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Encyclopedia > Moors

During the medieval period, Moor became a common term to refer to the Muslims of Islamic Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, who were of Arab or Berber descent. The name remains associated with the Muslims of Spain even today, despite being archaic and inaccurate, as it lumps Muslim and non-Muslim Arabs, Berbers and other Africans together, sometimes even with Iberian Muslims. In Spanish, the continued use of the cognate, moro, is considered by many to be racist; in English, the term has only historical contexts, with no proper present-day referent. Look up moor, Moor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ...

Contents

History of the Moors

Dress of Moorish Princes.
Dress of Moorish Princes.
Eastern Hemisphere in 476AD, showing the Moor kingdoms after the fall of Rome.

Although the Moors came to be associated with Muslims, the name Moor pre-dates Islam. It derives from the small Numidian Kingdom of Maure of the third century BC in what is now Morocco.[1] Yet the origins of the word Moor remain unclear (see the Etymology section below).[2] The name came to be applied to people of the entire region. "They were called Maurisi by the Greeks," wrote Strabo, "and Mauri by the Romans."[3] During that age, the Maure or Moors were trading partners of Carthage, the independent city state founded by Phoenicians. During the second Punic war between Carthage and Rome, two Moorish Numidian kings took different sides, Syphax with Carthage, Masinissa with the Romans, decisively so at Zama. Thereafter, the Moors entered into treaties with Rome. Under King Jugurtha collateral violence against merchants brought war. Juba, a later king, was a friend of Rome. Eventually, the region was incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis; the area around Carthage already being the province of Africa. Roman rule was beneficial and effective enough so that these provinces became fully integrated into the empire. During the Christian era, two prominent African churchmen were Tertullian and St. Augustine. After the fall of Rome, the Germanic kingdom of the Vandals ruled much of the area; a century later they were displaced by Byzantine incursions. Neither Vandal nor Byzantine exercised an effective rule, the interior being under Moorish Berber control.[4] The Berbers resisted for over 50 years Arab armies from the east. Especially memorable was that led by Kahina the Berber prophetess of the Awras, during 690-701. Yet by the 92nd lunar year after the Hijra, the Arab Muslims had prevailed across North Africa.[5] (The words Islam and Muslims appeared only after Muhammad became a prophet around 600 AD.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (1973 × 1159 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (1973 × 1159 pixel, file size: 2. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC. They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... Syphax was a king of the Masaesyles of western Numidia. ... Masinissa, King of Numidia Masinissa or Massinissa (c. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... Jugurtha, (c. ... Juba II Juba II (Iuba in Latin; Ιóβας (Ιóβα) or Ιουβας in Greek)[1] or Juba II of Numidia (52-50 BC - 23 AD) was a king of Numidia and then later moved to Mauretania. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... The present day Republic of Tunisia, al Jumhuriyah at-Tunisiyah, has over ten million people, almost all Arab-Berber. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... al-Kāhinah (Classical Arabic for female seer or priest), also known as Dihya, Kahya, modern Maghrebin Arabic l-Kahna and commonly romanised as Kahina, was a female Berber religious and military leader of the late 600s who led indigenous resistance to the Arabization and Islamisation of the Maghreb (Northwest... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In 711 AD, the now Islamic Moors conquered Visigothics, mainly Christian Hispania. Under their leader, an African Berber general named Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. They moved northeast across the Pyrenees Mountains but were defeated by the Frank, Charles Martel, at the Battle of Poitier in 732 AD. The Moorish state fell into civil conflict in the 750s. The Moors ruled in the Iberian peninsula, except for areas in the northwest (such as Asturias, where they were defeated at the battle of Covadonga) and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees, and in North Africa for several decades. Though the number of "Moors" remained small, many native inhabitants converted to Islam. According to Ronald Segal, author of Islam's Black Slaves[6], some 5.6 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants were Muslim by 1200 AD, virtually all of them native inhabitants. The persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism of the Muslim population during the time of the Catholic reconquista in the second part of the 15th century, causing a mass exodus, are considered the main reasons why their number shrank to one-third by 1600. A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Decades: 700s - 710s - 720s - 730s - 740s - 750s - 760s - 770s - 780s - 790s - 800s Years: 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 Events: Categories: 750s ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Covadonga (Asturian: Cuadonga), from Latin Cova dominica, Cavern of the Lady, is a village in Asturias, northwestern Spain, among the Picos de Europa mountains where Spanish Christians won a battle over the Muslim Moors around 718 and 725. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


As a sign of decline, the country had broken up into a number of mostly Islamic fiefdoms, which were partly consolidated under the Caliphate of Cordoba. Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally often to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ...


