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Encyclopedia > Moot hill
Scone
Gaelic: Sgàin
Scots: Scone
Location
OS grid reference: NH350001
Statistics
Population: 4,430 [1]
Administration
Council area: Perth and Kinross
Constituent country: Scotland
Sovereign state: United Kingdom
Other
Police force: Tayside Police
Lieutenancy area: Perth and Kinross
Former county: Perthshire
Post office and telephone
Post town:
Postal district:
Dialling code:
Politics
Scottish Parliament: Perth, Roseanna Cunningham, MSP
UK Parliament: Perth and North Perthshire, Pete Wishart, MP
European Parliament: Scotland
Scotland

Scone (Modern Gaelic: Sgàin; Medieval: Scoine) (pronounced Scoon) is a town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. The medieval town of Scone, which grew up around the monastery and royal residence, was abandoned in the early nineteenth century when a new palace was built on the site by the Earl of Mansfield. Hence the modern town of New Scone, and the medieval town of Old Scone, can often be distinguished. Today New Scone is simply called Scone. It has a population of over 4000 people and is essentially a suburb of Perth. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (553x933, 177 KB) Summary Summary Based on Image:Scotland (Location) Template (HR). ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils. They have been in use since April 1, 1996, under the provisions of the Local Government etc. ... Perth and Kinross (Peairt agus Ceann Rois in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... Constituent countries is a phrase sometimes used, usually by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia (example here) and European institutions such as the Council of Europe... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... There are a number of policing agencies in the United Kingdom. ... Map showing the council areas of Scotland with the ones in the police area highlighted. ... The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lords-lieutenant, the monarchs representatives, in Scotland. ... Perth and Kinross (Peairt agus Ceann Rois in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt in Gaelic) was a county in central Scotland, which extended from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... This is a list of post towns in the United Kingdom, sorted by the postal area (the first part of the outward code of a postcode). ... This is a list of the post towns of the United Kingdom sorted in postcode sequence. ... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ... Perth is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). ... Roseanna Cunningham Roseanna Cunningham is an Australian-born (July 27, 1951) British politician, and member for the Scottish National Party for Perth in the Scottish Parliament. ... Scotland is divided into 59 constituencies of the United Kingdom Parliament - 19 Burgh constituencies and 40 County constituencies. ... Perth and North Perthshire is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Peter Wishart Peter Wishart (born 9 March 1962) is a Scottish politician, and is Scottish National Party (SNP) Member of Parliament (MP) for Perth and North Perthshire (UK Parliament constituency). ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... Perth and Kinross (Peairt agus Ceann Rois in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Scone Palace. ... The Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield is a peer in the Peerage of Great Britain, holding two separate creations of the title of Earl of Mansfield in that peerage, the first created in 1776 and the second in 1792. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ...


Both sites lie in the historical province of Gowrie. Old Scone was the historic capital of the Kingdom of Alba (Scotland). In the middle ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence and as the coronation site of the kingdom's monarchs. Around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone. Gowrie (Scottish Gaelic, Gobharaidh) otherwise the Carse of Gowrie consists of a stretch of low-lying country in Perthshire in Scotland, stretching for about 24km along the north shore of the Firth of Tay between the Perth and Dundee. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh Government Monarchy Head of State King of Scots Parliament Parliament of Scotland Currency Pound Scots This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). ... Scone Palace. ...

Contents

Scone and Scotland

A seal of Scone Abbey, depicting the inauguration of King Alexander III of Scotland.
A seal of Scone Abbey, depicting the inauguration of King Alexander III of Scotland.
Scone was the ancient capital of Scotland and the coronation site of Scotland's kings. This MS illustration depicts the coronation of King Alexander III of Scotland on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy.

