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Encyclopedia > Montenegro
Црна Гора
Crna Gora
Montenegro
Flag of Montenegro Coat of arms of Montenegro
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Oj, svijetla majska zoro
"Oh, Bright Dawn of May"

Location of  Montenegro  (orange)

on the European continent  (white)  —  [ Legend] There are multiple places named Montenegro, which means black mountain in many Romance languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Montenegro. ... Flag of Montenegro (2004–present) The flag of Montenegro was changed on 12 July 2004 by the Parliament of Montenegro into a red banner bearing the coat of arms adopted in 1993. ... The Coat of Arms of Montenegro was changed by an act of Parliament in 1993. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Oj, svijetla majska zoro (Oh, bright dawn of May) is the official state anthem of Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Montenegro Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries Maps of Montenegro ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Podgorica, Cetinje
42°47′N, 19°28′E
Official languages Serbian (Official), Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian
Demonym Montenegrin
Government Republic
 -  President Filip Vujanović
 -  Prime Minister Željko Šturanović
Independence Breaking of State Union with Serbia 
 -  Declared June 3, 2006 
 -  Recognized June 8, 2006 
Area
 -  Total 13,812 km² (159th)
5,019 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.5
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 684,736[1] (160th)
 -  2003 census 620,145 
 -  Density 50/km² (152nd)
115.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $3.443 billion 
 -  Per capita $5,028 
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.27 billion 
 -  Per capita $3,315 
HDI (2004) 0.788[2] (medium) (72nd)
Currency Euro2 (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .me (.yu)3
Calling code +382
1 considered commonly a dialect of the Serbian language.
2 Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.
3 .me became active in September 2007. Suffix .yu will exist until September 2009.

Montenegro (Serbian: Црна Гора, Crna Gora (pronounced /'t͡sr̩na: 'ɡɔra/, listen )) is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south, and borders Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the southeast. Its de facto capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as Prijestonica, the old royal capital or seat of the throne. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Montenegro (based on the 2003 census) Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the census The 2003 census was undertaken by Montenegro, which, together with Serbia, constitutes Serbia and Montenegro. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Montenegro is the head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. ... Filip Vujanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Филип Вујановић) (born September 1, 1954 in Belgrade, Serbia, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia) is a politician who since 2003 has served as the President of Montenegro, and is the first president of the worlds newest country from May 2006. ... Prime Minister of Montenegro, full title: Predsjednik Vlade Republike Crne Gore (President of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro) is the leader of the Government of Montenegro. ... Željko Å turanović Željko Å turanović (Serbian: , born 31 January 1960 in NikÅ¡ić, Peoples Republic of Montenegro, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia) is a politician and likely the new Prime Minister of Montenegro. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President Svetozar Marović Historical era Post-Cold War  - UN membership¹ November 1, 2000  - Established February 4, 2003  - Disestablished June 5, 2006 Area  - 2006 102,350 km2 39,518 sq mi Population  - 2006 est. ... First page of Pobjeda, May 22, 2006. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In a referendum on May 21, 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .me will most likely be the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Montenegro, after the adoption of ME ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code. ... .yu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned originally to the SFR Yugoslavia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is a list of dialing codes by town in Montenegro. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... .me will most likely be the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Montenegro, after the adoption of ME ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code. ... .yu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned originally to the SFR Yugoslavia. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links CrnaGora. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ...


A Serbian principality in the late Middle Ages, its independence from the Ottoman Empire was formally recognized in 1878. From 1918, Montenegro was later a part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia and the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. Based on the results of the referendum held on May 21, 2006, Montenegro declared independence on June 3, 2006. On June 28, 2006, it became the 192nd member state[3] of the United Nations, and on May 11, 2007, the 47th member state of the Council of Europe.[4] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... First page of Pobjeda, May 22, 2006. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...

Contents

Name

Montenegro's native name, Crna Gora, is first mentioned in 11th century in Vatican documents and translates literally to "black mountain" or "black forest", a reference to the dark forests that once covered the slopes of the Dinaric Alps as seen from the Adriatic coast.[5] The country's name in most Western European languages, including English, reflects an adoption of the Venetian term monte negro, also meaning "black mountain", which probably dates back to the era of Venetian hegemony over the area in the Middle Ages. Other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain" (e.g. Albanian: Mali i Zi, Bulgarian: Черна гора, Cherna gora, Czech: Černá Hora, Greek: Μαυροβούνιο, Mavrovoúnio, Italian: Montene(g)ro, Polish: Czarnogóra, Romanian: Muntenegru, Slovene: Črna Gora, Slovak: Čierna hora, and Turkish: Karadağ). Names from further afield include Russian: Черногория, Chernogoriya and Chinese: 黑山 (pinyin: "hēishān"[6]) Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.[7]


History

History of Montenegro Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ...

