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Encyclopedia > Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai

In office
24 March 1977 – 15 July 1979
President Basappa Danappa Jatti and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Preceded by Indira Gandhi
Succeeded by Choudhary Charan Singh

In office
24 March 1977 – 15 July 1979
Preceded by Chidambaram Subramaniam
Succeeded by Choudhary Charan Singh
In office
21 August 1967 – 26 March 1970
Preceded by T. T. Krishnamachari
Succeeded by Indira Gandhi
In office
15 August 1959 – 29 May 1964
Preceded by Jawaharlal Nehru
Succeeded by T. T. Krishnamachari

Born 29 February 1896(1896-02-29)
Mughalsarai, United Provinces, British India
Died April 10, 1995 (aged 99)
New Delhi, India
Political party Janata Party
Occupation Civil servant, Activist
Religion Hindu

Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: मोरारजी देसाई) (February 29, 1896April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. He is the only Indian to receive the highest civilian awards from both India and Pakistan, namely the Bharat Ratna and Nishaan-e-Pakistan. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... He was born in 1913 and was a Lawyer by profession. ... Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (May 18, 1913 - June 1, 1996 ) was the sixth President of the republic of India from 1977 to 1982. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ... This article is about the Indian Prime Minister. ... The Finance Minister of India is a cabinet position in the Government of India. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Chidambaram Subramaniam (commonly known as CS) he belonged to agricultural community. ... This article is about the Indian Prime Minister. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachariar (1899-1974) was the Indian Finance Minister from 1956-1958 and from 1964-1966. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachariar (1899-1974) was the Indian Finance Minister from 1956-1958 and from 1964-1966. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Mughalsarai, located around 10 km from Varanasi, India, is a famous railway junction. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... This is a listing of Indian freedom fighters, which in this context usually means individuals who fought against foreign domination and cultural imposition on the Indian sub-continent. ... Bharat Ratna is Indias highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. ... Nishaan-e-Pakistan is the highest civilian award given by the Pakistan government for the highest degree of service to the state. ...

Contents

Early life

Morarji Desai in 1937, as Congress Home Minister of Bombay Presidency
Morarji Desai in 1937, as Congress Home Minister of Bombay Presidency

Morarji Desai was born into an Anavil Brahmin family in Bhadeli, Valsad in Bombay Presidency (now in Gujarat). After graduating from Wilson College, Mumbai, he joined the civil service in Gujarat. Later, he left the service of the British in 1924 and joined the civil disobedience movement against British rule in India in 1930. He spent many years in jail during the freedom struggle and owing to his sharp leadership skills and tough spirit, he became a favorite amongst freedom-fighters and an important leader of the Indian National Congress in Gujarat. When provincial elections were held in 1934 and 1937, Desai was elected and served as the Revenue Minister and Home Minister of the then Bombay Presidency. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Anavil Brahmin is one of the sub-castes of Brahmin caste. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... , Valsad also known as Bulsar, is a city and a municipality in the Valsad district of the Indian state of Gujarat. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Wilson College is a degree college affiliated to the University of Mumbai in Mumbai. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


In government

Before the independence of India, he became Mumbai's Home Minister and later was elected as Chief Minister of Bombay in 1952. The state was home to Marathi linguistic movements, with calls for the creation of a separate linguistic state. Considered as a tough leader, Desai was also known for pioneering beliefs and enforcing strict discipline and authority and thus possessed a radical mindsetg. By Desai's orders in 1960, a peaceful demonstration by the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti was fired upon by the police resulting in the deaths of 105 demonstrators. Many innocent people were killed in the incident leading to public outrage that shook the central government. The incident led to the formation of the present State of Maharashtra. Bombay state is a former state of India. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti (Marathi:संयुक्त महाराष्ट्र समिति) was an organisation that spearheaded the demand, in the 1950s, for the creation of a separate Marathi-speaking state out of the (then bilingual) State of Bombay in western India. ...


As Home Minister, Desai outlawed any portrayals of indececy (which included "kissing" scenes) in films and theatrical productions. Although a staunch Gandhian, Desai was socially conservative, pro-business, and in favor of free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's socialistic policies. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ...


Rising in Congress leadership, Desai was at odds with Prime Minister Nehru and his allies, and with Nehru's age and health flailing, he was considered as a possible contender for the position of Prime Minister. Outflanked in the leadership contest after Nehru's death in 1964 by the Nehruvian Lal Bahadur Shastri, Desai remained content to build support within the ranks. Lal Bahadur Shastri (Hindi लालबहादुर शास्त्री) (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) was the third Prime Minister of independent India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement. ...


After Shastri's death in 1966, he contested for Prime Minister and fought a closely-contested election with Indira Gandhi. Desai obtained 169 votes but lost to Indira Gandhi who garnered 351. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ...


Split of 1969

Initially Desai stayed out of the Cabinet, biding his time. As the young Indira Gandhi s government became embroiled in controversy following a poor harvest, currency devaluation, and rising disenchantment in the country, Desai's influence grew in strength and he returned to the Cabinet in 1967. He demanded the powerful position as the Minister for Home Affairs, but he settled for the Ministry for Finance, with the added title of Deputy Prime Minister. Relations between Desai and the young Prime Minister were strained at best. Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Deputy Prime Minister of India is a member of the Indian cabinet in the Indian government. ...


