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Encyclopedia > Morisco

Morisco (Spanish "Moor-like") or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of 'New Christian' in Spain and Portugal. The term New Christian was used to refer to the Jews that were converted to Christianity during the Spanish Inquisition. ...


From the late 1400s to the early 1600s Moors (Iberian Muslims) were forced to convert from Islam to Catholicism. The Moriscos were expelled by the decree of 1610 from Spain to North Africa after being persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition. Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. Origins of the Name Juba II king of Mauretania The name derives from the ancient Berber... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Azores and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa, though they do not share a common culture with North Africa. ... Pedro Berruguete. ...


Prior to their forced conversion, the Moriscos were known as Mudejars, and were allowed to practice Islam among Christians with certain restrictions. Mudejar Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning domesticated. The term means those who accepted submission to non Muslim authorities in lands taken over by Christians in the Mediterranean. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ...


The exact status of Mudejars depended on the capitulation pacts and the later decrees of the kings and Cortes. After the fall of Granada in 1492, the Muslim population was promised religious freedom, but that promise was short-lived. Muslims were given an ultimatum to either convert or emigrate. The majority converted, but only superficially, continuing to dress and speak as they had before and to secretly practice Islam and use the aljamiado writing system. This led Cardinal Cisneros to use a more forceful approach, which resulted in an uprising in 1500 to 1502. This was suppressed, and the Spanish authorities took that as a pretext to void the rights and obligations in the surrender treaty. As early as 1508, authorities banned traditional fashion. Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... The Cortes Generales (English: General Courts) is the Spanish legislature. ... The City of Granada Alhambra, Courtyard of the Lions Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in Spain. ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... A text in a Romance language is said to be aljamiado if it is written using the Arabic or Hebrew alphabets, as texts written in the Mozarabic or Ladino languages are. ... Cisneros visits the construction of the Hospital of the Charity. ... Events Europes population was ~60 million. ... Events January 1 - Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabra Bay, Brazil and mistook it for the mouth of a river which they named Rio de Janeiro May 9 - Christopher Columbus leaves Spain for his fourth and final trip to the New World. May 21 - Portuguese discover island of St Helena. ... Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three year truce and cede several territories to Venice December 10 - League of Cambrai formed as an alliance against Venice between...


More restrictive legislation was introduced in 1526 and 1527. Moriscos could buy a 40-year suspension of the laws, but in 1568, Philip II of Spain issued an edict for Moriscos to give up their children to be educated by Christian priests. This led to another uprising in the Alpujarras in 1568 to 1571 and the forced resettlement of Moriscos upon its defeat. Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II) - (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598), the first King of Spain understood as the whole peninsula of Hispania (r. ... Las Alpujarras is a mountainous district in Southern Spain, which stretches south from the Sierra Nevada mountains near Granada in the autonomous region of Andalucía. ...


Despite all that, the Moriscos continued to be industrious and prosperous, and were the subject of envy from the Christian peasants. Moriscos were suspected of being in contact with the Turkish Empire and the Barbary pirates, conspiring against Spain. Spanish nobles, who appreciated them as cheap hard-workers, tried to protect them from expulsion. They were especially important in the agriculture of Valencia and Murcia. Imperial motto: unknown The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul (Constantinople) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million (at most) Area (1683) 11 955 000 km² Establishment 1281 Dissolution October 29, 1923 Currency Akçe The flag of the later... Though at least a proportion of them are better described as privateers, the Barbary pirates operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salè and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on ships on their way to Asia... Conspiracy, in common usage, is the act of working in secret to obtain some goal, usually understood with negative connotations. ... Valencia from space, June 1996 The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain. ... Capital Murcia Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 9th  11 313 km²  2,2% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 10th  1 226 993  2,9%  108,46/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Murcian  murciano/a Statute of Autonomy June 19, 1982 ISO 3166-2 MU Parliamentary representation  – Congress seats  – Senate...


Towards the end of the 16th Century, Morisco writers sought to challenge the perception of their culture as alien to Spain, with literary works purporting to present a version of early Spanish history in which Arab-speaking Spaniards played a positive role. Chief amongst these is Miguel de Luna's Verdadera historia del rey don Rodrigo (1592 and 1600). De Luna is also highly likely to have been involved in the falsification of texts intended to demonstrate that the earliest Spanish Christians had, in fact, been Arabs; the lead books of Sacromonte. Sacromonte Abbey in Granada was founded in 1600. ...


The Moriscos were finally expelled from Spain to North Africa in 1610, by Philip III, at the instigation of the Duke of Lerma. Although estimates have varied from as low as 120,000 to as high as 3,000,000 expelled [1], contemporary accounts set it at between 200,000-600,000, with 300,000 being an often quoted number. [2]. Some historians have blamed the following crisis of the Spanish Mediterranean to the substitution of Morisco workers by Christian newcomers, who were fewer and less used to the local techniques. North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Azores and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa, though they do not share a common culture with North Africa. ... Philip III (April 14, 1578 - March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II), from 1598 until his death. ... Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), the Spanish favorite of Philip III of Spain and minister, was the first of the validos or strongmen through whom the later Spanish Hapsburg monarchs ruled. ...


Upon arrival to North Africa, the Sultans of Morocco tried to find a place for these Spanish-speaking people who had been influenced by Christianity.


Some communities fought as corsairs, based at Salè, against Christian merchants or used European-made guns to cross the Sahara and conquer Timbuktu and the Niger Curve. A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... Salé is the twin city to Rabat, captital of Morocco. ... See Timbuktu (novel) for the book by Paul Auster. ...


Miguel de Cervantes' writings, such as Don Quixote and Conversation of the Two Dogs, offer interesting views of Moriscos and put them in a favorable light. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right) Don Quixote de la Mancha (IPA: ) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...

Contents


Extended meaning

In historical studies of minoritisation, Morisco is sometimes applied to other historical crypto-Muslims, in places such as Norman Sicily, 9th century Crete, and other areas along the medieval Christian-Muslim frontier.


In the racial classification of Spanish America, morisco was used for a certain combination of White and Negro blood.


See also

Aben Humeya, Crypto-Jews, marranos, Hornachos. Aben Humeya (1520-1568) the last king of Granada, he was chosen as king by the Moriscos who had revolted against King Philip II of Spain. ... Crypto-Judaism is secret practicing of Judaism while publicly pretending to be of another faith. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ...


External links

  • Detailed article by Professor Vincent Barletta
  • 1911 Encyclopedia
  • The expulsion of Muslims from Spain by Professor Roger Boase
  • Columbia Encyclopedia
  • Aljamiado-morisco manuscripts

References

  • Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion, by H. C. Lea, (London 1901)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Morisco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (685 words)
Moriscos could buy a 40-year suspension of the laws, but in 1568, Philip II of Spain issued an edict for Moriscos to give up their children to be educated by Christian priests.
Moriscos were suspected of being in contact with the Turkish Empire and the Barbary pirates, conspiring against Spain.
The Moriscos were finally expelled from Spain to North Africa in 1610, by Philip III, at the instigation of the Duke of Lerma.
Morisco - Wikipedia, den fria encyklopedin (462 words)
Morisco (spanska: "morisk") eller mourisco på portugisiska var en term som från slutet av 1400-talet till början av 1600-talet avsåg de morer som, inte alltid frivilligt, låtit sig omvändas till kristendomen.
Trots allt detta var många moriscos framgångsrika och levde i välstånd vilket väckte avundsjuka hos många kristna bönder.
I historisk litteratur används ibland termen "moriscos" för muslimska minoriteter i den kristna världen även utanför Spanien, t.ex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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