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Encyclopedia > Monumentum Adulitanum

The Monumentum Adulitanum was an ancient Aksumite inscription in Greek and Ge'ez depicting the military campaigns of an early Aksumite king. Though the inscription no longer exists, it survives today through the copying of the inscription by Cosmas Indicopleustes, a 6th century Greek traveller-cum-monk. The original text was inscribed on an Aksumite throne (Ge'ez: መንበር manbar) written in Ge'ez in both the Ge'ez script and South Arabian alphabet, while the Greek was written in the Greek alphabet. Seeing that the text was in Greek and followed an inscription about King Ptolemy III Euergetes's conquests in Asia, Cosmas Indicopleustes mistook the Aksumite inscription for the continuation of Ptolemy's. The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC) is sometimes called Ptolemy III Euergetes I. (Ptolemy VIII also titled himself Euergetes: the Beneficent; but he is usually known, then and since, as Ptolemy Physcon: Belly. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ...


The anonymous text describes the King's conquests, including the Gaze (from whose name the name Ge'ez is thought to be derived) and the Agame (a region in Tigray, Ethiopia). The inscription also mentions the subjugation of the Arabs, the Sabaeans, and the Kinaidokolpitas in modern day Yemen (and perhaps Saudi Arabia). Interestingly, the inscription also notes that in the unnamed King's expedition to the mountains past the Nile, his men were knee-deep in snow. The inscription ends with the King's affirmation that he is the first to have subjugated all of the aforementioned peoples, and dedicates his throne to Zeus (or the god Astar, cognate to the Semitic goddess Astarte), Poseidon (possibly identified with Beher, "sea" or "land," modern day Bahr), and especially Ares (or Mahrem). The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Agame (fruitful) district is located in northern Ethiopia. ... Tigray was a province of Ethiopia. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Sabaeans were an ancient people speaking a South Semitic language who lived in what is today Yemen and for a time in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive: Διός Díos), is... Original appearance of ASTAR ASTAR is a fictional golden humanoid robot from Planet Danger. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Beher in Urdu Poetry is the meter of a Sher. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (in Greek, Άρης — battle strife)[1] is the son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. ...


The 3rd century AD Aksumite inscription also contains what may be the first reference to the Agaw, referring to a people called "Athagaus" (perhaps from ʿAd Agäw).[1] The Agaw are a people of Ethiopia. ...


References

  1. ^ Uhlig, Siegbert, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003), pp. 142

Further reading

  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6

External links

  • Aksum - Chapters 11-16 by Dr. Stuart Munro-Hay including full text of inscription
  • Online English translation of the Christian Topography

 
 

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