In Gaelic poetry Scone's association with kings and king-making gave it various poetic epithets, for instance, Scoine sciath-airde, "Scone of the high shields", and Scoine sciath-bhinne, "Scone of the noisy shields" [1] Scotland itself was often called the "Kingdom of Scone", "Righe Sgoinde".[2] A comparison would be that Ireland was often called the "Kingdom of Tara", Tara, like Scone, serving as a ceremonial inauguration site.[3] Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a "capital". In either 1163 or 1164 King Máel Coluim IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, that is, "in the principle seat of our kingdom".[4] By this point in time, however, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, which then only referred to Scotland north of the river Forth. The king also ruled in Lothian, Strathclyde and the Honour of Huntingdon, and spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, so that any idea that Scone was a "capital" in the way the word is used today can make very little sense in this period; but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the "capital of Scotland". Scone Palace. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), King of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), King of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... The Hill of Tara (aerial view) The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ... Image of the young Máel Coluim IV, called Cenn Mór in the Gaelic annals of Ireland. ... Scone Palace. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ... Earl of Huntingdon is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. ...


In the twelfth century, various foreign influences prompted the Scottish kings to transform Scone into a more convincing royal centre. A town was established there, perhaps in the reign of Alexander I of Scotland. In 1124 the latter wrote to "all merchants of England" (omnibus mercatoribus Angliae) promising them protection if they are to bring goods to Scone by sea.[5] Scone however did not lie on a navigable part of the river, and it was at the nearest suitable location, i.e. Perth, that the new burgh which certainly existed in the reign of David I of Scotland was built.[6] Perth lies 1½ km from the site of medieval Scone, which is almost identical to the distance of Westminster Abbey from the City of London (2.2 km). King Alexander I also established a Benedictine priory at Scone, sometime between 1114 and 1122. In either 1163 or 1164, in the reign of King Máel Coluim IV, Scone Priory's status was increased and it became an abbey.[7] The abbey had important royal functions, being next to the coronation site of Scottish kings and housing the coronation stone (until it was taken away by King Edward I of England). Like other Scottish abbeys, Scone probably doubled up as a royal residence or palace. Scone abbey's obvious function was like the role that Westminster Abbey had for the Kings of England, although by the time records are clear, it appears that Scotland's Norman kings were crowned on Moot Hill (the coronation mound) rather than inside the abbey. This can be attributed, as Thomas Owen Clancy points out, to the importance in Gaelic tradition of swearing the inauguration oath in colle, on the traditional mound, the importance of which continental fashions were apparently unable to overcome.[8] However, the parallel with Westminster certainly existed in the mind of Edward I, who in 1297 transferred the Abbey's coronation relics, the crown, sceptre and the stone, to Westminster in a formal presentation to the English royal saint, Edward the Confessor.[9] Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... Image of the young Máel Coluim IV, called Cenn Mór in the Gaelic annals of Ireland. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1] and the Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who kept Scotland under English domination during his lifetime. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Gaelic coronation site

The Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey, 1855.

Like Tara, Scone would have been associated with some of the semi-pagan traditions and rituals of native kingship, what D.A. Binchy has "an archaic fertility rite of a type associated with primitive kingship the world over".[10] Certainly, if Scone was not associated with this kind of thing in Pictish times, the Hibernicizing Scottish kings of later years made an effort do so. By the thirteenth century at the latest there was a tradition that Scone's famous inauguration stone, the Stone of Scone, had originally been placed at Tara by Simón Brecc, and only taken to Scone later by his descendent Fergus mac Ferchair when the latter conquered Alba (Scotland).[11] Indeed, the prominence of such a coronation stone associated with an archaic inauguration site was something Scone shared with many like sites in medieval Ireland, not just Tara.[12] Such "unchristian" rites would become infamous in the emerging world of Scotland's Anglo-French neighbours in the twelfth century ".[13] Stone of Scone the Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey. ... Stone of Scone the Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Scone's role therefore came under threat as Scotland's twelfth century kings gradually became more French and less Gaelic. Walter of Coventry reported in the reign of William I of Scotland that "The modern kings of Scotland count themselves as Frenchmen, in race, manners, language and culture; they keep only Frenchmen in their household and following, and have reduced the Scots to utter servitude."[14] Though exaggerated, there was truth in this. Apparently for this reason, when the Normanized David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim) went to Scone to be crowned there in the summer of 1124, he initially refused to take part in the ceremonies. According to Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[15] Inevitably then this was bound to have an impact on the significance of Scone as a ritual and cult centre, yet the inauguration ceremony was preserved with only some innovation through the thirteenth century[16] and Scottish kings continued to be crowned there until the end of the Scottish kingdom.[17] Moreover, until the later middle ages kings continued to reside there, and parliaments, often some of the most importance parliaments in Scottish history, frequently met there too.[18] Walter of Coventry (fl. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx, hence also known as Ailred of Rievaulx (b. ...