Praevalitana
Duklja
Principality of Zeta
Montenegro Province, Ottoman Empire
Principality of Montenegro
Kingdom of Montenegro
Zeta Banovina
Independent State of Montenegro
Socialist Republic of Montenegro
FR Yugoslavia
Serbia and Montenegro
Republic of Montenegro
Main article: History of Montenegro

The first settlers of Montenegro were the Illyrians. Romans conquered these southern Illyrians in AD 9, annexing them to the Roman province of Illyricum. The historian Theodore Mommsen wrote (in his The Provinces of the Roman Empire) that all Illyricum was fully Romanised and Latin speaking by the fourth century. Praevalitana (also Praevaliana or Prevalis) was an ancient Roman province. ... Duklja according to De administrando imperio. ... Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ... The Province of Montenegro (Serbian: Sandžak Crne Gore) was a province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula only roughly corresponding to todays Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Zeta Banovina is coloured pink, in the central part of the map) The Zeta Banovina or Zeta Banate (Serbian Bosnian, and Croatian: Зетска бановина Zetska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Theodor Mommsen Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 - 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The division of the Roman Empire between Roman and Byzantine rule – and subsequently between the Latin and Greek churches – was marked by a line that ran northward from Skadar through modern Montenegro, symbolizing the status of this region as a perpetual marginal zone between the economic, cultural, and political worlds of the Mediterranean peoples and the Slavs. As Roman power declined in the fifth century, this part of the Adriatic coast suffered from intermittent ravages by various semi-nomadic invaders, especially the Goths in the late fifth century and the Avars during the sixth century. These soon were supplanted by the Slavs, who became widely established in the Balkans by the middle of the seventh century. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


The Romanized Illyrians escaped to the mountains and survived mainly as shepherds, and were named morlachs (dark "vlachs"), and eventually losing their original Romance language by being assimilated with the Slavs. This extinct neo-Latin language can be found in the toponimy of many places of Montenegro, like the name of the mount Durmitor, that means "place where to sleep" in the language of those Vlachs.The last morlachs, called Vlasi Ridani, moved from Durmitor area in the 15th century, escaping the Ottoman conquest, and found refuge in Dalmatia and Istria. Morlachs (in Greek: Mavrovlachi or Mauro-Vlachs, meaning Black Vlachs; in Latin sources: Nigri Latini) were a population of Vlach shepherds that lived in the Dinaric Alps (western Balkans in modern use), constantly migrating in search for better pastures for their sheep flocks. ... Durmitor is a mountain and the name of a national park in Montenegro. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


Slav tribes, mixed with the descendants of the romanized Illyrians, formed the semi-independent dukedom of Duklja by the tenth century. In 1077, Pope Gregory VII recognized Duklja as an independent state, acknowledging its King Mihailo (Michael) (of the Vojislavljević dynasty founded by nobleman Stefan Vojislav) as rex Docleae (King of Duklja).[8][9] The kingdom, however, paid tribute to the Byzantine Empire and later to the Bulgarian Empire; it gave birth to the medieval kingdom of the Serbian Grand Prince (Serbian: župan) Stefan Nemanja, who was born in Ribnica, a settlement near Doclea, renaming the country "Zeta". Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Spain and France (in Italy, principe... Duklja according to De administrando imperio. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... The House of Vojislav was a medieval dynasty that inherited the claims over Duklja of the old ruling House of Saint Vladimir and the Serbian House of Vlastimir dynasty. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Stefan Nemanja (Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань, Serbian: Стефан Немања, pronounced ) (1109-13 February 1199) was a Medieval Serb nobleman, descended from the Vukanović who was Grand Prince (Serbian: Велики Жупан) of the medieval Serb state of Rascia (Рашка) in 1166-1199. ... Area: 153,6 km² Population  - males  - females 9. ... Duklja or Doclea (also Dioclea or Diocleia) was once a large town in Duklja (present-day Montenegro). ...


The Principality of Zeta asserted its independence in the 1360s.[10][11]The House of Balšić (1360s–1421) and the House of Crnojević (1421–1499) ruled Zeta. Although the Ottoman Empire controlled the lands to the south and east from the 15th century, it never fully conquered Zeta.[citation needed] Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ... The House of BalÅ¡ić was a Serbian medieval dynasty that ruled Zeta. ... The House of Crnojević was a medieval dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Zeta. ... Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ...


