • Upper Platte/Mormon Ferry (914 miles west) — The last crossing of the Platte River took place near modern Casper. For several years the Latter-day Saints operated a commercial ferry at the site, earning revenue from the Oregon- and California-bound emigrants. The ferry was discontinued in 1853 after a competing toll bridge was constructed. On October 19, 1856 the Martin Handcart Company forded the freezing river in mid-October, leading to exposure that would prove fatal to many members of the company.
  • Red Butte (940 miles west) — Red Butte was the most tragic site of the Mormon Trail. After crossing the Platte River, the Martin Handcart Company camped near Red Butte as heavy snow fell. Snow continued to fall for three days and the company came to a halt as many emigrants died. For nine days the company remained there while 56 persons died from cold or disease. Finally, on October 28 an advance team of three men from the Utah rescue party reached them. The rescuers encouraged them that help was on the way and urged the company to start moving on.[16]
  • Sweetwater River (964 miles west) — From the last crossing of the Platte, the trail heads directly southwest toward Independence Rock, where it meets and follows the Sweetwater River to South Pass. To shorten the journey by avoiding the twists and turns of the river, the trail includes nine crossings of the river.
  • Independence Rock (965 miles west) — Independence Rock was one of the trail's best known and most anticipated landmarks. Many emigrants carved their names on the rock; many of these carvings are still visible today. The emigrants sometimes celebrated their arrival at this landmark with a dance.
Devil's Gate, a gorge on the Sweetwater River.
  • Devil's Gate (970 miles west) — Devil's Gate was a narrow gorge cut through the rocks by the Sweetwater River. A small fort was located at Devil's Gate, which was unoccupied in 1856 when the Martin Handcart Company was rescued. The rescuers unloaded unnecessary equipment from the wagons so the weaker handcart emigrants could ride. A group of 19 men, led by Daniel W. Jones stayed at the fort over the winter to protect the property.
  • Martin's Cove (993 miles west) — On November 4, 1856 the Martin Handcart Company set up camp in Martin's Cove as another blizzard halted their progress. They remained there for five days until the weather abated and they could proceed toward Salt Lake City. Today a visitor's center is located on the site.
  • Rocky Ridge (1038 miles west) — Between the fifth and sixth crossings of the Sweetwater, on October 19, 1856 the Willie Handcart Company was halted by the same snowstorm that stopped the Martin Handcart Company near Red Butte. At the same time, the members of the Willie Company reached the end of their supplies of flour. A small advance team from the rescue party found their camp and gave them a small amount of flour, but then pushed on to the east to try to locate the Martin Company. Captain James Willie and Joseph Elder went ahead through the snow to find the main rescue party and inform them of the Willie Company's peril. On October 23 with the help of the rescue party, the Willie Company pushed ahead through the biting wind and snow up Rocky Ridge, a rough 5-mile (8.0 km) section of the trail that ascends to a ridge in order to bypass a section of the Sweetwater River valley that is impassable.[17]
  • Rock Creek (1048 miles west) — After their grueling 18-hour trek up Rocky Ridge, the Willie Handcart Company camped at the crossing of Rock Creek. That night 13 emigrants died; the next morning their bodies were buried in a shallow grave.[18]
  • South Pass (Continental Divide) (1065 miles west) — South Pass, a 20-mile (32 km) wide pass across the Continental Divide, is located between the modern towns of Atlantic City and Farson. At an elevation of 7,550 feet (2,300 m) above sea level, it was one of the most important landmarks of the Mormon Trail. Near South Pass is Pacific Springs, which received its name because its waters ran to the Pacific Ocean.[19]
  • Green River/Lombard Ferry (1128 miles west) — The trail crosses the Green River between the modern towns of Farson and Granger. The Latter-day Saints operated a ferry at this location to assist the church's emigrants and to earn money from other emigrants traveling to Oregon and California.[20]
  • Ft. Bridger (1183 miles west) — Fort Bridger was established in 1842 by famous mountain man Jim Bridger. This was the site where the paths of the Oregon Trail, the California Trail, and the Mormon Trail separated; the three trails were in parallel from Missouri River to Fort Bridger. In 1855 the LDS Church bought the fort from Jim Bridger and Louis Vazquez for $18,000. During the Utah War in 1857, the Utah militia burned down the fort so that it wouldn't fall into the hands of the advancing U.S. Army under General A.S. Johnston.
  • Bear River Crossing (1216 miles west) - At this, one of the last river crossings on the Mormon Trail, Lansford Hastings and his company turned north, while the Reed-Donner Company turned south. Also at this site, the vanguard company met mountaineer Miles Goodyear on July 10, 1847, who attempted to persuade them to take the northern track toward his trading post.[21]
  • The Needles (1236 miles west) - Near this very prominent rock formation close to the Utah-Wyoming border, Brigham Young became ill with what was probably Rocky Mountain spotted fever during the advance push into the Salt Lake Valley.[22]

Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1640x939, 277 KB)Picture of Independence Rock, taken by me. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1640x939, 277 KB)Picture of Independence Rock, taken by me. ... Grounds of Fort Laramie Fort Laramie, located in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming in the United States, was a significant 19th century trading post and later a military outpost of the United States Army. ... // A statue commemorating Mormon handcart pioneers on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts... Casper is the only city in Natrona County, Wyoming, United States, although the county is home to a number of small towns and Casper suburbs. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // A statue commemorating Mormon handcart pioneers on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sweetwater River The Sweetwater River is a tributary of the North Platte River, approximately 150 mi (241 km) long, in the U.S. state of Wyoming. ... Independence Rock Independence Rock is a large granite rock, approximately 120 feet (36 m) high, in southwestern Natrona County, Wyoming, along Wyoming Highway 220. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 208 KB) Photograph of Devils Gate, Wyoming, taken by myself 12 August 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 208 KB) Photograph of Devils Gate, Wyoming, taken by myself 12 August 2004. ... Devils Gate, Wyoming Devils Gate (Wyoming) is a natural rock formation, significant in the history of pioneer trails. ... Daniel Webster Jones (August 26, 1830 - April 20, 1915) was an American and Mormon pioneer. ... Martins Cove, Wyoming Martins Cove is a historic site in Wyoming. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN6109_pacificspringsandsouthpass_e_600. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN6109_pacificspringsandsouthpass_e_600. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... Atlantic City is a census-designated place located in Fremont County, Wyoming. ... Farson is a census-designated place located in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ... The Green River, a tributary of the Colorado, is shown highlighted on a map of the western United States. ... Farson is a census-designated place located in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ... Granger is a town located in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ... Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ... Liver-Eating Johnson Mountain men were trappers and explorers that roamed the Rocky Mountains from about 1810 to the early 1840s. ... Jim Bridger Jim Bridger (right) is honored along with Pony Express founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City. ... Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... The Bear River is a river, approximately 350 mi (563 km) long in southwestern Wyoming, southeastern Idaho, and northern United States. ... Lansford Hastings Lansford Warren Hastings (circa 1819 – 1870) is best remembered as the developer of Hastings Cutoff, a shortcut across what is now the state of Utah which was a factor in the Donner Party disaster of 1846. ... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ...

Utah

Echo Canyon
Echo Canyon
  • Echo Canyon (1246 miles/2005 km (west) - One of the last canyons through which the emigrants descended, this deep and narrow canyon made it a veritable, and frequently noted, echo chamber.[23]
  • Big Mountain (1279 miles/2058 km west) - Although dwarfed by the surrounding Wasatch mountain peaks, this was the highest elevation of the entire Mormon trail at 8,400 feet (2560 m).[24]
  • Golden Pass Road (1281 miles/2061 km west) - Although unsuccessful in a petition to Salt Lake City for funding, Parley P. Pratt obtained the deed to the canyon and began the construction of a road through Big Canyon Creek in the Wasatch Mountains just south of Emigration Canyon in July of 1849. Thy canyon became known as Parley's Canyon and the road he built as the "Golden Pass Road," due to the large number of gold miners who used it on their way to California. A cutoff was constructed through Silver Creek Canyon by 1862, diverting much of the traffic on what is today the route of Interstate Highway 80.[25]
  • Emigration Canyon (Donner Hill) (1283 miles/2064 km west) - About a year before the Latter-day Saint emigrants, the Reed-Donner wagon train carved the first road through the final geographic obstacle between Big Mountain and the Salt Lake Valley. About half way through, the group changed course and went up and around the final constriction near the valley's mouth. The resulting exhaustingly brutal climb over rock and sage most likely contributed to the historic tragedy that befell the travelers three months and 600 miles (970 km) to the west. When an advance team from the Latter-day Saint vanguard company came through, it chose to stick to the valley floor and hacked its way through to the bench overlooking the Great Salt Lake basin in less than four hours.[26]
  • Salt Lake Valley (1297 miles/2087 km west) - Although the Salt Lake Valley had a special meaning to each emigrant, signifying the end of more than a year of crossing the plains, not all of the pioneering Saints settled in the Salt Lake Valley. Settlement outside the Salt Lake Valley began as early as 1848, with a number of communities planted in the Weber valley to the north. Additional townsites were carefully chosen, with settlements placed near canyon mouths with access to dependable streams and stands of timber. Latter-day Saints founded more than 600 communities from Canada down into Mexico. As historian Wallace Stegner stated, the Latter-day Saints "were one of the principal forces in the settlement of the West."[27][28]