Later history

Scone mercat cross, today almost all that is left of the old town.
Scone mercat cross, today almost all that is left of the old town.

Although Scone retained its role in royal inaugurations, Scone's role as effective "capital" declined in the later middle ages. The abbey itself though enjoyed mixed fortunes. It suffered a fire in the twelfth century and was subject to extensive attacks during the First War of Scottish Independence. It also suffered, as most Scottish abbeys in the period did, decline in patronage. The abbey became a pilgrimage center for St Fergus, whose head it kept as a relic, and retained older festivals and fame for musical excellence.[19] In the sixteenth century the Scottish Reformation ended the importance of all monasteries in Scotland, and in June 1559 the abbey was attacked by reformers and it was burned down. Some of the monks continued on at the abbey, but by the end of the century monastic life had disappeared and continued to function only as a parish church. In 1581 Scone was placed in the new Earldom of Gowrie, created for William Ruthven. The latter was forfeited after the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, but in 1606 was given to David Murray, newly created Lord Scone, who in 1621 was promoted to Viscount Stormont. The abbey/palace evidently remained in a decent state, as the Viscounts apparently did some rebuilding and conitinued to reside there, and it continued to play host to important guests, such as King Charles II, when he was crowned there (indoors) in 1651. It was not until 1803 that the family (now Earls of Mansfield) began constructing another palace at the cost of £70,000, commissioning the renowned English architect William Atkinson.[20] The mercat cross in Cockburnspath A mercat cross is a market cross found in Scottish cities and towns where trade and commerce was a part of economic life. ... The early period of the First War of Scottish Independence lasted from the outbreak of the war in 1296 until the coronation of Robert the Bruce as King of Scots in 1306. ... St. ... The title of Earl of Gowrie was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1945 for Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Baron Gowrie, a former Governor-General of Australia. ... William Ruthven, 4th Lord Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie (c. ... The Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield is a peer in the Peerage of Great Britain, holding two separate creations of the title of Earl of Mansfield in that peerage, the first created in 1776 and the second in 1792. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... The Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield is a peer in the Peerage of Great Britain, holding two separate creations of the title of Earl of Mansfield in that peerage, the first created in 1776 and the second in 1792. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ...


Modern town

Constructing the new palace meant destroying the old town and moving its inhabitants to a new settlement. The new village was constructed in 1805 as planned town,[21] and originally called New Scone. It lies 2km to the west of the old location and 1½ km further from Perth.[22] Until 1997 the town was called "New Scone", but is now referred to simply as Scone.[23] The town had 4,430 inhabitants according to the 2001 Census for Scotland, 84.33% of whom are Scottish; it is demographically old even compared with the rest of Scotland.[24] This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ...


The site of Old Scone is mostly in the grounds of the modern palace. The latter is a popular tourist attraction. Visitors come to see the gardens in the palace grounds, the exotic birds which roam freely in the grounds, Moot Hill, which lies in the grounds, as well as the palace itself.


See also

The Hill of Tara (aerial view) The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... Scone Palace. ... Scone Palace. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ...