In 1969, Indira Gandhi and her allies engineered a major schism in the Congress Party, and her leftist supporters within the Congress Party formed the Congress (R), later to become the Congress (I) Party. Desai and the rest of the Congress establishment cohesed to form the Congress (O) Party. But in the General Elections held in 1971, the Congress (O) was drubbed owing to Indira Gandhi's popularity as a wartime leader. Desai remained Leader of the Opposition that was viewed as a group of old men adhering to freedom-era legacies. Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...


When Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was convicted in 1974 of wrongfully using government machinery for election work and corruption, Desai joined Jaya Prakash Narayan in organizing mass protests throughout the country calling for her resignation. In a show of intolerance towards any sort of opposition, Indira Gandhi declared Emergency and had all the opposition leaders including Desai arrested in 1975. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jayaprakash Narayan. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Indira called for elections in 1977, many opposition groups, including the Congress (O), joined with longtime rivals, regional parties and blocs of rival ideologies to form the Janata Party. It won 356 seats, a near-absolute majority and for the first time since independence, the dominance of the ruling Congress party was broken. Morarji Desai finally came into office as the Prime Minister when J.P. Narayan picked him as the man most likely to keep the coalition united. Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Janata Party (Peoples Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 elections, forming the national government from 1977 to 1980. ...


At the time, he was 81 years old but still healthy and vigorous, without any particular ailments.


Prime Minister

Desai led a fractious coalition government, and thus failed to achieve much owing to continuous in-wrangling and much controversy. With no party in leadership of the coalition, rival groups vied to unseat Desai. Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira Gandhi over Emergency-era abuses worsened the fortunes of his administration. Desai worked to improve relations with neighbours and arch-rivals Pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war. He communicated with Zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations and diplomatic relations were also re-established with China. His Government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it difficult for any future Government to impose National emergency. Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Gen. ...


Since India's first nuclear test in 1974, Desai kept India's nuclear reactors stating "they will never be used for atomic bombs, and I will see to it if I can help it".[1] In 1977, the Carter administration sold India, heavy water and uranium for its nuclear reactors but required American on-site inspection of nuclear materials. Desai declined, seeing the American stance as contradictory, in light of it's own nuclear arsenal. [2] For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Retirement and death

In 1979, Charan Singh pulled out of the Janata Party, forcing Desai to resign from office and retire from politics at the age of 83. He lived in the city of Mumbai, and died at the age of 99. He had been honoured much in his last years as the last great living freedom-fighter of his generation. This article is about the Indian Prime Minister. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ...


Morarji Desai was a strict follower of Mahatma Gandhi's principles and a moralist. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... A moralist is a person for whom moral conduct, morality, and the correctness of moral thought are paramount. ...


Feud with RAW

Morarji Desai had described the RAW as the praetorian guard of Indira Gandhi and had promised to stop all activities of the RAW after obtaining the prime ministership. B Raman, the former head of the Counter-Terrorism Division of India's external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW),reveals that, in an unguarded moment, Indian prime minister Morarji Desai indiscreetly told Pakistani dictator Zia ul-Haq that he was aware of Islamabad's nuclear schemes.


CIA & Desai

Seymour Hersh published a book in which he accused Morarji Desai of being on the CIA payroll during his tenure as Deputy Prime Minister of India. "Desai was a paid informer for the CIA and was considered one of the Agency's most important `assets'," wrote Hersh in 1983. Desai denied the charges and sued Harsh in US courts and lost. Morarji Desai went to his grave as a traitor -- perhaps India's most infamous one -- totally discredited on the basis of Hersh's secret informants.


External links

  • Stamp on Morarji Desai
  • The Return of the Rosebud TIME - Jan 28, 1966
Preceded by
Jawaharlal Nehru
Finance Minister of India
19591964
Succeeded by
Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachariar
Preceded by
Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachariar
Finance Minister of India
19671970
Succeeded by
Indira Gandhi
Preceded by
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Finance Minister of India
19771979
Succeeded by
Choudhary Charan Singh

  Results from FactBites:
 
Morarji Desai - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1003 words)
Although a staunch Gandhian, Desai was socially conservative, pro-business, and for free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's socialistic policies.
Desai worked to improve relations with neighbor and archrival Pakistan and restored diplomatic relations with China, frozen since the 1962 war.
Morarji Desai was a strict follower of Mahatma Gandhi's principles and a moralist.
Morarji Desai - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (982 words)
Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (मोरारजी देसाई) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first non-Congress Party Prime Minister of India.
Desai worked to improve relations with neighbor and archrival Pakistan and restored diplomatic relations with China, frozen since 1962's war.
Morarji Desai, Early Life, Post-Independence, Split of 1969, Janata, Prime Minister, Leap day births, 1896 births, 1995 deaths, Prime Ministers of India, Bharat Ratna recipients and Finance Ministers of India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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