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Encyclopedia > Moritz Lazarus
Moritz Lazarus
Moritz Lazarus
Moritz Lazarus
Born 15 September 1824
Filehne Posen (now Wielen)
Died 13 April 1903
Merano
Nationality German
Fields psychology

Moritz Lazarus (15 September 182413 April 1903), born at Filehne, in the Prussian province of Posen, was a German philosopher, psychologist, and a vocal opponent of the anti-Semitism of his time. If you hold the copyright to an image (e. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... Coat of Arms Wieleń is a town in Poland, in province Wielkopolska, in Czarnków-Trzcianka County. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Merano (Italian, now most common in English; German: Meran, also used in English; Ladin: Meran; Archaic (857 AD): Mairania; Latin: Merona; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Meran), is a town in the province of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...

Contents

Life and Education

He was born at Filehne, Posen (now Wielen). The son of Aaron Levin Lazarus, a pupil of Akiba Eiger, and himself president of the bet din and the yeshiva of Filehne (died there in 1874), he was educated in Hebrew literature and history, and subsequently in law and philosophy at the University of Berlin. In 1850 he obtained his Ph.D. degree; in the same year he married Sarah Lebenheim. The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... Coat of Arms WieleÅ„ is a town in Poland, in province Wielkopolska, in Czarnków-Trzcianka County. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


From 1860 to 1866 he was professor in the University of Berne, and subsequently returned to Berlin as professor of philosophy in the kriegsakademie (1868) and later in the university of Berlin (1873). On the occasion of his seventieth birthday he was honored with the title of Geheimrath. He died in Merano. University of Berne The University of Berne is a university in the Swiss capital of Berne. ... Fassade Unter den Linden 74, erbaut 1845/25 von Karl Friedrich Schinkel als vereinte Artillerie- und Ingenieurschule Fassade des Lehrgebäudes an der Dorotheenstraße 58/59, entworfen von Franz Schwechten (1883) Lageplan der Kriegsakademie mit dem Lehrgebäude an der Dorotheenstraße und dem aufgrund der vornehmen Lage 1878... Merano (Italian, now most common in English; German: Meran, also used in English; Ladin: Meran; Archaic (857 AD): Mairania; Latin: Merona; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Meran), is a town in the province of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. ...


Philosophy

The fundamental principle of his philosophy was that truth must be sought not in metaphysical or a priori abstractions but in psychological investigation, and further that this investigation cannot confine itself successfully to the individual consciousness, but must be devoted primarily to society as a whole. The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution. Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This Völkerpsychologie (folk or comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists. A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In support of his theory he founded, in combination with H. Steinthal, the Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft (1859). His own contributions to this periodical were numerous and important. His chief work was Das Leben der Seele (Berlin, 1855-1857; 3rd ed., 1883). Other philosophical works were: Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten (1860 and 1867), Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte (1865 and 1872); Zur Lehre von den Sinnestiiuschungen (1867); Ideale Fragen (1875 and 1885), Erziehung und Geschichte (1881); Unser Standpunkt (1881); Ueber die Reize des Spiels (1883).


Apart from the great interest of his philosophical work Lazarus was pre-eminent among the Jews of the so-called Semitic domination in Germany. Like Heine, Auerbach and Steinthal, he rose superior to the narrower ideals of the German Jews, and took a leading place in German literature and thought. He protested against the violent anti-Semitism of the time, and, in spite of the moderate tone of his publications, drew upon himself unqualified censure. He wrote in this connection a number of articles collected in 1887 under the title Treu und Frei: Reden und Vorträge über Juden und Judenthum. In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish synods at Leipzig and Augsburg. Heine is a German family name. ... Auerbach was originally a German-language generic toponym coming from Aue  + Bach, meaning floodmeadow brook, that is, a brook running through a flood-meadow. The name is used for many places and people. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Founds "Völkerpsychologie"

