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Encyclopedia > Morale

Morale (also referred to as esprit de corps) is a term for the capacity of people to maintain belief in an institution or a goal, or even in oneself and others. The term applies particularly to military personnel and to members of sports teams, but is also applicable in business and in any other organizational context, particularly in times of stress or controversy. Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A team comprises many group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. ...

According to Alexander H. Leighton, "morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose".[1] Alexander H. Leighton (July 17, 1908) is a sociologist and psychiatrist of dual citizenship (United States, by birth, and Canada, since 1975). ...


Military usage

In a military sense, there are two meanings to morale. Primarily it means the cohesion of a unit, task force, or other military group. An army with good supply lines, sound air cover and a clear objective possesses, as a whole, good morale. Historically, elite military units such as the Praetorian Guard, Napoleon's Imperial Guard, and many Special Forces or elite units like the French Foreign Legion, Green Beret, SAS, and Spetnaz, have high morale due to both their elite training and pride in their unit. When a unit's morale is depleted, it will usually crack and surrender, as was the case with Italian units in North Africa during World War II. It is well worth noting that generally speaking, most commanders do not look at the morale of specific individuals but rather the 'fighting spirit' of divisions, battalions, ships, etc as a whole. Military Supply Chain Management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The Imperial Guard (French:Garde impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time. ... Legionnaire (film) The French Foreign Legion (French: Légion étrangère) is a unique elite unit within the French Army established in 1831. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Spetsnaz soldier training Spetsnaz (Войска специального назначения - спецназ/Voiska spetsialnogo naznacheniya - spetsnaz, /Specnaz/ in SAMPA) is a general term...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

A second military meaning of morale has to do with the morale of a nation's population. A nation that loses its will to fight often loses the war as well. This means that, quite often, morale efforts are tied to propaganda. Since at least the time of Carl von Clausewitz' On War, maintenance of morale has been considered one of the fundamental "Principles of War"; while Sir Basil Liddell Hart regarded morale even more fundamentally: Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... Neo Gomanism Manifesto Special - On War Vom Kriege (complete text available here) is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife in 1832. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ...

The aim of a nation in war is to subdue the enemy's will to resist,...

Sun Tzu, in his book The Art of War, also mentions morale of nations, as well as armies. Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ...

Factors affecting military morale

Despite the intangible nature of morale, improvements in material factors (such as remuneration, food and shelter) can improve the morale. However, history is filled with stories of the self-will and determination of a poorly supplied army maintaining morale to the very end, such as the Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War. Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

In the workplace

In the workplace, morale is more of an individual thing than something measured by departments. Events play a large part in morale, such as heavy layoffs, the cancellation of overtime, cancelling benefits programs, and the influence of unions. Other events can also influence workplace morale, such as sick building syndrome, low wages, and employees being mistreated. An office is a room or other area in which people work, but may also denote a position within an organisation with specific duties attached to it (see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one... Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a combination of ailments (a syndrome) associated with an individuals place of work (typically, but not always, an office building), though there have also been instances of SBS in residential buildings. ...

See also

It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ...


  1. ^ Alexander H. Leighton, "Human Relations in a Changing World: Observations on the Uses of the Social Sciences" (1949)

  Results from FactBites:
ms. morality (1413 words)
Moral reflections on life and politics from an attorney-turned-homemaker.
Other issues included the death penalty, medical research, gambling, etc. The most contentious issues appear to be having a baby outside of marriage, doctor-assisted suicide, homosexual relations, and abortion.
I guess, we each need to fight for what we think is right, and on issues that people really disagree on, time, experience and hopefully a little enlightenment will lead us to the truly moral choice.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Morality (1970 words)
It is necessary at the outset of this article to distinguish between morality and ethics, terms not seldom employed synonymously.
Morality is antecedent to ethics: it denotes those concrete activities of which ethics is the science.
morality lies not so much in the discovery of new principles as in the better application of those already accepted, in the recognition of their true basis and their ultimate
  More results at FactBites »



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