A Christian enclave from the Muslim conquest in Asturias, a small Visigothic northwestern Spanish kingdom, initiated conflicts in earnest between Christian and Muslim in the 10th century AD. Christian states based in the north and west slowly extended their power over the rest of Iberia. The Navarre, Galicia, León, Portugal, Aragón, Catalonia or Marca Hispanica, and Castile in fits and starts began a process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several centuries under the flag of Reconquista. Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of Alfonso VIII of Castile drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. However, the Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in the southern Iberian peninsula. This kingdom is known in modern time for magnificent architectural works such as the Alhambra palace. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile). The remaining Muslims and Jews were forced to leave Spain, forced to convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be murdered for not doing so.. In 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand instituted the Inquisition in Spain, as one of many changes to the role of the church instituted by the monarchs. The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly -- known respectively as marranos and moriscos -- as well as at heretics who rejected Roman Catholic orthodoxy, including alumbras who practiced a kind of mysticism or spiritualism. They were an important portion of the peasants in some territories, like Aragon, Valencia or Andalusia, until their systematic expulsion in the years from 1609 to 1614. Henri Lapeyre has estimated that this affected 300,000 out of a total of 8 million inhabitants of the peninsula at the time.[7] Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red palace) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ...


In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just westward to Iberia, but also eastward, through India, the Malayan peninsula, and Indonesia up to Mindanao-—one of the major islands of an archipelago which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the New World. By 1521, the ships of Magellan and other Spanish expeditioners had themselves reached that island archipelago, which they named Las Islas de Filipinas, after Philip II of Spain. In Mindanao, the Spaniards also named these kris-bearing people as Moros or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines, this ethnic group of people in Mindanao who are generally Muslims are called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as Moros persists in the modern Spanish language spoken in Spain; and as Mouros in the modern Portuguese language. See Reconquista, and Maure. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... This article is about the country in Southeast Asia. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... â–ˆ Bangsamoro territory under Moro control â–ˆ Historical extent The Moros form the largest non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising about 5% of the total Filipino population as of 2005. ... Filipino Muslims form the largest non-Christian group in the country, comprising 5 % of the total Philippine population as of 2005. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Maure symbol. ...


According to historian Richard A. Fletcher[8], 'the number of Arabs who settled in Spain was very small. "Moorish" Spain does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e Berbers from nothwest Africa.' Aline Angoustures[9] says that the Berbers were about 400,000 and the Arabs about 40,000 in Spain. Richard A. Fletcher (d. ...


Religious relations

The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this Caliphate of Cordoba is generally regarded as tolerant in its acceptance of Christians, Muslims and Jews living in the same territories, though in various periods Jews were expelled and Christians relegated to a kind of second class status. The Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Iberia came to be ruled by North African Moors of the Almoravid Dynasty. This second stage started an era of Moorish rulers guided by a version of Islam that left behind the tolerant practices of the past. ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ...


Architecture

The arches of red-and-white stripes inside the "La Mezquita" in Córdoba, Spain represent some of the pinnacles of the Moorish architectures.
The arches of red-and-white stripes inside the "La Mezquita" in Córdoba, Spain represent some of the pinnacles of the Moorish architectures.

Moorish Iberia excelled in city planning; the sophistication of their cities was astonishing. According to one historian, Cordova "had 471 mosques and 300 public baths … the number of houses of the great and noble were 63,000 and 200,077 of the common people. There were … upwards of 80,000 shops. Water from the mountain was distributed through every corner and quarter of the city by means of leaden pipes into basins of different shapes, made of the purest gold, the finest silver, or plated brass as well into vast lakes, curious tanks, amazing reservoirs and fountains of Grecian marble." The houses of Cordova were air conditioned in the summer by "ingeniously arranged draughts of fresh air drawn from the garden over beds of flowers, chosen for their perfume, warmed in winter by hot air conveyed through pipes bedded in the walls." This list of impressive works includes lamp posts that lit their streets at night to grand palaces, such as the one called Azzahra with its 15,000 doors.[10] During the height of the Caliphate of Córdoba, the city of Córdoba proper was one of the major capitals in Europe and one of the most cosmopolitan cities of its time. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moors User:JialiangGao... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Moors User:JialiangGao... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Córdoba, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ...


