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Encyclopedia > Moravians (religion)
The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong
The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong

The Moravian churches form a modern, mainline Protestant denomination with a religious heritage that began in 15th-century Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic). It is sometimes also known as the Unitas Fratrum or Unity of the Brethren, or as the Bohemian Brethren. It placed a high premium on Christian unity, personal piety, missions and music. Image File history File links MSeal2. ... Image File history File links MSeal2. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská, Latin: Unitas Fratrum) is a Christian denomination whose roots are in the pre-reformation work of Jan Hus, who was martyred in 1415. ... The Unity of the Brethren (Czech Jednota bratrská also known under the Latin name as Unitas Fratrum. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ...

Contents

Origins and early history: the Czech background

The movement which would develop into the Moravian Church was started by a priest named Jan Hus (in English John Hus) in the late fourteenth century. The establishment of the church as a Christian church occurred as a reaction against certain alleged errors within the Roman Catholic Church. Hus, sensitive of the church's misconducts, wanted to return the practices of the church – initially just those in Bohemia and Moravia – to the allegedly "purer" practices of early Christianity: liturgy in the language of the people, having lay people receive communion in both kinds (bread and wine), and eliminating indulgences and the idea of purgatory. The movement gained royal support and a certain independence for a while, even spreading across the border into Poland, but was eventually forced to be subject to the governance of Rome. Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


A contingent of Hus's followers struck a deal with Rome that allowed them to realise most of their doctrinal goals, while recognising the authority of the Roman Catholic Church; these were called the Utraquists. The remaining Hussites continued to operate outside Roman Catholicism and, within fifty years of Hus's death, had become independently organized as the 'Bohemian Brethren' or Unity of the Brethren. This group maintained Hussite theology (which would later lean towards Lutheran teachings), while maintaining the historic episcopate, even during their persecution. Bohemian Brethren's Church had been founded in Kunvald, Bohemia, in 1457. The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Unity of the Brethren (Czech Jednota bratrská also known under the Latin name as Unitas Fratrum. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The episcopate is the status of a bishop. ... Kunvald (German: ) is a village in 5 km north of Žamberk in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, in the Pardubice Regionof the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


The Moravians were some of the earliest Protestants, rebelling against the authority of Rome more than a hundred years before Martin Luther. One unusual and (for its time) shocking belief was the group's eventual focus on universal education. Very often the Brethren were protected by local nobles who joined their ranks to assert their independence from Habsburg Vienna. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


During the Thirty-Years War (16181648), which devastated not only the Holy Roman Empire but the whole of Central Europe, the Brethren's Church was targeted by local counter-reformation nobles, and persecuted severely in its geographical homeland. As a result the followers of the movement were forced to operate underground in the Habsburg-controlled and other Roman Catholic regions, eventually dispersing to other Slavic lands, German states and as far as the Low Countries, where bishop John Amos Comenius attempted to direct a resurgence. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ...


After 1620, due to the Counter Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church, and after being abandoned and betrayed by the local nobility which had previously tolerated or supported them, all Protestants were offered an ultimatum. They were forced to choose to either leave the many and varied principalities of what was the Holy Roman Empire (mainly Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia and parts of Germany and its many states), or to practice their beliefs secretly. At this time, members were forced underground and dispersed across Northern Europe. The largest remaining communities of the Brethren were located in Lissa in Poland, which had historically strong ties with the Czechs, and in small, isolated groups in Moravia. Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Counter-Reformation (sometimes called the Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself and to protect itself from Protestant attacks (protests), starting with the middle of the sixteenth century, in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ...


The 18th century renewal under Zinzendorf

Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf was a nobleman born in 1700 in Dresden, Saxony, in the east of modern-day Germany. He was brought up in the traditions of Pietism as advanced by Philip Jacob Spener and August Hermann Francke. Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 – May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... Philipp Jakob Spener. ... August Hermann Francke (March 22, 1663 _ June 8, 1727), was a German Protestant churchman. ...


Zinzendorf studied law at university in accordance with the wishes of his family, but his main interests were in the pursuit of his religious ideas. In 1722 he left the court in Dresden to spend more time on his estates at Berthelsdorf, where he hoped to establish a model Christian community. // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Berthelsdorf is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the southeastern part of Saxony, Germany. ...


Out of a personal commitment to helping the poor and needy, Zinzendorf agreed to a request from an itinerant carpenter named Christian David: that persecuted Protestants from Moravia should be allowed to settle on his lands. Among those who came were members of the Bohemian Brethren who had been living as an underground remnant in Moravia for nearly 100 years since the days of Comenius. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ...