Most of the coast of Montenegro was controlled by the Republic of Venice from the 13th century to the Napoleon times(1420-1797) although Bar and Ulcinj were conquered by the Ottomans in the 1570s. The area was called Albania Veneta. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Coordinates Mayor Žarko Pavićević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 598 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 13,719 40,037 67. ... Coordinates Mayor Gëzim Hajdinaga (DUA - DPS - SDP) Municipality area 255 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 10,828 20,290 79. ... The Republic of Venice in 1560 and the Albania veneta shown as the pink area south of the Republic of Ragusa around Cattaro (Kotor) Albania Veneta (English: Venetian Albania) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice in southern Dalmatia from 1420 to 1797. ...


During those centuries the Venetian language, from which the word "Montenegro" comes, was the lingua franca of the Adriatic coast of Montenegro. In the area of Bay of Kotor there were Venetian speaking populations until the first half of the 20th century. For example, in the Austrian census of 1880, Kotor had 930 ethnic Italians in a total population of 2910 people. A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... This article is about the city of Kotor. ...

Budva

In 1516, the secular prince Đurađ Crnojević abdicated in favour of Archbishop Vavil, who then made Montenegro into a theocratic state[12] under the rule of the prince-bishop (known as владика, vladika) of Cetinje, a position held from 1697 by the Petrović-Njegoš family of the Riđani clan. Petar Petrović Njegoš, perhaps the most influential vladika, reigned in the first half of the 19th century. In 1851, Danilo II Petrović Njegoš became vladika, but in 1852 he married, left the priesthood, assumed the title of knjaz (Prince), and transformed his land into a secular principality. Montenegro officially confirmed its independence and became a principality in 1878. Later, it was transformed into a kingdom in 1910, under the rule of King Nicholas I. [13][14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ĐuraÄ‘ Crnojević (Serbian Cyrillic: Ђурађ Црноjeвић, Albanian: Gjergj Cernojeviçi), the son to Ivan Crnojević, was the ruler of the Independent Principality of Zeta between 1490 and 1496, the founder of the first printing house, and identified himself as the Duke of Zeta. During his short-term reign he became famous... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... Map of the Serb clans (In Serbian Cyrillic). ... Petar II Petrović NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Петар II Петровић Његош) (November 1, 1813 - October 10, 1851) was one of the greatest Montenegrian poets, ruler of Montenegro and Orthodox Bishop of the Metropolitanate (Bishopric) of Montenegro. ... Danilo II Petrović NjegoÅ¡, (May 25, 1826 – August 13, 1860), Prince Daniel II of Montenegro, was sovereign ruler of Montenegro from 1851 to 1860. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ...


In 1910, Prince Nicholas I became King of Montenegro. Two years later, in October 1912, King Nicholas declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the two Balkan Wars. The Montenegrin army attacked the Ottoman fortress city of Shkodër, and forced the empire to gather a large army in neighbouring Macedonia. This Ottoman army was then attacked by the forces of Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria which entered the war by pre-arrangement. This resulted in the redefinition of borders in the Balkans according to the Treaty of London in 1913. Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Montenegro emerged from the Balkan Wars doubled in size, receiving half of the former Ottoman territory known as Sandžak, but without the city of Shkodër, the country's major goal in the war. The London Conference awarded Shkodër to an independent country of Albania. Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Begins at december 1912. ...

King Nikola of Montenegro
King Nikola of Montenegro

During World War I, Montenegro was part of the allies. In the Battle of Mojkovac. Montenegro's army bravely defended the fallback for Serbian troops withdrawing across Albania. In the course of the war, Montenegro was occupied by Austro-Hungarian troops. Feldmarschalleutnant Viktor Weber von Webenau became Military Governor of Montenegro on February 26, 1916. Image File history File links From en. ... Image File history File links From en. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Combatants Montenegro Austria-Hungary Commanders Janko Vukotić Krsto Zrnov Popović Wilhelm von Reiner Conrad von Hatzendorf Strength 6,500 20,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Mojkovac (Serbian: Бој на Мојковцу, Boj na Mojkovcu) was an infamous World War I battle fought between 6 January and 7 January of 1916 near Mojkovac, Montenegro, between... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1918, the Podgorica Assembly, whose legality is questioned up to the present, voted for uniting Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia. [15][16] However, pro-independence Montenegrins revolted on Christmas Day 1919 (January 7, 1919, Christmas Day by the then-prevailing Orthodox calendar) against Serbia.[17] The revolt was finally suppressed in 1924, although guerrilla resistance remained in the Highlands for many years after. Podgorica Assembly (Serbian: Подгоричка скупштина) a. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Christmas Uprising or Christmas Rebellion was an uprising which occurred in Montenegro after the First World War. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Old calendarists are those Eastern Orthodox Churches that continue to use the Julian calendar, namely the Russian and Serbian Orthodox Churches and some others. ... The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


