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Encyclopedia > Mordechai Vanunu
Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. George's Cathedral. This picture was taken two days after his April 21, 2004 release from prison
Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. George's Cathedral. This picture was taken two days after his April 21, 2004 release from prison

Mordechai Vanunu  (Hebrew: מרדכי ואנונו‎; born Marrakech, Morocco, October 13, 1954), also known by his baptismal name John Crossman, is an Israeli former nuclear technician who revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons programme to the British press in 1986. He was subsequently abducted in Rome by Israeli agents and smuggled to Israel, where he was tried in secret[citation needed] and convicted of treason. Israeli prisoner (nuclear secrets) Source: http://www. ... Israeli prisoner (nuclear secrets) Source: http://www. ... St. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links He-Mordechai_Vanunu. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Israel was the sixth country in the world to develop nuclear weapons[2] and is one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the other three being India, Pakistan and North Korea,[3] and the International Atomic Energy... // Origins Regular newspaper publication dates from the mid 17th century. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A secret trial is a trial that is not open to the public, nor reported in the news. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Mordechai Vanunu spent 18 years in prison, including more than 11 years in solitary confinement. Vanunu was released from prison in 2004, subject to a broad array of restrictions on his speech and movement. Since then he has been briefly arrested several times for violations of those restrictions, including giving various interviews to foreign journalists and attempting to leave Israel. In July 2007, Vanunu was sentenced to a further six months imprisonment for speaking to foreigners and travelling to Bethlehem.[1] Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ...


In its press release of July 2, 2007, Amnesty International said "The organization considers Mordechai Vanunu to be a prisoner of conscience and calls for his immediate and unconditional release. "[2] Vanunu has been characterized by some as a whistleblower[3][4]and by others as a traitor.[5][6][7][8] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Whistleblower Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Vanunu was born in Marrakech, Morocco to a Jewish family; his father was a rabbi. In 1963, at the age of nine, he emigrated under the Law of Return with his parents and 11 brothers and sisters to Israel. Vanunu completed his three years of military service in the sapper unit of the Israeli Defense Forces, with the rank of sergeant. After completing his service, Vanunu became a philosophy student at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, where he became critical of many policies of the Israeli government, forming a group called "Campus" with four other Jewish students and five Arab students. Vanunu was also affiliated with a group called "Movement for the Advancement of Peace." He never graduated from the university. For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) anothers fortifications. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew: ) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Negev Nuclear Research Center

Vanunu's photograph of a Negev Nuclear Research Center glove box containing nuclear materials in a model bomb assembly, one of about 60 photographs he later gave to the British press.
Vanunu's photograph of a Negev Nuclear Research Center glove box containing nuclear materials in a model bomb assembly, one of about 60 photographs he later gave to the British press.

Between 1976 and 1985, Vanunu was employed as a nuclear plant technician at the Negev Nuclear Research Center, an Israeli facility which, according to the majority of defense experts, is used for manufacturing nuclear weapons and nuclear research;[9] it is located in the Negev desert south of Dimona. Most worldwide intelligence agencies estimate that Israel developed nuclear weapons as early as the 1960s, but the country has purposely maintained a "policy of deliberate ambiguity", neither acknowledging nor denying that it possesses the weapons. It was during his employment there that one of the left-wing groups in which Vanunu held membership, protested against Israel's 1981 destruction of Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor, which was believed to be part of the Iraqi nuclear weapons development programme. The Jerusalem Post stated that Vanunu took active part in these protests,[10] arguing that this showed that he was motivated by antipathy to Israel in his later actions. Vanunu has not responded to these claims. Image File history File links Vanunu-glove-box-bomb-components. ... Image File history File links Vanunu-glove-box-bomb-components. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... Hebrew דימונה Arabic ديمونة Founded in 1955 Government City District South Population 33,900 Jurisdiction 6,000 dunams (6 km²) Mayor Yitzhak Rochberger Dimona (‎) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah valley... Many nations may find it to their advantage to maintain a policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity). ... The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ...