In 1722, the refugees established a new village called Herrnhut, about 2 miles from Berthelsdorf. The town initially grew steadily, but major religious disagreements emerged and by 1727 the community was divided into warring factions. Zinzendorf used a combination of feudal authority and his charismatic personality to restore a semblance of unity, then in August 1727 the community underwent a dramatic transformation following an experience which they attributed to a visitation of the Holy Spirit, similar to that recorded in the Bible on the day of Pentecost. Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian religions that trace their roots... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...


The great revival at Herrnhut was accompanied by prophecies, visions, glossolalia, and healings. A faction were modalistic monarchians which also insisted on baptizing in the shorter non-Trinitarian formula. Lawyer Johann Sigismund Krüger's introduction of deviant Christological teaching alienated Christian David, the founder of Herrnhut, who accepted this teaching whole-heartedly for a time as did many of the Brethren. Krüger's erratic behavior and extreme pronouncemnts led to his removal. He subsequently died in a Berlin asylum. Many issues were settled by the 13 August 1727 renewal or revival when the inhabitants of Herrnhut "Learned to love one another." While different doctrinal views sometimes threatened the unity of the community Count Zinzendorf was able to keep harmony of spirit and the revival continued unhindered.


Herrnhut grew rapidly following this transforming revival and became the centre of a major movement for Christian renewal and mission during the 18th century. Moravian historians identify the main achievements of this period as:


1) Setting a up a watch of continuous prayer which ran uninterrupted, 24 hours a day, for 100 years. Continual prayer or the 24-7 prayer movement is a practice that dates to biblical times, where congregation members sustain continued prayers in a specific location. ...


2) The origination of the Losungen, the "Daily Watchwords," on 3 May 1728, published today in 50 languages, the oldest and most widely read daily devotional work in the world. Old Testament texts, the "Watchwords", are chosen by lot annually in Herrnhut from a collection of 1200 verses; the New Testament texts, "Doctrinal Texts," are selected then to comment on the Watchwords. This is an ecumenical ministry of the worldwide Moravian Unity that transcends confessional, political and racial barriers of all kinds.


3) The establishment of over 30 settlements globally on the Herrnhut model, which emphasised a lifestyle of prayer and worship and a form of communal living in which personal property was still held but simplicity of lifestyle and generosity with wealth were considered important spiritual attributes. As a result, divisions between social groups and extremes of wealth and poverty were largely eliminated.


4) The sending out of hundreds of Christian missionaries to many parts of the world including the Caribbean, North and South America, the Arctic, Africa, and the Far East. The Moravian missionaries were the first large scale Protestant missionary movement. They were also first to send unordained "lay" people (rather than trained professional clergymen), the first to go to slaves, and the first in many countries of the world. The first Moravian missionaries were a potter named Leonard Dober and a carpenter named David Nitschmann, who went to the Caribbean island of St Thomas in 1732. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Nitschmann is a surname that may refer to: Anna Nitschmann (1715-1760), a Moravian Brethren missionary (Missionarin), lyrical poetess, and wife of Nikolaus von Zinzendorf David Nitschmann der Wagner (1676-1758), a Czech-born Moravian missionary and carpenter David Nitschmann der Bischof (1695-1772), a missionary of the Moravian Brethren... Map of U.S. Virgin Islands Saint Thomas is an island in the Caribbean Sea, a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States. ...


5) The formation of many hundreds of small renewal groups operating within the existing churches of Europe, known as "diaspora societies". These groups encouraged personal prayer and worship, bible study, confession of sins and mutual accountability.


Church names

The church which became established following the renewal during the 18th century, die Evangelische Brüdergemeine/Brüder-Unität, is now known in English speaking countries as the 'Moravian Church' (as in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada, Nicaragua, the United States, Jamaica, and several nations in the eastern West Indies). In the Czech Republic they are known as Jednota Bratrská, and in the Netherlands as the Evangelische Broedergemeente and perhaps more commonly as 'Herrnhuters', from the main Moravian settlement at Herrnhut in Germany; they are similarly named in Sweden. Zeist is the historical centre for the Dutch Brethren. The Moravians who came to the United States first in 1735 came from the Herrnhut settlement on the estates of Count Nicolas Ludwig von Zinzendorf in present-day Saxony in Germany They came as missionaries to the scattered German immigrants, to the native Americans and to enslaved Africans slaves. They founded their communities to serve as home bases for these missions. The missionary "messengers" were financially supported by the work of the "laborers" in the settlements .[Gollin 1967] Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ... Zeist is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands, located east of the city of Utrecht. ... Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 – May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...


