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Encyclopedia > Moriori

Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language, Wharekauri in the Māori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. The term has also been used for the hypothesised original settlers of New Zealand, supposed to be linguistically and genetically different from the Māori. This story spread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but was conclusively disproven from the 1960s.[1] Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... For the language of the same name spoken in New Guinea, see Moriori language (New Guinea). ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ...

Contents

Origin

The Moriori are culturally Polynesian. They developed a distinct Moriori culture in the Chatham Islands as they adapted to local conditions. Although speculation once suggested that they settled the Chatham Islands directly from the tropical Polynesian islands, or even that they were Melanesian in origin, current research indicates that ancestral Moriori were Māori Polynesians who came to the Chatham Islands from New Zealand before 1500.[2] [3] [4] [5] Polynesian culture refers to the aboriginal culture of the Polynesian-speaking peoples of Polynesia and the Polynesian outliers. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


Evidence supporting this theory comes from the characteristics that the Moriori language has in common with the Māori dialect spoken by the Ngāi Tahu tribe of the South Island, and comparisons of the genealogies of Moriori ("hokopapa") and Māori ("whakapapa"). Prevailing wind patterns in the southern Pacific add to the speculation that the Chatham Islands are the last outpost in the Pacific to be settled during the period of Polynesian discovery and colonization [6]. The origin of the name Moriori is uncertain; it may have developed as a linguistic reduplication of the old Polynesian word Māori; if so, it would have the meaning "(ordinary) people". Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand, with the tribal authority, Te RÅ«nanga o Ngāi Tahu, being based in Christchurch. ... For other uses, see South Island (disambiguation). ... Whakapapa or genealogy is a fundamental principle that permeates the whole of Maori culture. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Adapting to local conditions

The Chatham Islands are colder and less hospitable than the land the original settlers had left behind, and although abundant in resources, these were different from those available where they had come from. The Chathams proved unsuitable for the cultivation of most crops known to Polynesians, and the Moriori adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Food was almost entirely marine-sourced - protein and fat from fish, fur seals and the fatty young of sea birds. The islands supported about 2000 people. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...

Moriori tree carving or dendroglyph

Lacking resources of cultural significance such as greenstone and plentiful timber, they found outlets for their ritual needs in the carving of dendroglyphs (incisions into tree trunks, called rakau momori). Some of these carvings are protected by the JM Barker (Hapupu) National Historic Reserve. New Zealand greenstone is formed by the metamorphism of basalt. ...


As a small and precarious population, Moriori embraced a pacifist culture which rigidly avoided warfare, substituting it with dispute resolution in the form of ritual fighting and conciliation. The ban on warfare and cannibalism is attributed to their ancestor Nunuku-whenua. Pacifist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Conciliation is an alternative dispute resolution process whereby the parties to a dispute (including future interest disputes) agree to utilize the services of a conciliator, who then meets with the parties separately in an attempt to resolve their differences. ...

"...because men get angry and during such anger feel the will to strike, that so they may, but only with a rod the thickness of a thumb, and one stretch of the arms length, and thrash away, but that on an abrasion of the hide, or first sign of blood, all should consider honour satisfied" [7]

This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare, such as may have led to catastrophic habitat destruction and population decline on Easter Island. However, when considered as a moral imperative rather than a pragmatic response to circumstances, it also led to their later near-destruction at the hands of invading North Island Māori. Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


European contact and invasion by Taranaki Māori

William R. Broughton landed on November 29, 1791, and claimed possession of the islands for Great Britain, naming them after his ship, HMS Chatham. Sealers and whalers soon made the islands a centre of their activities, competing for resources with the native population. 10 to 20 percent of the Moriori soon died from imported diseases. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see HMS Chatham. ... Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ...


In 1835 some Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people, Māori from the Taranaki region of the North Island of New Zealand settled in the Chathams. On November 19, 1835, a chartered European ship, the Rodney, carrying 500 Maori armed with guns, clubs and axes arrived, followed by another ship with 400 more Maori arriving on December 5, 1835. They proceeded to enslave some Moriori and kill and cannibalise others. "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals." | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... View of Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont from Stratford, facing west. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Cannibal redirects here. ...