It is believed that at Dimona, Vanunu became increasingly troubled about the widely believed Israeli nuclear weapons programme on which he worked. When he was laid off from Dimona in 1985, Vanunu left Israel. He arrived at Nepal and considered a conversion to Buddhism, later traveling to Burma and Thailand. In 1986, he traveled to Sydney, Australia. While there, Vanunu lived in a hostel in Kings Cross and worked in odd jobs, first as a hotel dishwasher and later as a taxi driver. Israel was the sixth country in the world to develop nuclear weapons[2] and is one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the other three being India, Pakistan and North Korea,[3] and the International Atomic Energy... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Not to be confused with hotel. ... Kings Cross is a former suburb that is now an inner-city locality of Sydney. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


Vanunu began to attend the local church, St. John's. There he met the Reverend John McKnight, who worked with the homeless and drug addicts. Vanunu converted to Christianity and was baptized as John Crossman into the Anglican Church of Australia, making him further estranged from his family. The Sydney Diocese of the Anglican Church of Australia is unique in Western Anglicanism in that the majority of the diocese is Evangelical (low church) in nature, and committed to Reformed and Calvinist theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Arms of the Anglican Church of Australia The Anglican Church of Australia, a member church of the Anglican Communion, was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania (renamed in 1981). ...


Disclosure, abduction, and publication

On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran the story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed: the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran the story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed: the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."

While in Sydney, he met Peter Hounam, a journalist from The Sunday Times in London. In early September 1986, Vanunu flew to London with Hounam, and in violation of his non-disclosure agreement, revealed to The Sunday Times his knowledge of the Israeli nuclear programme, including photographs he had secretly taken at the Dimona site. Anxious to avoid being duped, The Sunday Times spent extensive time verifying Vanunu’s story with leading nuclear weapon experts, including former U.S. nuclear weapons designer Theodore Taylor, who concluded that Israel had almost certainly begun manufacturing thermonuclear weapons. Vanunu gave detailed descriptions of lithium-6 separation and lithium hydride production required for the Teller-Ulam nuclear weapon design. Vanunu described the plutonium processing used, giving a production rate of about 30 kg per year, and stated that Israel used about 4 kg per weapon.[11][12] from Hebrew Wikipedia This work is copyrighted. ... from Hebrew Wikipedia This work is copyrighted. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Peter Hounam (born 1944) is a British journalist who has worked for Sunday Times, The Mirror, the London Evening Standard, and BBC Television, as well as having published several books: Secret Cult, with Andrew Hogg, about the School of Economic Science in London, ISBN: 0856488372 The Mini-Nuke Conspiracy: How... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Ted Taylor (1925–2004), was a prominent U.S. physicist. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... Ionic lattice structure of lithium hydride Lithium hydride (LiH) is the compound of lithium and hydrogen. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ...


Vanunu states in his letters that he intended to share the money received from the newspaper for the information with the Anglican Church of Australia. Apparently frustrated by the delay while Hounam was completing his research, Vanunu approached a rival newspaper, the tabloid Sunday Mirror, whose owner was Robert Maxwell. In 1991, a self-described former Mossad officer called Ari Ben-Menashe alleged that Maxwell had tipped off the Mossad, possibly through British secret services, about Vanunu.[citation needed] It is also possible that they were alerted by enquiries made to the Israeli Embassy in London by Sunday Mirror journalists. Arms of the Anglican Church of Australia The Anglican Church of Australia, a member church of the Anglican Communion, was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania (renamed in 1981). ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a British tabloid daily newspaper. ... For other persons named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... Ari Ben-Menashe Ari Ben-Menashe is a former arms dealer and the author of , a book purporting to describe his involvement in Iran-Contra and other intelligence operations. ...


The Israeli government decided to detain Vanunu, but determined that to avoid harming its good relationship with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Vanunu should be persuaded to leave UK territory under his own volition. Knowing Vanunu's interest in women, on September 30, an Israeli Mossad agent, Cheryl Bentov, operating under the name of "Cindy" and masquerading as an American tourist, persuaded him to fly to Rome with her on a holiday.[13] Once in Rome, Mossad agents captured him, drugged him and smuggled him to Israel on a freighter, beginning what was to be more than a decade of solitary confinement in Israeli prisons. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ...


On October 5, the Sunday Times published the information he had revealed, and estimated that Israel had produced more than 100 nuclear warheads. For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ...


Imprisonment

Vanunu revealed details of his detention by writing on his hand: "Vanunu M was hijacked in Rome. ITL. 30.9.86, 21:00. Came to Rome by fly BA504."
Vanunu revealed details of his detention by writing on his hand: "Vanunu M was hijacked in Rome. ITL. 30.9.86, 21:00. Came to Rome by fly BA504."