During WWII Italy occupied Montenegro in 1941 and annexed the area of Kotor[18], where there was a small Roman population (also, the Queen of Italy, Elena of Montenegro, was daughter of the former king of Montenegro), to the Kingdom of Italy. The Independent State of Montenegro was created under fascist control when Krsto Zrnov Popović returned from exile in Rome in 1941 to attempt to lead the Zelenaši ("Green" party), who supported the reinstatement of the independent Montenegrin monarchy. These forces were called the Lovćen Brigade. Montenegro was ravaged by a terrible guerrilla war, mainly after Nazi Germany replaced the defeated Italians in September 1943. Princess Jelena Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ of Montenegro (8 January 1873, Cetinje - 28 November 1952, Montpellier) was the daughter of King Nikola I Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić. Upon Jelenas marriage to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on 24 October 1896 she became Queen Elena of... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... Captain Krsto Todorov-Zrnov Popović was one of the leaders of 1919 Christmas Uprising in Montenegro against Serbian dynasty KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević, organized by the greens (zelenaÅ¡i), followers of dethroned King Nikola and Montenegrin dynasty Petrović-NjegoÅ¡. After the uprising has failed, Popović emigrated to Italy, just to return... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ coat of arms The zelenaÅ¡i (Serbian/Montenegrin for the greens) were a group of Montenegrin rebels that existed from 1918 - 1945 in Montenegro in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which supported the House of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ of Montenegro over the House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević of Serbia... The Lovćen Brigade was an armed force in World War II-Montenegro led by Krsto Zrnov Popović and the ZelenaÅ¡i. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


After World War II, from 1945 to 1992, Montenegro became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in its own right. It was during this time that the present capital Podgorica was renamed Titograd, after Josip Broz Tito, communist ruler of Yugoslavia. Over the next half century, Montenegro remained one of six constituent republics of Yugoslavia. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ...


Union with Serbia (1992–2006)

After the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, Montenegro agreed on a federation with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, then as a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro that broke up as soon as a deadline for holding an independence referendum expired. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...

Map of Serbia and Montenegro
Map of Serbia and Montenegro

In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, 95.96% of the votes were cast for remaining in the federation with Serbia, although the turnout was at 66% because of a boycott by the Muslim, Albanian and Catholic minorities as well as of pro-independence Montenegrins. The opposition claimed that poll was organised under undemocratic conditions, during war time in the former Yugoslavia, with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. There is no impartial report on the fairness of the referendum, as the 1992 referendum was totally unmonitored, unlike the 2006 vote, which has been closely monitored by the European Union. Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ...


During the recent Bosnian War and Croatian War (1991-1995) Montenegro participated with its police and paramilitary forces in the attacks on Dubrovnik and Bosnian towns along with Serbian troops. It conducted persecutions against Bosniak refugees who were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were executed.[19] Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... nos is the time for all good men to come to the aid of thier country ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country County Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ...


In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government de facto severed ties between Montenegro and Serbia, which was then still under Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the Deutsche Mark as its currency. It has since adopted the euro, though it is not formally part of the Eurozone. Subsequent governments of Montenegro carried out pro-independence policies, originally restored by the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Despite its pro-independence leanings, targets in Montenegro were repeatedly bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999.[20] Milo Đukanović   (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former four mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1992, 1992-1996, 1996-1998 and 2003 - 2006), president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged Criminal Tycoon. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Political economy. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (Serbian/Montenegrin: Либерални Савез Црне Горе or Liberalni Savez Crne Gore - LSCG) was a liberal political party in Montenegro. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ...


In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 2003, the Yugoslav federation was replaced in favor of a looser state union named Serbia and Montenegro and a possible referendum on Montenegrin independence was postponed for a minimum of three years. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


21st century independence

The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by the referendum on Montenegrin independence on May 21, 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate. 230,661 votes or 55.5% were for independence and 185,002 votes or 44.5% were against.[21] The 45,659 difference narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have all recognized Montenegro's independence; by doing so they removed all remaining obstacles from Montenegro's path towards becoming the world's newest sovereign state. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... First page of Pobjeda, May 22, 2006. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...

Front page of Pobjeda following the successful independence referendum.
Front page of Pobjeda following the successful independence referendum.