This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Echo_Canyon. ... Image File history File links Echo_Canyon. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... For the county, see Wasatch County, Utah. ... Parley P. Pratt Statue of Parley P. Pratt facing Parleys Canyon at sunrise. ... Gold Miner is an online flash game in which the player takes on the role of an old, bearded gold miner, looking to strike it rich. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ... Emigration Canyon is a canyon east of Salt Lake City, Utah in the Wasatch Range. ... Salt Lake Valley from space. ... Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909—April 13, 1993) was an American historian, novelist, short story writer, and environmentalist. ...

See also

Latter-day Saints Portal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1065x800, 99 KB) Summary Christus statue on Temple Square, Salt Lake City, Utah Taken by Ricardo630 in August 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... // A statue commemorating Mormon handcart pioneers on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts... A statue commemorating the Mormon pioneers The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Landmarks of the Nebraska Territory were important to settlers on the Oregon, California and Mormon trails. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... The Oregon-California Trails Association is an interdisciplinary organization based at Independence, Missouri, United States. ... Pioneer Day (also called the Day of Deliverance[1]) is a holiday celebrated on July 24 in the U.S. state of Utah, with some celebrations in regions of surrounding states originally settled by Mormon pioneers. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For ships of the United States Navy of the same name, see USS Salt Lake City. ... Salt Lake Valley from space. ... The This Is The Place Heritage Park is located on the east side of Salt Lake City. ...

Notes and references

References

  • Allen, James B.; Glen M. Leonard (1976). The Story of the Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. 
  • Bartholomew, Rebecca; Leonard J. Arrington (1981). Rescue of the 1856 Handcart Companies. Brigham Young University, Charles Redd Center for Western Studies. ISBN 0-8425-1941-6. 
  • Bennett, Richard E. (October 1997). We'll Find the Place: The Mormon Exodus, 1846–1848. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. ISBN 1-57345-286-6. 
  • Hafen, Leroy; Ann Hafen (May 1992). Handcarts to Zion. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7255-3. 
  • Hartley, William G. (July 1997). "Gathering the Dispersed Nauvoo Saints, 1847-52". Ensign: 12-15. 
  • Kimball, Stanley B. (1979). Discovering Mormon Trails: New York to California, 1831–1868. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. 
  • Madsen, Carol Cornwall (1997). Journey to Zion: Voices from the Mormon Trail. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. ISBN 1-57345-244-0. 
  • Slaughter, William; Michael Landon (September 1997). Trail of Hope: The Story of the Mormon Trail. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. ISBN 1-57345-251-3. 
  • Stegner, Wallace Earl (1992). The Gathering of Zion. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-935704-12-4. 

Notes

  1. ^ Hartley.
  2. ^ Bennett, p. 6.
  3. ^ Bennett, pp. 31-40.
  4. ^ Allen and Leonard, pp. 279-287.
  5. ^ Hafen and Hafen.
  6. ^ Hartley; Kimball, p. 14.
  7. ^ Hartley; Kimball, pp. 14-15.
  8. ^ Allen, pp. 234-238.
  9. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Platte River. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
  10. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Loup Fork. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  11. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Fort Kearny. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  12. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Confluence Point. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  13. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Ash Hollow. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-30.
  14. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Chimney Rock. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-30.
  15. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Scotts Bluff. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-30.
  16. ^ Hafen, pp. 110-115.
  17. ^ Bartholomew, pp. 15-18.
  18. ^ Ibid., pp. 17-18.
  19. ^ Kimball, p. 30.
  20. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Green River. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  21. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Bear River. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  22. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / The Needles. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  23. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Echo Canyon. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  24. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Big Mountain. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  25. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Golden Pass Road. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  26. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Emigration Canyon. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  27. ^ Stegner, p.7.
  28. ^ The Pioneer Story / Trail Location / Salt Lake Valley. LDS.org. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.

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External links

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL (2744 words)
The Mormon pioneer experience is closely tied to the formation, growth, and development of their church, which was founded by Joseph Smith, April 6, 1830, in Fayette, New York.
Mormon emigrants continued to arrive during the remaining weeks of summer and fall, and approximately 1,650 people spent their first winter in the valley.
Land ownership along the trail is comprised of 822 miles (64%) on private land, 264 miles (20%) under federal management, and 214 miles (16%) in state and local ownership.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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