Beliefs

In her Book of Order the Moravian Unity accepts the three Ecumenical Creeds: Apostles', Nicene and Athanasian; The 21 Articles of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, the Second Helvetic Confession, the Bohemian Confession of 1535, and the Barmen Declaration. Fundamental beliefs include but are not limited to the Holy Trinity, the Fatherhood of God, God's Love for fallen humanity, the Incarnation of God in the God/Man Jesus Christ, Jesus's sacrificial death for the sinful rebellion of humanity, His Resurrection, Ascension and Exaltation to the Right Hand of the Father; His sending of the Holy Spirit to strengthen, sustain and empower Believers; Jesus will return in majesty to judge the Living and the Dead. Of Jesus' Kingdom there shall be no end. There is one Baptism for the forgiveness of sins; infants are baptized. Without defining the mode or method, the "How", Moravians believe that they receive the true Body and Blood of Christ in the Holy Communion. These tenets of classical Christianity are not unique to the Moravian Church. The Moravian Church has never sought to "invent" doctrines. The emphasis in both the Ancient Unity as well as in the Renewed Unity has been on Christian Living, the Fellowship of Believers, as witness to a living Christian Faith. Ecumenical creeds is an umbrella term used in the western church to refer to the Nicene Creed, Apostles Creed and Athanasian Creed. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. ... The Barmen declaration or The Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 is a statement of the Confessing Church, re-affirming the focus of the church on Nazism rather than on Christ. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian religions that trace their roots... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...


The Moravians in America

In 1740, Bishop Augustus Spangenberg sent Christian Henry Rauch to New York City on a mission to preach and convert any native peoples he could find. Eager to learn more, the Mahican Chiefs Tschoop and Shabash he met invited Rauch to visit their Dutchess County village to teach them. In September 1740, they led him through the unbroken wilderness to Shekomeko where a Moravian mission was established and the two Indian chiefs were converted to the Christian faith. Up to the early 18th century, the Mahican Indians, a native Algonquin tribe and a branch of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Nation populated the east bank of the Hudson River in what is today eastern Dutchess County, New York and western Connecticut. ...


By summer 1742, Shekomeko was established as the first native Christian congregation in America. Over the next two years, the Moravians endeavored to reconcile the ancient Indian traditions with the new ways of the onslaught of the ascendant western society. It was a center of New York State growth in the missions to the native peoples. Within the next two years, several more missionaries along with their wives began to resettle the ancient shellfish beds.


The original unsuccessful attempt to found a Moravian community in North America was in Georgia; it collapsed because of internal discord, and government pressure to serve in the militia in defense against Spanish raids from Florida.

Moravian missionary baptists Munsee-Delawares
Moravian missionary baptists Munsee-Delawares

The Moravians later found a home in Pennsylvania, where the charter of the colony provided religious freedom. The towns of Bethlehem, Nazareth, Emmaus, and Lititz, Pennsylvania, were founded as Moravian communities. Later, colonies were also founded in North Carolina, where Moravians led by Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg purchased 98,985 acres from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville. This large tract of land was named die Wachau, or Wachovia, after one of Zinzendorf's ancestral estates on the Danube River in Austria. Other early settlements included Bethabara (1753), Bethania (1759) and Salem (now Winston-Salem) (1766). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 604 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Moravian missionary baptists Munsee-Delawares Source: Historical Society of Pennsylvania Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 22 December 2006 Other Versions: none License status: Faithful reproductions of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 604 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Moravian missionary baptists Munsee-Delawares Source: Historical Society of Pennsylvania Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 22 December 2006 Other Versions: none License status: Faithful reproductions of... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area    - City  19. ... Nazareth is a borough in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Emmaus is a borough in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Lititz is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 6 miles (approximately 10 km) north of Lancaster. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... August Gottlieb Spangenberg (July 15, 1704 _ September 18, 1792), Count Zinzendorfs successor, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren, was born at Klettenberg, on the south of the Harz Mountains, where his father, Georg Spangenberg, was court preacher and ecclesiastical inspector of the courtship of Hohenstein. ... The Right Honourable John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, PC (22 April 1690–22 January 1763), English statesman, commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was the son of George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret (1667 - 1695), by his marriage with Grace Granville (September 3, 1654 - October 18, 1744), daughter... Wachovia (Pronunciation: wah-KO-vee-yah) was the area first settled by Moravians in what is now Forsyth County, North Carolina, including the present city of Winston-Salem. ... Bethabara is a village located in Forsyth County, North Carolina. ... Bethania is a town located in Forsyth County, North Carolina. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Old Salem is a living history museum that operates within the restored Moravian community Salem. ... Nickname: Motto: Youre Something Special in Winston-Salem Location in North Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State North Carolina Counties Forsyth County Founded Incorporated 1766 (Salem) 1849 (Winston) 1913 Government  - Mayor Allen Joines (D) Area  - City  109. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, emerged as the headquarters of the northern church, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina, became the headquarters of the southern church. The Moravian denomination persists in America to this day, with congregations in 18 states; presently, the highest concentrations of Moravians exist in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The denomination is organized into four provinces in North America: Northern, Southern, Alaska, and Labrador. There are also congregations in three Canadian provinces, as well as about 40 Moravian congregations in England. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Society and theology in America