Vanunu was put on trial in Israel on charges of treason and espionage. The trial, held in secret, took place in the District Court in Jerusalem before Chief Justice Eliahu Noam and judges Zvi Tal and Shalom Brener. He was not permitted contact with the media but he wrote the details of his capture (or "hijacking" as he put it) on the palm of his hand, and while being transported he held his hand against the van's window so that waiting journalists could get the information (photo). Image File history File links 764px-Vanunu-Hand_big. ... Image File history File links 764px-Vanunu-Hand_big. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


On February 27, 1988, the court sentenced him to 18 years' imprisonment from the date of his capture. The Israeli government refused to release the transcript of the court case until, after the threat of legal action, it agreed to let censored extracts be published in Yedioth Ahronoth, an Israeli newspaper, in late 1999. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ...


The death penalty in Israel is restricted to special circumstances. In 2004, former Mossad director Shabtai Shavit told Reuters that the option of extrajudicial execution was considered in 1986, but rejected because "Jews don't do that to other Jews".[14] Shabtai Shavit (Hebrew: שבתי שביט) was the Director General of the Mossad from 1989 to 1996. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ...


The Israeli government kept him in near total isolation for more than 11 years, allegedly out of concern that he might reveal more Israeli nuclear secrets and because he was still bound by the contract that swore him to secrecy on the subject. While in prison, he refused psychiatric treatment. Many critics argue that Vanunu had no additional information that would pose a real security threat to Israel, and that the Israeli government's real motivation is a desire to avoid political embarrassment for itself and allies such as the United States. Ray Kidder, then a senior American nuclear scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has said: Ray Kidder is an American physicist and nuclear weapons designer. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of...

On the basis of this research and my own professional experience, I am ready to challenge any official assertion that Mr. Vanunu possesses any technical nuclear information not already made public.[15]

Others also questioned that a technician without a college degree would have any new valuable technical information.[citation needed]


His last appeal against his conviction, to the Supreme Court of Israel in 1990, failed. The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ...


While in prison, Vanunu says, he took part in small acts of rebellion, such as refusing to talk with the guards, reading only English-language newspapers, and watching only BBC television. "He is the most stubborn, principled, and tough person I have ever met," said his lawyer, Avigdor Feldman. BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ...


Release

In 2004, shortly before his scheduled release, Vanunu remained defiant under interrogation by the security service Shabak. In recordings of the interview made public after his release, he is heard saying "I am neither a traitor nor a spy, I only wanted the world to know what was happening." He also said, "We don't need a Jewish state. There needs to be a Palestinian state. Jews can, and have lived anywhere, so a Jewish State is not necessary."[16] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ...


Vanunu was released from prison on April 21, 2004. He indicated a desire to completely dissociate himself from Israel, initially refusing to speak in Hebrew, and planning to move to Europe or the US[17] as soon as the Israeli government would permit him to do so. He denounced most of his family, but maintains a relationship with at least one of his brothers.[citation needed] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


A number of restrictions were placed upon Vanunu by Israeli authorities, who stated their reason was fear of him spreading further state secrets and that he is still bound by his non-disclosure agreement. These stipulate that he must inform the authorities of his place of residence and his movements between cities, and may not leave the country. These restrictions were extended to April 2006,[18] and then April 2007, due to his violations of court rulings. While a court found in 2005 that he should be free to go to the Gaza Strip and West Bank, the 2006 restrictions explicitly forbade him to visit either, reversing the court's initial decision. In addition, Vanunu is not allowed to meet with foreigners or contact them by phone or e-mail, enter or approach any embassy, visit any port of entry, or come within 500 metres of any international border crossing.


Vanunu says that his knowledge is now outdated and he has nothing more he could possibly reveal that is not already widely known. Despite the stated restrictions, since his release Vanunu has freely given interviews to the foreign press, including a live phone interview to BBC Radio Scotland. BBC Radio Scotland is BBC Scotlands national radio network, broadcasting since 1976 on 92-95 FM and 810 medium wave. ...


On April 22, 2004, Vanunu asked the Norwegian government for a Norwegian passport and asylum in Norway for "humanitarian reasons," according to Norwegian news agencies. He also sent applications to other countries, and stated that he would accept asylum in any country because he fears for his life. Former conservative Norwegian Prime Minister Kåre Willoch has asked the conservative government to give Vanunu asylum, and the University of Tromsø has offered him a job. This application, as well as an application for asylum in Sweden has been rejected, since neither country accepts absentee asylum applications. He also unsuccessfully requested asylum in Ireland, which would require him to first be allowed to leave Israel. It has been reported that he also approached Russia and China about political asylum, but it is not known whether he has submitted official asylum applications to these countries.[citation needed] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norwegian politics officially have the structure of a constitutional monarchy, giving the King mainly symbolic power while maintaining a stable Western democracy. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... For other uses, see Refugee (disambiguation). ... KÃ¥re Isaachsen Willoch [IPA: kÉ”rÉ› isÉ‘:ʃsÉ›n viluʃ] (born October 3, 1928) is a Norwegian politician from the Conservative Party. ... The University of Tromsø (Universitetet i Tromsø) is the worlds northernmost university. ...