Lazarus' first publication, "Die Sittliche Berechtigung Preussens in Deutschland" (Berlin, 1850), appealed to the public at large. In this book he claimed for Prussia the leadership over the other German states on account of her political, philosophical, and religious superiority. From 1850 Lazarus devoted himself especially to psychology. Applying the laws of the psychology of the individual to the nation and to mankind (for these he considered as social beings), Lazarus established a new branch of research which he termed "Völkerpsychologie" (national psychology). In an article entitled "Ueber den Begriff und die Möglichkeit einer Völkerpsychologie als Wissenschaft" (in Prutz's "Deutsches Museum," 1851) he laid the foundation for the study of this science. Nine years later, in collaboration with Steinthal, his friend and brother-in-law, Lazarus established the "Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft" (vols. i-xx, Berlin, 1860-90; continued as the "Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde"). From 1856 to 1858 he published his principal work, "Das Leben der Seele in Monographien" (3 vols.; 3d ed., 1883-97). It deals with the principal problems of psychology from the standpoint of the philosophy of Herbart. Written in a popular and easy style, it soon found a large circle of readers.


In 1860 Lazarus was called to the University of Bern as professor of psychology; six years later he returned to Berlin and was appointed teacher of philosophy at the Royal Military Academy (1867); and in 1874 he became professor of philosophy at the university of that city. He was one of the founders of the Schillerstiftung and for many years its president; he was also curator of the Victoria Lyceum. On the occasion of his seventieth birthday Lazarus was honored by the German emperor, the University of Bern, and the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati. The first conferred upon him the title of "Königlicher Geheimer Regierungsrath"; the second, the degree of doctor of law; and the third, that of doctor of theology. In 1895 Lazarus, after the death of his first wife, married the widow Nahida Ruth Remy, who under his influence had embraced Judaism. During his last years Lazarus lived a retired life in Merano. Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC or HUC-JIR) is the oldest Jewish seminary in the New World and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ...


Among his shorter philosophical and historical writings may be mentioned: "Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten," 1860; "Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte," 1861; "Zur Lehre von den Sinneserscheinungen," 1867; "Ein Psychologischer Blick in Unsere Zeit," 1872; "Ideale Fragen," 1878; "Erziehung und Geschichte," 1881; and "Ueber die Reize des Spiels," 1883.


Communal Activity

Lazarus took a very active part in the public and spiritual life of the Prussian Jews. From 1867 to 1892 he was a member of the Repräsentanten-Versammlung of the Jewish congregation of Berlin; from 1882 to 1894, vice-president of the Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund; from 1867 to 1874, president of the Berlin branch of the Alliance Israélite Universelle; in 1869, president of the Jewish Synod of Leipzig, and in 1871 of that of Augsburg. He was also vice-president of the Russian Auxiliary Committee and of the Romanian Committee (1869-94). Lazarus was furthermore one of the founders of the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums of Berlin, and for many years president of its board of curators. He was a very effective and popular public speaker. His most important lectures on Jews and Judaism were collected and published in his "Treu und Frei," Leipzig, 1887 (containing his speeches at the meetings of the two synods; "Was Heiss National?"; "Unser Standpunkt"; "An die Deutschen Juden"; "Auf Moses Mendelssohn"; "Auf Michael Sachs"; "Aus einer Jüdischen Gemeinde vor Fünfzig Jahren"). Alliance Israelite Universelle is an international Jewish organization of French Jews based in France. ... Wissenschaft des Judentums or the scientific investigation of Judaism, refers to a 19th-century movement premised on the critical investigation of Jewish literature and culture, including rabbinic literature, using scientific methods to analyze the origins of Jewish traditions. ... Moses Mendelssohn Moses Mendelssohns glasses, in the Berlin Jewish Museum Moses Mendelssohn (Dessau, September 6, 1729 – January 4, 1786 in Berlin) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah, (the Jewish enlightenment) is indebted. ... Michael Sachs (1808-1864) was a German rabbi. ...