Etymology of the name

Moor comes from the Greek word mauros (Greek orthography μαύρος, plural μαύροι), meaning "black" or "very dark", which in Latin became mauro (plural mauri). In the Romance languages (such as Spanish, French, and Italian) of Medieval Europe, the root appeared with such forms as moro, moir, and mor. Derivatives of the root are found in today's versions of the languages. Through nominalization, the root has always referred to various things conveniently identified by their dark color, for example, blackberries, black olives, very dark grapes, dark-haired people, or dark-skinned people; but the senses referring to dark-skinned people today generally hover close to (or, more often, clearly cross over) the line of offensiveness. Moreno from the Latin root can mean "tanned" in Spain and "black person" in Cuba. Morapio is a slang name for "wine", specially that has not been "baptized" with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... // Definition A nominalization is a word that has been changed from a verb or an adjective into a noun. ... Moreno is Spanish and Portuguese for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person. ...


The Moors, during the Middle Ages and as late as the 17th century, were described as being black, dark-skinned, or swarthy in complexion. Modern texts, such as Webster's New World Dictionary, groups all Moors together under the terms Arab and Berber, which has caused individuals to omit the association with Africans that are racially considered "black". Considering that Berbers were a mixture of various shades of diverse nomadic groups comprising East Africans, North Africans, West Africans, and Sub-Saharan Africans, the claims of racial heritage being of one specific group are at best dubious. Today, it is the lighter inhabitants of Morocco and Mauretania who are called Moors.


In Spanish usage, moro ("Moor") came to have an even broader usage, to mean "Muslims" in general (just as rumi, "from the Eastern Roman Empire", came to mean "Christian" or "European" in many Arabic dialects); thus the moros of Mindanao in the Philippines, and the moriscos of Granada. Moro is also used to describe all things dark, as in "Moor", "moreno", etc.; and it has led to many European surnames such as Moore, Mauro, De Mauro, and so on. The Milanese Duke Ludovico Il Moro was so-called because of his dark complexion. Rûm, also Roum or Rhum (in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, Turkish Rum), is a very indefinite term used at different times in the Muslim world for Europeans generally and for the Byzantine Empire in particular, for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Asia Minor, and for Greeks inhabiting... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Moro may refer to: Moro Islamic Liberation Front Moro reflex Moors The term Moro (pl. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Ludovico Sforza in a portrait by Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis. ...


Human population genetics

Dr. Shomarka Keita, a biological anthropologist from Howard University, has suggested that populations in Carthage circa 200 BC and northern Algeria 1500 BC were very diverse. As a group, they plotted closest to the populations of Northern Egypt and intermediate to Northern Europeans and tropical Africans. Keita stated “The data supported the comments from ancient authors observed by classicists: everything from “fair-skinned blonds to peoples who were dark skinned 'Ethiopian' or part Ethiopian in appearance.” Modern evidence showed a similar diversity among present North Africans. Moreover, this “diversity” of phenotypes and peoples was probably due to in situ differentiation, not foreign influxes. Of course foreign influxes certainly had an impact: Phoenician, Greek, Roman Vandal and Arab migration had some impact from 900 BC to 730 AD. But they did not replace the indigenous Berber population. Dr. Shomarka Keita is an African American biological anthropologist from Howard University, specialising in reserching the origins and historical development of African peoples, which got him involved in the Black Egypt controversy. ... Howard University is a university located in Washington, D.C., USA. A historically black university, Howard was established in 1867 by congressional order and named for Oliver O. Howard. ... In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ...


Haplotype V is a trait found among more than 2/3 of the modern Berbers in North Africa and is indigenous to this area. This trait is also found in high frequencies in Andalusia (as much as 40%).[11] Moreover, about 7% of the population of Spain, including 14% of Andalusians, have been found to have this haplotype (69% of the Berbers in Morocco do-see Lucotte and Mercier on these genetic studies). This haplotype is also seen in high frequencies in Ethiopia (averaging around 45.8% for reported groups). Frequencies are considerably low in the near east and decreases from west Lebanon (16.7%) to Iraq (7.2%). It, along with XI has been found to associate with the M35/215 subclade and IV with the M2/PN1/M180 lineage, both of the YAP/M145/M213 cluster. These lineages that affiliate with V, XI, and IV (called “sub-Saharan”), are joined by a transition mutation, most notably the PN2 transition, which emerged in Africa sometime after the exodus of modern humans, but before the last glacial period, and unites two high frequency subclades, defined by M2/PN1/M180 mutations in sub-Saharan Africa, and M35/215 in north and east Africa.[12] In human genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ...