Since his release, Vanunu has appeared in Israeli courts on numerous occasions on charges of having violated the terms of his release. He was arrested and detained for attempting to go to Bethlehem, on at least one occasion his room in St. George's Cathedral was raided by policemen and his belongings were confiscated. In 2006, Microsoft was accused[19] of helping Israeli police to obtain documents incriminating Vanunu. Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... St. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


International calls for his freedom of movement and freedom of speech made by organizations supporting Vanunu have been either ignored or rejected by Israel.


The Jerusalem Magistrate's Court sentenced Vanunu to six months in jail for violating the terms of his parole (Haaretz, July 2, 2007). Two months previously he was convicted of 14 parole violations, including contacts with journalists, and attempts to leave Israel proper to go to Bethlehem in the West Bank.


The court's sentence was unexpected, and even the prosecution expected the court to hand down a suspended sentence, meant solely as a deterrent.


Source: http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/877367.html


Latest arrests

2004

  • On November 11, 2004, Vanunu was arrested by the International Investigations Unit of the Israeli police at around 9am while eating breakfast. The arrest stemmed from an ongoing probe examining suspicions of leaking national secrets and violating legal rulings since his release from prison. Police officers wearing bulletproof vests and carrying machine guns entered into the walled compound of St. George's Anglican Church in East Jerusalem, where Vanunu had been renting a room since his release. Police removed papers and a computer from his room. After a few hours' detention, Vanunu was put under house arrest, which was to last seven days.[20]
  • On December 24, 2004, in a vehicle marked as belonging to the foreign press, Vanunu was apprehended by Israeli Police while he was attempting to enter the West Bank in violation of his release restrictions (see above), allegedly to attend mass at the Church of the Nativity. After posting bail of 50,000 NIS, he was released into five-day house arrest.[21]

is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Israeli Police logo The Israeli police (משטרת ישראל) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... The word bail as a legal term means: Security, usually a sum of money, exchanged for the release of an arrested person as a guarantee of that persons appearance for trial. ... 1 sheqel coin (1994–5). ...

2005

  • On January 26, 2005, BBC reported that its Jerusalem deputy bureau chief, Simon Wilson, was banned from Israel after BBC refused to submit interview material made with Vanunu to Israeli censors.[22] Vanunu gave the interview in violation of court orders. Wilson was allowed to return to Israel on March 12 after signing an apology letter acknowledging that he defied the law.[23]
  • On March 17, 2005 Vanunu was charged with 21 counts of "contravening a lawful direction" (maximum penalty two years' imprisonment per count) and one count of "attempting to contravene a lawful direction."
  • On November 18, 2005 Vanunu was arrested at the al-Ram checkpoint north of Jerusalem as he was returning by bus from the West Bank. The Israeli authorities say Vanunu's travel ban includes visits to the Palestinian territories.[24]

is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Most recent trials

On April 13, 2007, Vanunu was informed that the Israeli government has continued his house arrest in Jerusalem and has renewed all the restrictions against him, for the fourth time and third year of detention in east Jerusalem. is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On April 30, 2007, Vanunu was convicted of violating the order barring foreign contacts and traveling outside Jerusalem.[25] He was sentenced to six months of jail on July 2. Following his sentence, Vanunu commented that his conviction proved that Israel was still ruled, in effect, by The British Mandate, because the law under which he was convicted is from that era. "Maybe I need to turn to the queen or to Tony Blair in order to grant me justice," he said.[26] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


Vanunu's appeal against the six month sentence will begin January 8, 2008.


Support, awards, and honors

The European Parliament has condemned Israel's treatment of Vanunu, and referred to his detention by Mossad agents as a gross violation of Italian sovereignty and international law.[citation needed]Amnesty International described his treatment as constituting "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment [...] such as is prohibited by international law." Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... International human rights instruments can be classified into two categories: declarations, adopted by bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, which are not legally binding although they may be politically so; and conventions, which are legally binding instruments concluded under international law. ...