Lazarus devoted much time and energy to combating that anti-Semitism which took its rise in Germany about 1878. He was one of the most prominent Jewish apologists of his time. Like many of his contemporaries, he believed (but erroneously) that anti-Semitism was merely a passing fancy, a phenomenon engendered by reactionary times, which could be explained away in writings or addresses. He maintained that the Jews were united only by means of their religious history ("Treu und Frei," p. 77). In this case as in many others, when considering Jewish matters, Lazarus follows the dictates of his desires rather than the interests of the commonweal ("Gemeingeist"). Much cited for apologetic purposes is his definition of the concept "nation," as the essential and only objective characteristic of which he takes not the similarity of customs and morals, of territory, religion, and race, but the bond of language. Commonweal is a New York based American journal of opinion edited and managed by lay Catholics. ...


"Die Ethik des Judenthums"

Of his more important contributions to Jewish literature may be cited: "Der Prophet Jeremias" (1894), a lecture, and "Die Ethik des Judenthums"(part i, 1898; 2d ed., 1899; translated into English by Henrietta Szold, and published by the Jewish Publication Society of America, 1900). In the latter work Lazarus takes ethics as the resultant rather than as the basic principle of religion, and, following Kant, establishes as the principle of Jewish ethics in particular the co-equality of God and the law of autonomy, whereby the Jewish conception of God has, of course, been given up. Lazarus fails to show the historical development of the morals of Judaism according to the various sources, as has been pointed out by Herman Cohen ("Das Problem der Jüdischen Sittenlehre, eine Kritik von Lazarus, 'Ethik des Judenthums,'" in "Monatsschrift," xliii, 385 et seq.). Henrietta Szold (December 21, 1860 – February 13, 1945) was a U.S. Jewish scholar and Zionist leader. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America was founded in Philadelphia in 1888 to provide the children of Jewish immigrants to America with books about their heritage in the language of the New World. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ...


References

  • Jewish Encyclopedia article on Moritz Lazarus
  • R. Flint, The Philosophy of History in Europe;
  • Moritz Brasch, Gesammelte Essays und Characterkopfe zür neuen Philos. und Literatur;
  • E. Berliner, Lazarus und die offentliche Meinung;
  • M. Brasch, "Der Begrunder de Volkerpsychologie," in Nord et Sud (September 1894).
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.

Robert Flint (1838 – 1910) was a Scottish theologian and philosopher, who wrote also on sociology. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Hermann Cohen by Karl Doerbecker Hermann Cohen (4 July 1842 - 4 April 1918) was a German-Jewish philosopher, one of the founders of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, and he is often held to be probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century (Jewish Virtual Library). ... Heymann/Hermann Steinthal, German philologist and philosopher; born at Gröbzig, Anhalt, May 16, 1823; died at Berlin March 14, 1899. ... Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920) was a German psychologist, physiologist, and professor who is, along with William James, regarded as the father of psychology. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moritz Lazarus - LoveToKnow 1911 (453 words)
MORITZ LAZARUS (1824-1903), German philosopher, was born on the 15th of September 1824 at Filehne, Posen.
Apart from the great interest of his philosophical work, Lazarus was pre-eminent among the Jews of the so-called Semitic domination in Germany.
and Literatur; E. Berliner, Lazarus and die offentliche Meinung; M. Brasch, "Der Begriinder de Volkerpsychologie," in Nord et Sud (September 1894).
Moritz Lazarus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1367 words)
Moritz Lazarus (15 September 1824 13 April 1903), born at Filehne, in the Prussian province of Posen, was a German philosopher, psychologist, and a vocal opponent of the anti-Semitism of his time.
The son of Aaron Levin Lazarus, a pupil of Akiba Eger, and himself president of the bet din and the yeshiva of Filehne (died there in 1874), he was educated in Hebrew literature and history, and subsequently in law and philosophy at the University of Berlin.
Lazarus was furthermore one of the founders of the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums of Berlin, and for many years president of its board of curators.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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