A 2006 Mitochondrial DNA study of 12th-13th century Islamic remains from Priego de Cordoba, Spain, indicate a higher proportion of sub-Saharan African lineages attributed at least partially to Moorish occupation, in addition to more ancient migrations to Europe.[13]

Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment polymorphisms were retrieved from three Islamic 12th-13th century samples of 71 bones and teeth (with >85% efficiency) from Madinat Baguh (today called Priego de Cordoba, Spain). Compared with 108 saliva samples from the present population of the same area, the medieval samples show a higher proportion of sub-Saharan African lineages that can only partially be attributed to the historic Muslim occupation. In fact, the unique sharing of transition 16175, in L1b lineages, with Europeans, instead of Africans, suggests a more ancient arrival to Europe from Africa. The present day Priego sample is more similar to the current south Iberian population than to the medieval sample from the same area. The increased gene flow in modern times could be the main cause of this difference.

Other Moors in history

  • Macrinus, 164-218, a Moorish officer, prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Caracalla. He became the first Roman emperor who was not a senator in 217-18.
  • Estevanico, also referred to as "Stephen the Moor", explorer of what is now the southwest of the United States in the service of Spain.
  • Gildo was a Moorish chieftain who instigated a rebellion against the Roman Empire in 398.
  • Lusius Quietus was a Roman general, governor of Iudaea in 117. Originally a Moorish prince, his military ability won him the favor of Trajan, who even designated him as his successor. During the emperor's Parthian campaign, the numerous Jewish inhabitants of Babylonia revolted and were relentlessly suppressed by Quietus, who was rewarded by being appointed governor of Judea. Restlessness in Palestine caused Trajan to send his favorite, as a legate of consular rank, to Judea, where he continued his sanguinary course.
  • Saint Benedict the Moor (1526–1589) Benedict was born of African parents who were slaves on an estate near Messina, Sicily. Though of the lowest social rank, they are typically perceived as noble in heart and mind. As a baby, Benedict was freed by his master and, as a young boy, he showed such a devout and gentle disposition that he was called the "Holy Moor". While working in the fields one day, some neighbors taunted him on account of his race and parentage. His meek demeanor greatly impressed a Franciscan hermit who was passing by and who uttered the prophetic words: "You ridicule a poor Negro now; before long you will hear great things of him." Wishing to join these hermits, Benedict sold his meager belongings and gave the proceeds to the poor and then entered the community. After the death of the superior, Benedict was chosen his successor, though greatly against his will. When Pope Pius IV ordered all hermits to disband or join some Order, Benedict became a Friar Minor of the Observance at Palermo, and was made a cook. He was happy in this work since it enabled him to perform many little acts of kindness toward the others. His brethren were greatly edified by the saintly cook, especially when they saw angels at times helping him in his work. The Chapter of 1578 made him guardian, or superior, of the friary, though he protested that he was not a priest and, in fact, could neither read nor write. He was a model superior, however, and won the esteem and obedience as well as the love of his subjects. As superior, he gave free rein to his love for the poor, and no matter how openhanded ȳhe was, the food never seemed to give out. After serving as superior, he was made novice master, and to this difficult post he brought gifts that were evidently infused: he was able to instruct with an amazing knowledge of theology and to read the hearts of others. At his request, he was relieved of his office and again made cook, but he was no longer an obscure Brother, for thousands flocked to the friary, seeking cures or alms or counsel and help. He died after a brief illness, having foretold the hour of his death. His veneration has spread throughout the world, and African-American Catholics of North America have chosen him their patron. [14]
  • St. Maurice, the Knight of the Holy Lance, is regarded as the greatest patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire. Rumored to be a Roman commander of Egyptian descent, Maurice is said to have gained sainthood after refusing to have his legion massacre a Christian uprising. Honored as early as 460, St. Maurice has had numerous artworks and structures—even a castle—dedicated to him. The existence of nearly three hundred major images of St. Maurice have been catalogued, and even today his veneration is seen within numerous cathedrals in eastern Germany. He is also the Patron Saint of the United States infantry, with the highest honor given to a member of the Association of the United States Infantry being the "Order of Saint Maurice."
  • Alessandro de' Medici (July 22, 1510 – January 6, 1537) called "il Moro" ("the Moor") by his contemporaries was the Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence (from 1532) and ruler of Florence from 1530 until 1537). Though illegitimate, he was the last of the "senior" branch of the Medici to rule Florence and the first to be hereditary duke. Historians (such as Christopher Hibbert) believe he had been born to a black serving-woman in the Medici household, identified in documents as Simonetta da Collavechio. The nickname is said to derive from his features (Hibbert 1999: 236). Contemporary portraits depict his full lips and coppery skin - he still has descendants (via his own illegitimate children) among many European royal and noble families.
  • Othello the Venetian general from Shakespeare's Othello is also a Moor, as well as Aaron the Moor from Titus Andronicus, and a servant of the Morrocan Prince from The Merchant of Venice.
  • Azeem - Moorish companion to Robin of Locksley in "Robin Hood Prince of Thieves" starring Kevin Costner. Azeem played by Morgan Freeman is saved by Locksley (Costner) while imprisoned in a Jerusalem jail during the Third Crusade (1189-1192). Azeem swears to repay his life debt to Locksley, which leads him back to Locksley's home in Nottingham England. Azeem eventually does save Locksley's life during the climax of the film.
  • Othello, the fictious hero in the play by William Shakespeare of the same name, written in 1604. Othello is a prince and serves in the war between Venice and Cyprus. Othello marries a noblewoman but succumbs to corruption by the villain Iago and becomes fiercely jealous. He ends up killing his wife, and then kills himself when he realizes he was played.