Rohrer (2001) demonstrates the social history of the community of Wachovia, founded in the North Carolina Piedmont in 1753, illustrates the importance of the beliefs and practices of the Moravians in achieving the integration and acculturation of settlers of different ethnic backgrounds. The Moravian emphasis on openness and tolerance, combined with the conversion experience of new birth, undermined ethnic homogeneity and provided a source of communal cohesion. The primary intermingling and intermarriage was between Germans and English, but 12 nations and territories were represented in the population of Wachovia by the early 19th century.


Fogleman (2003) examines the theological, demographic, and sociological roots of factional clashes between Moravians and their more traditional German Lutheran and Reformed coreligionists, focusing on mid-18th-century communities in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, where these confrontations were frequent and sometimes violent. Moravians' beliefs centered on a feminized Holy Spirit, the right of women to preach, sacralizing the sex act, and metaphorically re-gendering Jesus Christ. These teachings were perceived as threats to more mainstream Christian articles of faith, which stressed the masculinity of the Trinity as the theological cornerstone of the nuclear patriarchal family, the core structure in upholding moral and social order. As Moravian preachers far outnumbered the very few Lutheran or Reformed clergy in the mid-Atlantic colonies during the 1730's-40's and because the Moravians welcomed anyone into their church services, most German Pietists viewed Moravians as more than harmless heretics. Moreover, in the temporal context of a period of intense European immigration to the colonies, the Moravians were seen as challenging the long-term social stability of the colonial community as a whole. Although the Moravians never became a dominant sect in the region, the perception of them as a serious religious and social threat highlights the significant role gendered power issues have played in religious controversy in North America.


Engel (2003) says Moravians in Bethlehem 1753-75 were concerned about the economic prosperity of their settlements, but they were also concerned about the effects that prosperity might have on their religious community. Prosperity was important, as it funded both mission work and more settlements. Moravians valued work highly, but economic ventures had to be carried out in a way morally consistent with their beliefs. To this end, Bethlehem Moravians cooperated in the opening of the Strangers' Store in 1753. The store was the main instrument both in purchasing outside goods for the community and in selling Bethlehem goods to outsiders. Wise management meant the Strangers' Store remained profitable for the rest of the colonial period, funding the growth of Moravian enterprises both in Pennsylvania and back in Germany.


The Moravian Church in the present

Moravian Church
Moravian Church

The modern Moravian church, with about 50,000 members, continues to draw on traditions established during the 18th century renewal. It observes the convention of the lovefeast, originally started in 1727, and continues to use older and traditional music in worship. In addition, many Moravians are buried in a traditional God's Acre, a graveyard organized by gender, age, and marital status rather than family. The Moravians continue their long tradition of missionary work, for example in the West Indies of the Caribbean and Greenland. This is reflected in their broad global distribution. The Moravians in Germany – whose central settlement remains at Herrnhut – are highly active in education and social work. The Moravian Church sponsors Moravian College and Seminary, recognized as the sixth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. The largest concentration of Moravians today is in Tanzania. Image File history File links USVA_headstone_emb-27. ... Image File history File links USVA_headstone_emb-27. ... A Lovefeast service is a service dedicated to Christian love, and is most famously practiced by, but not limited to, the Moravians. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Gods Acre is a small patch of land whose legal owner is God Almighty. The land includes a natural spring whose water local tradition holds has healing powers. ... Moravian College is a private liberal arts college located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States, in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. ...


The motto of the Moravian church is:

(in Latin) In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas
(in English) "In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; and in all things, love"

The Latin phrase in necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas means in certain things unity; in doubtful things liberty; in all things charity. It is often misattributed to St. ...