The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an OSCE/ODIHR monitoring team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CEMI, CEDEM and other organizations). The OSCE/ODIHR ROM joined efforts with the observers of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE) and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report assessed that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights." Image File history File linksMetadata CG-Pobjeda. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CG-Pobjeda. ... Pobjeda (Serbian Cyrillic: Пoбjeдa, English: Victory) (MNSE: NIPO) is a Montenegrin newspaper. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


On June 3, 2006, the Parliament of Montenegro declared the independence of Montenegro[22], formally confirming the result of the referendum on independence. Serbia did not obstruct the ruling, confirming its own independence and declaring the Union of Serbia and Montenegro ended shortly thereafter. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 6, 2007 an advisor of the Prime Minister of Serbia called Montenegro a 'quasi-state'[23]. Montenegro gave a protest list to the Serbian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia, Božidar Đelić, has apologised for this. [24] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Božidar Boža Đelić (Serbian: Божидар Ђелић), (born April 1, 1965 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is a Serbian economist and politician. ...


International recognition of Montenegro

The first state to recognize Montenegro was Iceland[25], on June 8, 2006, followed by Switzerland[26] and Estonia[27] on June 9, and Russia on June 11[28]. Recognition by Croatia[29], Bosnia and Herzegovina[30] and Slovenia[31] soon followed. The European Union[32] and the United States recognized Montenegro on June 12, as did various member states of the EU and other European countries. The United Kingdom formally extended recognition on June 13[33], as did the People's Republic of China[34] and France[35] on June 14, meaning that all five permanent United Nations Security Council members then recognized the independence of Montenegro. Serbia, the other former constituent member of the State Union, recognized Montenegro on June 15[36], signaling the formal dissolution of the Union. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe decided to accept Montenegro as the 56th member of the organization on June 21 and the country took its seat at the Permanent Council on June 22[37]. The United Nations, in a vote of the Security Council, extended full membership in the organization to Montenegro on June 22, 2006.[38] Montenegro was confirmed as a member on June 28.[39] In January 2007, Montenegro received full membership in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. It was admitted to the Council of Europe on May 11 the same year. [40]. On 15 October 2007 Montenegro signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the European Union[41]. In a referendum on May 21, 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IMF redirects here. ... It has been suggested that World Bank be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A European Union Association Agreement (Association Agreement) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. ...


Geography

Map of Montenegro
Map of Montenegro
Morača River Canyon.
Morača River Canyon.

Internationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania. Historically, its territory is composed by the following geo-historical entities Old Montenegro, The Highlands, Old Herzegovina, the Montenegrin Littoral, or the Bay of Kotor in specific, and to an extent Old Serbia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2427 × 1807 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2427 × 1807 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 666 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 666 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Morača (Serbian/Montenegrin Cyrillic: Морача) is a river in Montenegro. ... The Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: Црна Гора, Crna Gora, meaning black mountain) is a small, mountainous state in the Serbia and Montenegro union, bordering Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and the Adriatic Sea. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Old Montenegro (Serbian Cyrillic: Стара Црна Гора) is a geo-historical part of Montenegro, considering the area of the first Montenegrin state. ... Brda may refer to: Seven Serbian Clans in Monetnegro Brda (Slovenia), a municipality Brda, a municipality in Croatia Brda River, a river in Poland Category: ... Old Herzegovina Old Herzegovina (or East Herzegovina) is a historical region in Montenegro. ... The Montenegrin Littoral is a geographical region in Montenegro. ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Old Serbia (Stara Srbija, Стара Србија) is a modern name for the territory which was the core of medieval Serbia. ...


Some of the cities and towns in Montenegro are:

See also: List of cities in Montenegro

Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only one to four miles wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor. Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Coordinates Mayor NebojÅ¡a Radojičić (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 2,065 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 58,212 75,282 36. ... Coordinates Mayor Filip Vukovic Municipality area 1346 km² Population  - city  - municipality 27,000 36,918 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded between VI - VII century Area code +382 89 Car plates PV Official Website www. ... Coordinates Mayor Tarzan MiloÅ¡ević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 924 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,883 50,284 54. ... Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ... Igalo is a town right next to Herceg-Novi and is accessible via the E65/E80 North headed to Dubrovnik, Croatia. ... Mayor Relja Jovancevic Area  - city  - municipality {{{city}}} km² {{{municipalaty}}} km² Population  - city  - municipality 21,000 in 2003 40,900 in 2003 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 1862 Latitude Longitude 42° N 19° E Area code +381 87 Car plates BA Official Website Map of... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... This is a list of cities in Serbia and Montenegro. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Lovćen is a mountain located in the southwest of Montenegro. ... Broader region of Orjen and Bay of Kotor. ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ...