Macrinus on an aureus. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Estevanico (ca. ... Gildo (d. ... Combatants Western Roman empire Rebellious Roman forces Commanders Mascezel count Gildo Strength 5,000 70,000 Casualties none virtually none The Gildonic revolt was a rebellion in 398 instigated by count Gildo against the might of Rome, especially Flavius Stilicho, the magister militum of the Western Roman empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judea in AD 117 Originally a Moorish prince, his military ability won him the favor of Trajan, who even designated him as his successor. ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... St. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ... A minorite is a Franciscan friar, so-called because they believe they are humbler than members of other orders. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Coptic Icon of Saint Maurice Saint Maurice, who has given his name to places as dissimilar as St. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... This article is on the first Duke of Florence. ... Penne rigate (ridged penne) Penne are a type of pasta originating in Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ...

Present-day Moors

Beside its usage in historical context Moor and Moorish (Italian and Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro / moiro, Romanian: maur) is used to designate an ethnic group speaking the Hassaniya Arabic dialect, inhabiting Islamic Republic of Mauritania and parts of Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Niger and Mali. Ḥassānīya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ...


In modern, colloquial Spanish the sometimes pejorative term "Moro" refers to any person who practices Islam, especially those born in the Maghreb or those born in Spain of Moroccan or Algerian heritage. Similarly, in modern, colloquial Portuguese the term "Mouro" is used as a derogatory term by citizens of Northern Portugal to refer to the inhabitants of the southern areas of the country, although "Mouro" is also an enchanted people and "Moura" also means stone in Northern Portugal. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... To be enchanted is to be under the influence of an enchantment, usually thought to be caused by charms or incantations. ...


This usage has also been maintained in the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, where the local Muslim population in the Southern islands are called (and call themselves) "Moros" (see Muslim Filipino), a term introduced by the Spanish colonizers.Within the same context of colonization, Sri Lankan Muslims of Arab origin are also called "Moors"(see Sri Lankan Moors). Filipino Muslims form the largest non-Christian group in the country, comprising 5 percent of the total Philippine population as of 2005. ... Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced entirely by Sri Lankan Muslims, who make up approximately 8% of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ...


See also

Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Char Bouba war (variously transliterated as Sharr Bubba, Shar Buba, etc) or the Mauritanian Thirty Years War, took place between 1644-74 in the tribal areas of what is today Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... “Sahraoui” redirects here. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religious organization founded in 1913 by Noble Drew Ali, is a sect of Islam, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... Interior of the Mezquita, Cordoba Moorish architecture is a term used to describe the Islamic architecture of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant from 711C.E. to 1492C.E.. The best surviving examples are La Mezquita in Cordoba and the Alhambra palace[1... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... Ricote is a fictional character who is referred to in Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quijote. ...

