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Encyclopedia > Montmorillonite
A sample of montmorillonite
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A sample of montmorillonite

Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate mineral that typically forms in microscopic crystals, forming a clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite family, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has 2 tetrahedral sheets sandwiching a central octahedral sheet. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter of approximately 1 micrometre. The particle thickness is extremely small (~ 1 nm). Image File history File links Mineraly. ... Image File history File links Mineraly. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... Quartz crystal In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Montmorillon is a commune of the Vienne département, in France. ...


It is the main constituent of the volcanic ash weathering product, bentonite. Montmorillonite's water content is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)x(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, the exact ratio of cations varies with source. Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash is the term for very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Weathering is the process of breaking down of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct, or indirect contact with the atmosphere. ... It has been suggested that Pascalite be merged into this article or section. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ...


It is used in the oil drilling industry as a component of drilling mud, making the mud slurry viscous which helps in keeping the drill bit cool and removing drilled solids. It is also used as a soil additive to hold soil water in drought prone soils, to the construction of earthen dams and levees and to prevent the leakage of fluids. It is also used as a component of foundry sand and as a desiccant to remove moisture from air and gases. Drilling mud, also called drilling fluid, is a lubricant used while drilling oil and natural gas wells. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial embankment or dike, usually earthen, which parallels the course of a river. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A desiccant is a substance that adsorbs moisture from the air. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ...


Similar to other clays, montmorillonite swells with the addition of water. However, some montmorillonites expand considerably more than other clays due to water penetrating the interlayer molecular spaces and concomitant adsorption. The amount of expansion is due largely to the type of exchangeable cation contained in the sample. The presence of sodium as the predominant exchangeable cation can result in the clay swelling to several times its original volume. Hence, sodium montmorillonite has come to be used as the major constituent in non-explosive agents for splitting rock in natural stone quarries in order to limit the amount of waste, or for the demolition of concrete structures where the use of explosive charges is unacceptable.


Montmorillonite has been used in cosmetics and has reputed therapeutic effects. Indeed over 200 cultures have used the clay for medicinal purposes including the Ancient Egyptians, the Essenes and the pre-Aztec Amargosians, and other natives of Mexico, South America and North America. Assorted cosmetics and tools Cosmetics ( ) or make-up are substances used to enhance the beauty of the human body. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Essenes (es-eenz) were followers of a religious way of living in Judaism that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Many scholars today argue that there were a number of separate but related groups that had in common mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Montmorillonite is also used in animal feeds as an anti-caking agent. Current research indicates that montmorillonite or bentonite has the ability to bind mycotoxins in the digestive system of animals as well as several bacteria in-vitro. It has been suggested that Geodns be merged into this article or section. ... Mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ...


Montmorillonite was discovered in 1847 in Montmorillon in the Vienne prefecture of France, but is found in many locations world wide and known by other names. Other modern discoveries include about 1830 by the French-Canadian fur trapper Emile Pascal atop the 8600 feet high Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming, USA and as bentonite in about 1890 and named by an American geologist for the one time Fort Benton (on the Fort Benton Formation geological stratum) in the eastern Wyoming Rock Creek area. Native Americans have referred to the therapeutic clay as Ee-Wah-Kee. Montmorillon is a commune of the Vienne département, in France. ... This article is about the French département. ... The Bighorn Mountains are shown highlighted in red in the western United States The Bighorn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming in the United States, forming a spur from the Rocky Mountains extending approximately 200 miles (320 km) northward on the Great Plains. ... To be more accessible to a general audience, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fort Benton is a city located in Chouteau County, Montana. ... Goldenville Strata exposed at a quarry in Bedford, Canada. ... Rock Creek is a free-flowing tributary of the Potomac River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean via Chesapeake Bay. ... A Hupa man. ...


See also

Dispersion occurs when a soil is sodic. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  • Papke, Keith G. Montmorillonite, Bentonite and Fuller’s Earth Deposits in Nevada, Nevada Bureau of Mines Bulletin 76, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada-Reno, 1970.
  • Mineral Galleries
  • Mineral web
  • Mindat

  Results from FactBites:
 
MONTMORILLONITE (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide) (402 words)
Montmorillonite is a member of the general mineral group the clays.
Another important use of montmorillonite is as an additive to soils and rocks.
The effect of the montmorillonite is to slow the progress of water through the soil or rocks.
Montmorillonite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (495 words)
Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite family, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has 2 tetrahedral sheets sandwiching a central octahedral sheet.
Hence, sodium montmorillonite has come to be used as the major constituent in non-explosive agents for splitting rock in natural stone quarries in order to limit the amount of waste, or for the demolition of concrete structures where the use of explosive charges is unacceptable.
Montmorillonite was discovered in 1847 in Montmorillon in the Vienne prefecture of France, but is found in many locations world wide and known by other names.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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