Notes

  1. ^ William F. Skene, Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867), pp. 84, 97
  2. ^ Ibid., p. 21.
  3. ^ See, for instance, William F. Scene, "The Coronation Stone", in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 8 (1868-70), p. 88
  4. ^ G.W.S. Barrow (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153-1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's "Early Scottish Charters", (Regesta Regum Scottorum vol. i, Edinburgh, 1960) no. 243.
  5. ^ Archibald Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905) no. xlviii, p. 43.
  6. ^ R.M. Spearman, "The Medieval Townscape of Perth", in Michael Lynch, Michael Spearman & Geoffrey Stell (eds.), The Medieval Scottish Town, (Edinburgh, 1988), p. 47; Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters, p. 296.
  7. ^ Ian B. Cowan, & David E. Easson, Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, (London, 1976), pp. 97-8.
  8. ^ Thomas Owen Clancy, "King-Making and Images of Kingship in Medieval Gaelic Literature", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 103.
  9. ^ G.W.S. Barrow, "The Removal of the Stone and Attempts at Recovery, to 1328", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 201.
  10. ^ D.A. Binchy, "Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara", in Ériu, vol. 18 (1958), p. 134.
  11. ^ Dauvit Broun, "Origins of the Stone of Scone as a National Icon", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 194.
  12. ^ See Elizabeth FitzPatrick, "Leaca and Gaelic Inauguration Ritual in Medieval Ireland", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 107-21.
  13. ^ E.g. John J. O'Meara (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951), p. 110.
  14. ^ Memoriale Fratris Walteri de Coventria, ed. W. Stubbs, (Rolls Series, no. 58), ii. 206.
  15. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 232; it should be noted that Ailred was keen to portray David as a good Anglo-Norman, and was anxious to relieve David of anti-Scottish prejudice being made to debase his image in the Anglo-Norman world.
  16. ^ John Bannerman, “The Kings Poet”, in The Scottish Historical Review, vol. 58, (1989), pp. 120–49; for some of the innovations, see A.A.M. Duncan, "Before Coronation: Making a King at Scone in the 13th century", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 139-67.
  17. ^ James II of Scotland was not crowned there, but at Holyrood Abbey; he was however a child, there were political problems which made Scone too dangerous. His son James III of Scotland, who succeeded as a child also, was not apparently crowned there either; however, these coronations did not reverse the ancient precedent. which was "revived" by James IV of Scotland.
  18. ^ See Peter G.B. McNeill and Hector L. MacQueen (eds.), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996), pp. 159-82 for places of charter issue.
  19. ^ Richard Fawcett, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 170-2.
  20. ^ Ibid. pp. 172-4.
  21. ^ Compared Evanton, constructed in 1807 by its landowner for similar motives.
  22. ^ Compare geo.ed.ac.uk - Old Scone and geo.ed.ac.uk - New Scone.
  23. ^ This is according to geo.ed.ac.uk.
  24. ^ See 2001 Census, accessed Nov. 29, 2006

James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... Image:Holrodab. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) - King of Scots from 1488 to 1513. ... Village Welcome Sign Evanton ( or Baile Eòghainn in Gaelic) is a small town, or rather, a large village in Easter Ross, in the Highland region of Scotland. ...

References

  • Barrow, G.W.S. (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153-1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's '"Early Scottish Charters"', (Regesta Regum Scottorum vol. i, Edinburgh, 1960)
  • Barrow, G.W.S., "The Removal of the Stone and Attempts at Recovery, to 1328", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p.
  • Binchy, D.A., "Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara", in Ériu, vol. 18 (1958), pp. 113-38
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Origins of the Stone of Scone as a National Icon", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 183-97
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "King-Making and Images of Kingship in Medieval Gaelic Literature", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 85-105
  • Cowan, Ian B. & Easson, David E., Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, (London, 1976), pp. 97-8
  • Duncan, A.A.M., "Before Coronation: Making a King at Scone in the 13th century", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 139-67
  • Fawcett, Richard, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 169-80
  • FitzPatrick, Elizabeth, "Leaca and Gaelic Inauguration Ritual in Medieval Ireland", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artifact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 107-21
  • Lawrie, Sir Archibald, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905)
  • McNeill, Peter G.B., and MacQueen, Hector L., (eds.), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996)
  • O'Meara, John J. (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951)
  • Skene, William F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867)
  • Skene, William F., "The Coronation Stone", in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 8 (1868-70), pp. 68-99
  • Spearman, R.M., "The Medieval Townscape of Perth", in Michael Lynch, Michael Spearman & Geoffrey Stell (eds.), The Medieval Scottish Town, (Edinburgh, 1988), pp. 42-59

Geoffrey W.S. Barrow is a Scottish historian and academic. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... Archibald Alexander McBeth Duncan (born 17 October 1926), FBA, FRHistS, FRSE, is a Scottish historian. ... William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ...

External links

  • 2001 Census, accessed Nov. 29, 2006
  • geo.ed.ac.uk - Old Scone
  • geo.ed.ac.uk - New Scone

 
 

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