Vanunu received the Right Livelihood Award in 1987, and was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Tromsø in 2001. He was nominated by Joseph Rotblat for the Nobel Peace Prize every year from 1988 to 2004. Former recipients are among the thousands of people and groups with rights to nominate Nobel candidates. The secretive Nobel committee never comments on specific nominations, but members often note that anyone can be nominated. In 2006 there were 191 nominations for the prize.[27] Jakob von Uexkull, founder of the Right Livelihood Award The Right Livelihood Award, established in 1980 by Jakob von Uexkull, is presented annually in the building of the Swedish Parliament, usually on December 9, to honour those working on practical and exemplary solutions to the most urgent challenges facing the... An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... The University of Tromsø (Universitetet i Tromsø) is the worlds northernmost university. ... Sir Joseph Rotblat, KCMG, CBE, FRS, (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish-born British-naturalised physicist. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


In 2005 he received the Peace Prize of the Norwegian People (Folkets fredspris). Previous recipients of this prize includes Vytautas Landsbergis (1991), Alva Myrdal (1982), Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams. The University of Tromsø awarded him an honorary doctorate in 2000. Professor Vytautas Landsbergis ( (help· info), born October 18, 1932) is a Lithuanian conservative politician and member of the European Parliament. ... Alva Reimer Myrdal (January 31, 1902 – February 1, 1986) received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. ... Mairead Corrigan (born 27 January 1944) was the co-founder, with Betty Williams, of the Community of Peace People, an organization which attempts to encourage a peaceful resolution of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Betty Williams Betty Williams (born 22 May 1943) was a co-recipient with Mairead Corrigan of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 (the prize for 1976) for as a cofounder of Community of Peace People, an organisation dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The University of Tromsø (Universitetet i Tromsø) is the worlds northernmost university. ... An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ...


In September 2004, artist and musician Yoko Ono has given Mordechai Vanunu a peace prize founded in her late husband, John Lennon’s memory. Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ...


In December 2004, as a statement of solidarity, he was elected by the students of the University of Glasgow to serve for three years as Rector.[28] On Friday April 22, 2005 he was formally installed in the post,[29] but cannot carry out any of its functions as he is still confined to Israel. Since then the Glasgow Herald has launched a campaign for his release. Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... The position of Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow is elected every three years by the students at the University of Glasgow. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lighthouse, Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building The Herald is a broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Vanunu has been officially adopted by Nick and Mary Eoloff from Minnesota, USA, a couple belonging to a Christian pacifist movement. Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


See also

Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons,[1] and maintains intercontinental-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of people convicted of treason. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Whistleblower Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... The Nuclear-Free Future Award is awarded to people committed against nuclear arms and energy. ...

Bibliography

  • Black, Ian. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services, Grove Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8021-3286-3
  • Cohen, Avner. Israel and the Bomb, New York: Columbia University Press (1999), ISBN 0-231-10483-9
  • Cohen, Yoel. The Whistleblower of Dimona: Israel, Dimona & the Bomb. ISBN 0-8419-1432-X
  • Gaffney, Mark. Dimona: The Third Temple? The Story Behind the Vanunu Revelation. ISBN 0-915597-77-2
  • Gilling, Tom and John McKnight. Trial and Error — Mordechai Vanunu and Israel's Nuclear Bomb. 1991 Monarch Publications. ISBN 1-85424-129-X
  • Hounam, Peter. The Woman from Mossad: The Torment of Mordechai Vanunu. ISBN 1-58394-005-7 paperback edition title: The Woman from Mossad: The Story of Mordechai Vanunu & the Israeli Nuclear Program
  • Toscano, Louis. Triple Cross. 1990 Birch Lane Press ISBN 1-55972-028-X
  • Spiro, Gideon. Vanunu and the Israeli Bomb.

Peter Hounam (born 1944) is a British journalist who has worked for Sunday Times, The Mirror, the London Evening Standard, and BBC Television, as well as having published several books: Secret Cult, with Andrew Hogg, about the School of Economic Science in London, ISBN: 0856488372 The Mini-Nuke Conspiracy: How...