Montenegro's large Karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 metres (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m / 6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 meters (1,640 ft), is the lowest segment. This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Broader region of Orjen and Bay of Kotor. ... Zeta is a river in Montenegro. ...


The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain on the planet. They average more than 2,000 metres (6,560 ft) in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 metres (8,274 ft). The Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period. Bobotov Kuk is the highest peak on the Durmitor mountain, and the highest point in the Republic of Montenegro. ... Durmitor is a mountain and the name of a national park in Montenegro. ...

Velika Plaža (English: Long Beach) is a beach south of Ulcinj, Montenegro. ... Coordinates Mayor Gëzim Hajdinaga (DUA - DPS - SDP) Municipality area 255 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 10,828 20,290 79. ... Prokletije is a mountain range in eastern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northern Albania, the highest point of which is Lake Crest (Albania), the tallest peak in the Dinaric Alps, at 2,692 m. ... Skadar Lake (Serbian, Skadarsko jezero in Serbian), Lake Shkodër or Lake Shkodra (Albanian versions, Liqeni i Shkodrës in Albanian), also sometimes called Lake Scutari (Italian version Lago di Scutari in Italian), is a lake on the border of Serbia and Montenegro with Albania, the largest lake in the... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Tara is a river in Montenegro. ... Tara River Canyon The Tara River Canyon (Montenegrin: Kanjon Tare), also known as the Tara River Gorge, is the deepest canyon in Montenegro and Europe and the second-deepest in the world, behing the Grand Canyon. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Durmitor is a mountain and the name of a national park in Montenegro. ... Lovćen is a mountain located in the southwest of Montenegro. ... Biogradska Gora is a forest and national park in Montenegro. ... Lake Skadar and surrounding area Lake Scutari (Albanian: Liqeni i Shkodrës,Serbian/Montenegrin: Skadarsko jezero; Cyrillic: Скадарско језеро) is a lake on the border of Montenegro with Albania and is the largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Durmitor is a mountain and the name of a national park in Montenegro. ... Tara River Canyon The Tara River Canyon (Montenegrin: Kanjon Tare), also known as the Tara River Gorge, is the deepest canyon in Montenegro and Europe and the second-deepest in the world, behing the Grand Canyon. ... This article is about the city of Kotor. ...

Military

After the Montenegro separation from the Serbia and Montenegro State Union the Military of Serbia and Military of Montenegro will be separated. ...

Government and politics

Montenegro is defined as a "Civic, democratic, ecological and state of social justice, based on the reign of Law". It's an independent and sovereign Republic. It proclaimed its new Constitution on 22 October 2007. Politics of Montenegro will undergo rapid change since its independence. ... Civic can refer to multiple things: Civics, the science of comparative government Honda Civic, a small car produced by the Honda Motor Co. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Government

The current Government of the Republic of Montenegro (Vlada Republike Crne Gore) is comprised of the prime minister, the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. Željko Šturanović is the Prime Minister of Montenegro and head of the Government. The ruling party in Montenegro ever since multiparliamentarism is the controversial far left Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS) (Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crna Gore), in coalition with the much smaller center-right Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) (Socijaldemokratska Partija Crne Gore). The current Government of the Republic of Montenegro was founded in 2003? or possibly earlier or later. ... Željko Å turanović Željko Å turanović (Serbian: , born 31 January 1960 in NikÅ¡ić, Peoples Republic of Montenegro, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia) is a politician and likely the new Prime Minister of Montenegro. ... Prime Minister of Montenegro, full title: Predsjednik Vlade Republike Crne Gore (President of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro) is the leader of the Government of Montenegro. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Serbian/Montenegrin: Демократска Партија Социјалиста Црне Горе / Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crne Gore) is a political party in Montenegro. ... The term center-right has two distinct meanings in politics: Center-right can be used to describe a moderately right-wing political party. ... The Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (Socijaldemokratska Partija Crne Gore) is a political party in Montenegro. ...


President

President Filip Vujanović.
President Filip Vujanović.