References

  1. ^ Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress, The Berbers at 25 & 77; Gabriel Camps, Les Berberes (Edisud 1996) at 20-21, 25
  2. ^ See also Ivan Van Sertima in his Golden Age of the Moor (Transaction 1992) at 7.
  3. ^ Strabo, Geographica (c.17 A.D.) at XVIII,3,ii (cited by Rene Basset in Moorish Literature (N.Y., Collier 1901) at iii.
  4. ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (Cambridge Univ., 1971) at 27, 38 & 43; Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress, The Berbers (Blackwell 1996) at 14, 24, 41-54; Henri Terrasse, History of Morocco (Casablanca: Atlantides 1952) at 39-49, esp. 43-44; Serge Lancel, Carthage (Librairie Artheme Fayard 1992, Blackwell 1995) at 396-401; Glenn Markoe, The Phoenicians (Univ.of California 2000) at 54-56.
  5. ^ "The conquest of North Africa and Berber resistance" in General History of Africa (UNESCO / Univ.of Calif. 1992) III: 118-129, at 124-126; Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (Cambridge Univ. 1971) at 70; Brett and Fentress, The Berbers (Blackwell 1996) at 85; Tarrasse, A History of Morocco (Casablanca: Atlantides 1952) at 50-51.
  6. ^ Ronald Segal, Islam's Black Slaves (2003), Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-90380981-9
  7. ^ See History of Al-Andalus
  8. ^ Richard Fletcher. Moorish Spain p10. University of California Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0520084964
  9. ^ specialist of Spain history, Aline Angoustures. L'Espagne page 17. Le cavalier bleu, 2004. ISBN 2-84670-078-8
  10. ^ Ivan Van Sertima, The Golden Age of the Moor (Journal of African Civilizations, Vol 11, Fall 1991), Transaction Publishers, 1991, ISBN 1-56000-581-5
  11. ^ North African Berber and Arab Influences in the Western Mediterranean Revealed by Y-Chromosome DNA Haplotypes Human Biology, Volume 78, Number 3, June 2006, pp. 307–316.
  12. ^ Keita, S. African Archaeological Review, Volume 22, Number 2, June 2005 , pp. 61-75(15)
  13. ^ http://www.bio.uio.no/forskning/db01-news/internet/html/nr100025.html
  14. ^ A Saint A Day by Berchman's Bittle, O. F. M. Cap. published by The Bruce Publishing Company, ©1958

Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...

Bibliography

This section's bibliographical information is not fully provided. If you know these sources and can provide full information, you can help Wikipedia by completing it.
  • Jan Carew, Rape of Paradise
  • David Brion Davis, "Slavery: Black, White, Muslim, Christian"
  • Herodotus, The Histories
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Genetic Haplotyes in North Africa"
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Craniometric Data from North Africa
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Further Craniometric Data from North Africa"
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Bernal vs. Snowden"
  • Bernard Lewis, "The Middle East"
  • Bernard Lewis, "The Muslim Discovery of Europe"
  • Bernard Lewis, "Race and Slavery in Islam"
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, Turkey (1888)
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, The Barbary Corsairs (1890)
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, The History of the Moors in Spain
  • J.A. Rogers, Nature Knows no Color Line
  • Ronald Segal, "Islam's Black Slaves"
  • Ivan Van Sertima, The Golden Age of the Moor
  • Frank Snowdon, "Before Color Prejudice"
  • Frank Snowdon, "Blacks in Antiquity"
  • David M. Goldenberg, "The Curse of Ham"
  • Lucotte and Mercier, various genetic studies

Joel Augustus Rogers (September 6, 1880 (some sources say 1883 [1] [2]) — March 26, 1966) author, journalist, historian was born in Negril, Jamaica. ...

External links

  • Pbs.org

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moors - LoveToKnow 1911 (869 words)
The name Moor is however still applied to the populations speaking Arabic who inhabit the country extending from Morocco to the Senegal, and to the Niger as far east as Timbuktu, i.e.
There is a general tendency to obesity, which is much admired by the Moors in their women, young girls being stuffed like chickens, with paste-balls mixed with honey, or with spoonfuls of olive oil and sesame, to give them the necessary corpulence.
The Moors are temperate in their diet and simple in their dress, though among the richer classes of the towns the women cover themselves with silks, gold and jewels, while the men indulge to excess their love of fine horses and splendid arms.
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