Architecture

A Moravian architecture style has emerged in the United States, predominately in Winston-Salem (Old Salem). Most Moravian churches in the area feature copper steeple tops which rust to a green color. The Moravian arch is also an example of the style and is mainly used over building entrances [1]. Combined Moravian arches were used to form the dome of the Wachovia Center. Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Old Salem is a living history museum that operates within the restored Moravian community Salem. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Steeple is a the name of a number of settlements: In the United Kingdom Steeple, Cumbria Steeple, Dorset Steeple, Essex Steeple is also an architectural term. ... The Wachovia Center is on the far right of this photo of downtown Winston-Salem. ...


Ecumenical relations

The Moravian Church in America is in full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The Moravian Church in America is engaged in dialogue with a group of Reformed Churches (Presbyterian Church (USA), United Church of Christ, Reformed Church in America, and Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)). The Moravians are also in dialogue with the Episcopal Church of the USA and share in an agreement of interim eucharistic sharing. The Moravian Church in America is a Participant in Christian Churches Together in the USA and is a member church of the World Council of Churches, the National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA, and Churches for Middle East Peace. Historically the Moravian Church had a significant impact on John Wesley and the practices of the Methodist Church. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination that was formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the St Georges Cross, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of St Andrew in the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ...


See also

Moravian Stars in the Strietzelmarkt in Dresden A Moravian Star (German: ) is an illuminated peice of Advent or Christmas decoration popular in Germany. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Moravian College is a private liberal arts college located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States, in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. ... Moravian Academy, located in historic Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in the United States, is a prekindergarten through 12th grade coeducational college preparatory school. ...

Bibliography

  • Atwood, Craig D. Community of the Cross: Moravian Piety in Colonial Bethlehem. Pennsylvania State U. Press, 2004. 283 pp.
  • Atwood, Craig D. and Vogt, Peter, ed. The Distinctiveness of Moravian Culture: Essays and Documents in Moravian History in Honor of Vernon H. Nelson on His Seventieth Birthday. Moravian Hist. Soc., 2003. 297 pp.
  • Engel, Katherine Carté. "The Strangers' Store: Moral Capitalism in Moravian Bethlehem, 1753-1775." Early American Studies 2003 1(1): 90-126. Issn: 1543-4273
  • Fogleman, Aaron Spencer. Jesus Is Female: Moravians and Radical Religion in Early America. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
  • Gollin, Gilliam Lindt. Moravians in Two Worlds (1967)
  • Langton; Edward. History of the Moravian Church: The Story of the First International Protestant Church (1956).
  • Rechcigl, Miloslav, Jr. "The Renewal and Formative Years of the Moravian Church in America," Czechoslovak and Central European Journal 9 (1990), pp. 12-26.
  • Rohrer, S. Scott. "Searching for Land and God: the Pietist Migration to North Carolina in the Late Colonial Period." North Carolina Historical Review 2002 79(4): 409-439. Issn: 0029-2494 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Rohrer, S. Scott. "Evangelism and Acculturation in the Backcountry: the Case of Wachovia, North Carolina, 1753-1830." Journal of the Early Republic 2001 21(2): 199-229. Issn: 0275-1275 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Wagner, Walter H. The Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Encounter: A Controversy in Search of Understanding. Moravian Hist. Soc., 2002. 173 pp.

Primary sources

  • Zeisberger, David. The Moravian Mission Diaries of David Zeisberger, 1772-1781. ed by Hermann Wellenreuther and Carola Wessel, ed.; Julie Tomberlin Weber, transl. Pennsylvania State U. Press, 2005. 666 pp.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jon J. Sensbach, A Separate Canaan: The Making of an Afro-Moravian World in North Carolina, 1763-1840. Review by ... (775 words)
The Moravians were well acquainted with the harsh realities of human servitude--they had organized one of the earliest Protestant missions to Africans in the Caribbean--and yet their sympathies toward the spiritual plight of slaves did not automatically confer an abolitionist stance.
The Moravian church offered fl members an opportunity to form enhanced kinship networks that allowed for greater family cohesion, as well as the protection of converted spouses and their children from sale and forced separation.
Sensbach characterizes the Moravians' relationship to African Americans as "fraternalistic;" they were "nominal spiritual equals" who each "owed allegiance to a higher authority, Christ." (120) Within the bounds of their spiritual association, at least for a time, fl and white church members existed upon common ground.
Moravians (religion) - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (730 words)
A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic.
The establishment of the Moravian church as a Christian church occurred as a reaction against certain alleged errors within the Roman Catholic Church.
The Moravians who came to the United States in the early 1700s were immigrants originating from settlements on the estates of Count Nicolas Ludwig von Zinzendorf in present-day Germany.
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