The President of Montenegro is elected for a period of five years through direct elections. According to the constitution, the President will represent the republic in the country and abroad, promulgate laws by ordinance, call elections for the Parliament, propose candidates for the Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament, propose to the Parliament calling of a referendum, grant amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confer decoration and awards, and perform all other duties in accordance with the Constitution. The President shall also be a member of the Supreme Defence Council. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (670x1135, 136 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Montenegro Filip Vujanović User:Durin/Contributions ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (670x1135, 136 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Montenegro Filip Vujanović User:Durin/Contributions ... Filip Vujanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Филип Вујановић) (born September 1, 1954 in Belgrade, Serbia, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia) is a politician who since 2003 has served as the President of Montenegro, and is the first president of the worlds newest country from May 2006. ... The President of Montenegro is the head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. ... The Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: SkupÅ¡tina Republike Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro. ... Prime Minister of Montenegro, full title: Predsjednik Vlade Republike Crne Gore (President of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro) is the leader of the Government of Montenegro. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Parliament

The Montenegrin Parliament (Skupština Republike Crne Gore) passes all laws in Montenegro, ratifies international treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. The Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence on the Government by a majority of the members. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters, which in turn results in a reduction of total number of representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro. The current president of the Parliament is Ranko Krivokapić. The Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: SkupÅ¡tina Republike Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Ranko Krivokapić is the current President of the Parliament of the Repbulic of Montenegro and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) Biography Ranko was born on August 12, 1961 in Kotor, Montenegro, Yugoslavia. ...


The present Parliament convening 81 seats instead of previous number of 75 (parliamentary elections were on 10 September 2006 and were the first after the proclamation of independence. The constituent Parliament session took place on 2 October 2006). is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Symbols

A new official flag of Montenegro was adopted on July 12, 2004, by the Montenegrin legislature. The new flag is based on the royal standard of King Nikola I of Montenegro. This flag was all red with a gold border, a gold coat of arms, and the initials НІ in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script) representing King Nikola I. These initials are omitted from the modern flag and replaced wih a golden lion. Flag of Montenegro (2004–present) The flag of Montenegro was changed on 12 July 2004 by the Parliament of Montenegro into a red banner bearing the coat of arms adopted in 1993. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Nikola I Petrovic Njegos Краљ Никола I Петровић Његош (October 7, 1841- March 2, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and... King Nikola I Petrovic Njegos Краљ Никола I Петровић Његош (October 7, 1841- March 2, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and...


The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognised Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world[citation needed] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, Oh, the Bright Dawn of May, as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nikola was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori (To our beautiful Montenegro). The Montenegrin popular anthem has unofficially been Onamo, 'namo! since King Nikola I wrote it in the 1860s. Oj, svijetla majska zoro (Oh, bright dawn of May) is the official state anthem of Montenegro. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori (Убавој нам Црној Гори - To Our Beautiful Montenegro) was official anthem of Montenegro in late 19th-early 20th century. ... Onamo, namo (Serbian: Онамо, намо; in English: There, over there) was the popular anthem of Montenegro in the late 19th to early 20th century. ...


Municipalities

Municipalities of Montenegro.

Montenegro is divided into twenty-one municipalities (opština), and two urban municipalities, subdivisions of Podgorica municipality: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1333, 458 KB)map of the municipalities of Montenegro (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1333, 458 KB)map of the municipalities of Montenegro (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... An opÅ¡tina is a country subdivision in Serbia. ...

Coordinates Mayor Veselin Bakić (SNP - NS) Municipality area 283 km² Population  - city  - municipality 1,073 5,785 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +382 87 Car plates BA Official Website http://www. ... Coordinates Mayor Žarko Pavićević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 598 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 13,719 40,037 67. ... Mayor Relja Jovancevic Area  - city  - municipality {{{city}}} km² {{{municipalaty}}} km² Population  - city  - municipality 21,000 in 2003 40,900 in 2003 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 1862 Latitude Longitude 42° N 19° E Area code +381 87 Car plates BA Official Website Map of... Coordinates Mayor Tarzan MiloÅ¡ević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 924 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,883 50,284 54. ... Coordinates Mayor Rajko Kuljača Municipality area 122 km² Population  - city  - municipality 10,918 15,909 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 5th Century B.C. Area code +381 86 Car plates BD Official Website http://www. ... Coordinates Mayor Milovan Janković (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 910 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 15,137 18,482 20. ... Coordinates Mayor Branislav Đuranović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 501 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 5,208 16,523 {{{density}}} No. ... Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ... Coordinates Mayor Mileta Bulatović (SNP - NS) Municipality area 897 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 2,989 9,949 {{{density}}} No. ... This article is about the city of Kotor. ... [[Image:|300px|Location of Mojkovac Мојковац]] Mayor Area  - city  - municipality km² km² Population  - city  - municipality 4,120 10,066 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded Latitude Longitude ° N ° E Area code +381 84 Car plates Official Website Map of the municipalities of Montenegro, showing the location... Coordinates Mayor NebojÅ¡a Radojičić (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 2,065 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 58,212 75,282 36. ... Coordinates Mayor Skender Å arkinović (DPS - BS) Municipality area 486 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 3,615 13,805 28. ... Mayor Municipality area 858 km² Population  - city  - municipality Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 14th Century Latitude Longitude Area code +381 Car plates Official website:[1] Plužine (Плужине) is a town and municipality in Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Coordinates Mayor Filip Vukovic Municipality area 1346 km² Population  - city  - municipality 27,000 36,918 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded between VI - VII century Area code +382 89 Car plates PV Official Website www. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Golubovci is a small town in Podgorica municipality in Montenegro. ... Tuzi, Montenegro Tuzi (Serbian Cyrillic: Тузи, Albanian: Tuz) is a town in the Podgorica municipality, Montenegro, located on a road between Podgorica and Albanian border, just a few kilometers north of Lake Skadar. ... Coordinates Mayor Nusret Kalač (DPS) Municipality area 432 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 9,121 22,693 {{{density}}} No. ... Coordinates Mayor Velimir PeriÅ¡ić (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 553 km² Population  - city  - municipality 570 2,947 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +382 83 Car plates NK Official Website http://www. ... Coordinates Mayor Dragan KankaraÅ¡ (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 46 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 9,467 13,630 {{{density}}} No. ... Coordinates Mayor Gëzim Hajdinaga (DUA - DPS - SDP) Municipality area 255 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 10,828 20,290 79. ... [[Image:|300px|Location of Žabljak]] Mayor Isailo Å ljivančanin Area  - city  - municipality km² 445 km² Population  - city  - municipality 1,937 4,929 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded Latitude Longitude 43°09 N 19°07 E Area code +381 89 Car plates PV Official Website...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Montenegro