A council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Maori's predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs — Tapata and Torea — declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."[8] A Moriori survivor recalled : "[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep.... [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed - men, women and children indiscriminately." A Maori conqueror explained, "We took possession... in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped....." [9]


After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, nor to have children with each other. All became slaves of the Ngati Tama and Ngati Mutunga invaders. Many died from despair. Many Moriori women had children by their Maori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Maori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. Only 101 Morioris out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862 (Kopel et al., 2003). Although it is commonly believed that the Māori invaders completely wiped out the Moriori, several thousand mixed ancestry Moriori descendants remain alive today.[1] Tommy Solomon, the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, died in 1933. This article is about 1862 . ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tame Horomona Rehe, also known by the anglicised name Tommy Solomon, (May 7, 1884 - March 19, 1933) is believed by most to have been the last true Moriori, although some dispute the claim. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An all-male group of German Lutheran missionaries arrived in 1843. When a group of women were sent out to join them three years later, several marriages ensued, a few members of the present-day population can still trace their ancestry back to those missionary families.


Revival of culture

Today, in spite of the difficulties and genocide that Moriori faced, with unrelenting stoicism and peaceful resignation, Moriori are enjoying a renaissance, both on Rekohu and in the mainland of New Zealand. Moriori culture and identity is being revived, symbolised in January 2005 with the renewal of the Covenant of Peace at the new Kopinga marae on the Chatham Islands. Taputapuātea, an ancient marae at Raiātea in the Society Islands, restored in 1994. ...


Some Moriori descendants have made claims against the New Zealand government through the Waitangi Tribunal, a permanent commission of inquiry charged with making recommendations on claims brought by Maori relating to actions or omissions of the Crown in the period since 1840 that breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi. The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British Crown, and various Māori chiefs from the northern North Island of New Zealand. ...


The debunked myth of Moriori in New Zealand

The genocide of the Moriori, and the loss of their voice as a people, led to an unsubstantiated myth in New Zealand popular culture of the early twentieth century that the 'Moriori', a small-statured dark-skinned race of possible Melanesian origin, originally inhabited New Zealand before the lighter-skinned Māori arrived and drove the Moriori out to the Chathams. This story conveniently promoted racist stereotyping and justified the idea of colonisation by cultural 'superiors'[10]. It still appears sometimes in overseas publications, such as recent editions of Encarta. Michael King's Moriori: A People Rediscovered (2000) provides the only comprehensive and systematic account of the Moriori. Its publication helped finally dispel longstanding historical and archaeological myths about Moriori. map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Dr Michael King OBE (15 December 1945 - 30 March 2004) was a widely respected Pakeha New Zealand historian, author and biographer. ...


References

  1. ^ As Kerry Howe puts it, 'Scholarship over the past 40 years has radically revised the model offered a century earlier by Smith: the Moriori as a pre-Polynesian people have gone (the term Moriori is now a technical term referring to those ancestral Maori who settled the Chatham Islands)' (Howe 2003:182).
  2. ^ Clark, Ross (1994). Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence. In Sutton, Douglas G. (Ed.) (1994), The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press, pp123-135. 
  3. ^ Solomon, Māui; Denise Davis (updated 2006-06-09). Moriori. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 
  4. ^ Howe, Kerry (updated 9-Jun-2006). Ideas of Māori origins. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  5. ^ King, Michael (2000 (Original edition 1989)). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Viking. ISBN ISBN 0-14-010391-0. 
  6. ^ Clark 1994, King 2000
  7. ^ Oral tradition. From King 2000
  8. ^ Michael King (2000). Moriori: A People Rediscovered (Revised Edition). Published by Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0. Original edition 1989.
  9. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton, p53. 
  10. ^ See Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Ideas of Māori origins

Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ...

See also

Waitaha—A Māori iwi who settled early in the South Island, and were subsequently taken over by Kāti Mamoe and Ngāi Tahu. In recent years a myth concerning Waitaha, with some parallels to that once held about the Moriori, has become popular in some quarters. Waitaha is a Māori iwi. ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ... Kāi Mamoe, or Ngāti Mamoe, is a Māori iwi. ... Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand, with the tribal authority, Te RÅ«nanga o Ngāi Tahu, being based in Christchurch. ...


External links

  • The Official Hokotehi Moriori Trust website
  • Rekohu: Report on Moriori and Ngāti Mutunga Claims in the Chatham Islands
  • Official Moriori Education Resources Website

References

  • Dave Kopel, Paul Gallant & Joanne D. Eisen (2003). 'A Moriori Lesson: A brief history of pacifism.' National Review Online, April 11, 2003. (URL [2])

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moriori - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (570 words)
Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago.
The Moriori form an outlier, ethnically and culturally, to the Polynesians of the Pacific Ocean.
Evidence supporting this theory comes from the similarity of the Moriori language to the Māori dialect spoken by the Ngai Tahu tribe of the South Island, comparisons of the genealogies of Moriori ("hokopapa") and Māori ("whakapapa"), and prevailing wind patterns in the southern Pacific.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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