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Encyclopedia > Montreal Protocol
The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006
The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006
For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation).

The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987 and entered into force on January 1, 1989 followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international cooperation with Kofi Annan quoted as saying it is "Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date...".[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (716 × 716 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/png) From September 21-30, 2006 the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed, at 10. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (716 × 716 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/png) From September 21-30, 2006 the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed, at 10. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nairobi (pronounced IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Peking redirects here. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...

Contents

Terms and purpose

The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing fluorine-only do not harm the ozone layer). For a table of ozone-depleting substances see: [1] This article is about the chemical series. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For each group, the treaty provides a timetable on which the production of those substances must be phased out and eventually eliminated.


The stated purpose of the treaty is that the signatory states:


: ...Recognizing that world-wide emissions of certain substances can significantly deplete and otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to result in adverse effects on human health and the environment, ... Determined to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete it, with the ultimate objective of their elimination on the basis of developments in scientific knowledge ... Acknowledging that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing countries...


shall accept a series of stepped limits on CFC use and production, including: For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ...

from 1991 to 1992 its levels of consumption and production of the controlled substances in Group I of Annex A do not exceed 150 percent of its calculated levels of production and consumption of those substances in 1986;
from 1994 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled substances in Group I of Annex A does not exceed, annually, twenty-five percent of its calculated level of consumption and production in 1986.
from 1996 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled substances in Group I of Annex A does not exceed zero.

There is a slower phase-out (to zero by 2010) of other substances (halon 1211, 1301, 2402; CFCs 13, 111, 112, etc) and some chemicals get individual attention (Carbon tetrachloride; 1,1,1-trichloroethane). The phasing-out of the less active HCFCs started only in 1996 and will go on until a complete phasing-out is achieved in 2030. R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was until recently widely used as an industrial solvent. ... Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is one of a class of fluorocarbon compounds that are used primarily as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes. ...


There are a few exceptions for "essential uses", where no acceptable substitutes have been found (for example, in the metered dose inhalers commonly used to treat asthma and other respiratory problems) or Halon fire suppression systems used in submarines and aircraft (but not in general industry). The full terms are available from http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/MP_Handbook/Section_1.1_The_Montreal_Protocol/. Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 are special-purpose fire extiguishing agents that were banned by the Montreal Protocol. ...


The substances in Group I of Annex A are:

  • CFCl3 (CFC-11)
  • CF2Cl2 (CFC-12)
  • C2F3Cl3 (CFC-113)
  • C2F4Cl2(CFC-114)
  • C2F5Cl (CFC-115)

The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information that is assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities. To provide that input to the decision-making process, advances in understanding on these topics were assessed in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2002 in a series of reports entitled Scientific assessment of ozone depletion. R-11 redirects here, for the ballistic missile, see Scud. ... R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane, commonly known as CFC, used as a refrigerant and... Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion is a sequence of reports sponsored by WMO/UNEP. The most recent is the 2002 report. ...


Several reports have been published by various governmental and non-governmental organizations to present alternatives to the ozone depleting substances, since the substances have been used in various technical sectors, like in refrigerating, agriculture, energy production, and laboratory measurements[2][3][4].


History

In 1973 Chemists Frank Sherwood Rowland and Gilbert Evans, then at the University of California, Irvine, began studying the impacts of CFCs in the earth's atmosphere. They discovered that CFC molecules were stable enough to remain in the atmosphere until they got up into the middle of the stratosphere where they would finally (after an average of 50-100 years for two common CFCs) be broken down by ultraviolet radiation releasing a chlorine atom. Rowland and Molina then proposed that these chlorine atoms might be expected to cause the breakdown of large amounts of ozone (O3) in the stratosphere. Their argument was based upon an analogy to contemporary work by Paul J. Crutzen and Harold Johnston, which had shown that nitric oxide (NO) could catalyze the destruction of ozone. (Several other scientists, including Ralph Cicerone, Richard Stolarski, Michael McElroy, and Steven Wofsy had independently proposed that chlorine could catalyze ozone loss, but none had realized that CFCs were a potentially large source of chlorine.) Crutzen, Molina and Rowland were awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their work on this problem. Frank Sherwood Rowland (born June 28, 1927) is a Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. ... The University of California, Irvine is a public research university primarily situated in suburban Irvine, California, USA. Founded in 1965, it is one of ten University of California campuses and is commonly known as UCI or UC Irvine. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Paul J. Crutzen (December 3rd, 1933 - ) is a Dutch nobel prize winning atmospheric chemist. ... Ralph J. Cicerone is an American atmospheric scientist, a former chancellor of UC Irvine, and currently president of the National Academy of Sciences. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ...


The environmental consequence of this discovery was that, since stratospheric ozone absorbs most of the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface of the planet, depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs would lead to an in increase in UV-B radiation at the surface, resulting in an increase in skin cancer and other impacts such as damage to crops and to marine phytoplankton.


But the Rowland-Molina hypothesis was strongly disputed by representatives of the aerosol and halocarbon industries. The Chair of the Board of DuPont was quoted as saying that ozone depletion theory is "a science fiction tale...a load of rubbish...utter nonsense". Robert Abplanalp, the President of Precision Valve Corporation (and inventor of the first practical aerosol spray can valve), wrote to the Chancellor of UC Irvine to complain about Rowland's public statements (Roan, p 56.)