References

  1. ^ "Vanunu jailed again after talks with foreigners", The Guardian, 3 July 2007. 
  2. ^ Israel: Israel: Mordechai Vanunu sentence clear violation of human rights. Amnesty International (July 2, 2007).
  3. ^ "Correspondent: Israel's Secret Weapon (transcript)", BBC, March 17, 2003. 
  4. ^ "Capturing nuclear whistle-blower was 'a lucky stroke,' agents recall", Ha'aretz, November 12, 2006. 
  5. ^ The meaning of Vanunu. Jewish World Review (April 26, 2004).
  6. ^ "Vanunu: traitor or prisoner of conscience?", The Sydney Morning Herald, April 22, 2004. 
  7. ^ "Vanunu: Hero or traitor?", j., April 23, 2004. 
  8. ^ "Vanunu 'wanted to avert holocaust'", BBC, May 29, 2004. 
  9. ^ (July-August 1996) "Israel: Plutonium Production". The Risk Report 2 (4). Wisconsin Project On Nuclear Arms Control. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. 
  10. ^ "??? (Problem with this URL)", Jerusalem Post, ???. 
  11. ^ "Focus: The secrets that shocked the world", The Sunday Times, April 25, 2004. 
  12. ^ Frank Barnaby (Autumn, 1987). "The Nuclear Arsenal in the Middle East". Journal of Palestine Studies 17 (1): 97-106. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  13. ^ Yossi Melman. "Capturing nuclear whistle-blower was 'a lucky stroke,' agents recall", Haaretz, April 21, 2004. 
  14. ^ "Israeli nuclear whistleblower due to be released from jail (transcript from AM radio)", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, February 12, 2004. 
  15. ^ U.S. Expert: It's Safe to Release Vanunu. Nonviolence.org (from Ha'aretz) (January 26, 2000).
  16. ^ "Vanunu defiant ahead of release", BBC, 2004-04-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
  17. ^ Discussion with a Friend from JAKARTA (letter from Vanunu). The Mordechai Vanunu Website (January 13, 2006).
  18. ^ "Israel extends Vanunu travel ban", BBC, April 19, 2005. 
  19. ^ "Today, our chance to fight a new hi-tech tyranny", The Observer, May 28, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Bishop angry over Vanunu arrest", BBC, November 11, 2004. 
  21. ^ "Police keep Vanunu in Jerusalem", BBC, December 25, 2004. 
  22. ^ "Israel bars senior BBC producer", BBC, January 26, 2005. 
  23. ^ "BBC says sorry to Israel", The Guardian, March 12, 2005. 
  24. ^ "Vanunu held after West Bank visit", BBC, November 18, 2005. 
  25. ^ Vanunu convicted of violating order barring foreign contacts, Nir Hasson, Haaretz, April 30, 2007 (accessed April 30, 2007)
  26. ^ Vanunu to return to prison for violating the terms of his parole, Nir Hasson, Haaretz, July 2, 2007 (accessed July 2, 2007)
  27. ^ The Norwegian Nobel Institute- From Nomination to Ceremony. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  28. ^ "Vanunu elected university rector", BBC, December 16, 2004. 
  29. ^ Formal installation of Mr Mordechai Vanunu as the 119th Rector of the University of Glasgow. University of Glasgow (April 22, 2005).

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Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... j. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Source documents and interviews
Israeli government statements
Human rights bodies
  • Amnesty International report from 1998
  • Amnesty International report from April 2004
  • Amnesty International Press release, April 2005
  • Amnesty International Press release, July 2007
  • International Freedom of Expression Exchange
Current affairs coverage
Public statements by Mordechai Vanunu
Advocacy websites
  • http://www.vanunu.org/ Vanunu collects donations through this website
  • The 1987 Right Livelihood Award for Mordechai Vanunu
  • Free Prisoner of Conscience, Mordechai Vanunu, With No Restrictions! (Report by The Israeli Committee for Mordechai Vanunu and for a Middle East Free of Atomic, Biological and Chemical Weapons)
  • Sydney link to Israeli prisoner of conscience from The National Council of Churches in Australia.
  • Information on Vanunu's candidature for Rector of the University of Glasgow.
  • Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign with information about his rectorship
  • The Peace People, Belfast with various reports
  • Liberdade para Mordechai Vanunu (Amnesty Group 19, Portugal)
  • UK petition to apply pressure to free Vanunu
Academic offices
Preceded by
Greg Hemphill
Rector of the University of Glasgow
2004–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent

  Results from FactBites:
 
CNN.com - Israeli nuclear spy released - Apr 21, 2004 (1007 words)
Vanunu was convicted of treason and espionage and spent most of his term in solitary confinement after providing the UK's The Sunday Times with information and pictures of Israel's secret nuclear reactor in the desert town of Dimona.
Vanunu has said that all he wants to do after his release is leave Israel and try to resume his life.
Vanunu has also expressed concerns for his safety with some Israeli newspapers publishing the address in the Tel Aviv neighborhood of Jaffna where he was expected to live.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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