After publishing their pivotal paper in June 1974, Rowland and Molina testified at a hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives in December, 1974. As a result significant funding was made available to study various aspects of the problem and to confirm the initial findings. In 1976 the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a report that confirmed the scientific credibility of the ozone depletion hypothesis. NAS continued to publish assessments of related science for the next decade. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


Then, in 1985, British Antarctic Survey scientists Farman, Gardiner and Shanklin shocked the scientific community when they published results of a study showing an ozone "hole" in the journal Nature – showing a decline in polar ozone far larger than anyone had anticipated. BAS headquarters The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), formerly the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), is an institute of the Natural Environment Research Council, and has, for the last fifty years, undertaken the majority of Britains scientific research on and around the Antarctic continent. ...


That same year, 20 nations, including most of the major CFC producers, signed the Vienna Convention which established a framework for negotiating international regulations on ozone-depleting substances. Vienna can refer to: Geography Vienna - the capital and a federal state of Austria The River Vienna- a small river meeting the Danube at Vienna. ...


But the CFC industry did not give up that easily. As late as 1986, the Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy (an association representing the CFC industry founded by DuPont) was still arguing that the science was too uncertain to justify any action. In 1987, DuPont testified before the US Congress that "we believe that there is no immediate crisis that demands unilateral regulation."[citation needed]


Developing Countries

The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol provides funds to help developing countries to phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). ODS are used in refrigeration, foam extrusion, industrial cleaning, fire safety and fumigation.


The Multilateral Fund was the first financial mechanism to be created under an international treaty. It embodies the principle agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 that countries have a common but differentiated responsibility to protect and manage the global commons. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The Fund is managed by an Executive Committee with an equal representation of seven industrialized and seven Article 5 countries which are elected annually by a Meeting of the Parties. The Committee reports annually to the Meeting of the Parties on its operations.


Up to 20 percent of the contributions of contributing Parties can also be delivered through their bilateral agencies in the form of eligible projects and activities.


The Fund is replenished on a three-year basis by the donors. Pledges amount to US$ 2.1 billion over the period 1991 to 2005. Funds are used, for example, to finance the conversion of existing manufacturing processes, train personnel, pay royalties and patent rights on new technologies, and establish national Ozone Offices.


Parties

At present, 191 nations have become party to the Montreal Protocol (see external link below). Those 5 that are not as of September 2007 are Andorra, Iraq, San Marino, Timor-Leste and Vatican City. September 2007 is the ninth month of that year. ... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of...


Impact

Ozone-depleting gas trends
Ozone-depleting gas trends

Since the Montreal Protocol came into effect, the atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either leveled off or decreased [2]. Halon concentrations have continued to increase, as the halons presently stored in fire extinguishers are released, but their rate of increase has slowed and their abundances are expected to begin to decline by about 2020. Also, the concentration of the HCFCs increased drastically at least partly because for many uses CFCs (e.g. used as solvents or refrigerating agents) were substituted with HCFCs. While there have been reports of attempts by individuals to circumvent the ban, e.g. by smuggling CFCs from undeveloped to developed nations, the overall level of compliance has been high. In consequence, the Montreal Protocol has often been called the most successful international environmental agreement to date. In a 2001 report, NASA found the ozone hole over Antarctica had remained the same size for the previous three years. [3], however in 2003 the ozone hole grew to its second largest size. [4] Download high resolution version (1139x1577, 23 KB)CFC gas trends and equivalent chlorine effect. ... Download high resolution version (1139x1577, 23 KB)CFC gas trends and equivalent chlorine effect. ...


Unfortunately, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, or HCFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs, are now thought to contribute to anthropogenic global warming. On a molecule-for-molecule basis, these compounds are up to 10,000 times more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. The Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phase-out of HCFCs by 2030, but does not place any restriction on HFCs. Since the CFCs themselves are equally powerful as greenhouse gases, the mere substitution of HFCs for CFCs does not significantly increase the rate of anthropogenic global warming, but over time a steady increase in their use could increase the danger that human activity will change the climate [5]. [[Image:GIS_Global_1880_2005. ...


See also

Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane or R-134a, is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ...

References

  1. ^ The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  2. ^ Use of ozone depleting substances in laboratories. TemaNord 2003:516. http://www.norden.org/pub/ebook/2003-516.pdf
  3. ^ The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Replacing Methyl Bromide in Developing Countries. Friends of the Earth, Washington, 173 pp, 1996
  4. ^ Guidance on the DOE Facility Phaseout of Ozone-Depleting Substances. 1995. http://homer.ornl.gov/nuclearsafety/nsea/oepa/guidance/ozone/phaseout.pdf

This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook (2003 edition) which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


(referred to as Ozone Layer Protection)

  • Benedick, Richard E. (1991). Ozone Diplomacy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-65001-8 (Ambassador Benedick was the Chief U.S. Negotiator at the meetings that resulted in the Protocol.)
  • Litfin, Karen T. (1994). Ozone Discourses. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08137-5

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (649 words)
On the basis of the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was negotiated and signed by 24 countries and by the European Economic Community in September 1987.
After a series of rigorous meetings and negotiations, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was finally agreed upon on 16 september 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is one of the first international environmental agreements that includes trade sanctions to achieve the stated goals of a treaty.
Montreal Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1408 words)
The Montreal Protocol should not be confused with the Montreal Convention governing compensation for air disasters.
The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information that is assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities.
Since the Montreal Protocol came into effect, the atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either leveled off or decreased [2].
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