During the era of communism Montenegro experienced a rapid period of urbanization and industrialization. An industrial sector based on electricity generation, steel, aluminum, coal mining, forestry and wood processing, textiles and tobacco manufacture was built up, with trade, overseas shipping, and particularly tourism, increasingly important by the late 1980s. GDP (purchasing power parity): $ 3. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ...


The loss of previously guaranteed markets and suppliers after the breakup of Yugoslavia left the Montenegrin industrial sector reeling as production was suspended and the privatization program, begun in 1989, was interrupted. The disintegration of the Yugoslav market, and the imposition of the UN sanctions in May 1992 were the causes of the greatest economic and financial crisis since World War II. During 1993, two thirds of the Montenegrin population lived below the poverty line, while frequent interruptions in relief supplies caused the health and environmental protection to drop below the minimum of international standards. The financial losses under the adverse effects of the UN sanctions on the overall economy of Montenegro are estimated to be approximately $6.39 billion. This period also experienced the second highest hyperinflation in history (3 million percent in January 1994) (The highest hyperinflation happened in Hungary after the end of World War II, when inflation there hit 4.19 x 1016 percent). The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...


In 1997, Milo Đukanović took control over the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS) and began severing ties with Milosevic' Serbia. He blamed the policies of Slobodan Milošević for the overall decline of the Montenegrin economy, as well as Milošević's systematic persecution of non-Serbs. Montenegro introduced the German mark as response to again-growing inflation, and insisted on taking more control over its economic fate. This eventually resulted in creation of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose union in which Montenegro mostly took responsibility for its economic policies. Milo Đukanović   (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former four mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1992, 1992-1996, 1996-1998 and 2003 - 2006), president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged Criminal Tycoon. ... The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Serbian/Montenegrin: Демократска Партија Социјалиста Црне Горе / Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crne Gore) is a political party in Montenegro. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ...


This was followed by implementation of faster and more efficient privatization, passing of reform laws, introduction of VAT and usage of euro as Montenegro's legal tender. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the 1981 census.
Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.

According to 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 was used in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have 673,094 citizens. Most recent estimates stake somewhere around 650,000 citizens. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 2388 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 2388 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 2388 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 2388 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Demographics of Montenegro (based on the 2003 census) Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the census The 2003 census was undertaken by Montenegro, which, together with Serbia, constitutes Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ...


Ethnic composition according to the 2003 census:[42] Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...

Most inhabitants speak the official Serbian language, of the ijekavian dialect: Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ...

Currently there is a growing political movement toward calling Montenegrin language the official language of the country and toward using the Latin alphabet as the dominant one. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ya who cares ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, travelling peoples often referred to in English as gypsies and in the East and Central Europe known as tsigane. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


There are 24,610 refugees in Montenegro, forming 4.2% of the total population. 16,136 are refugees from Kosovo after 1999 and 8,474 expelled from Croatia and Bosnia. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Bosnia or Bosnian may refer to: Places: Bosnia and Herzegovina, a country in southeastern Europe The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as defined by the Dayton Agreement Bosnia (region), a historical region in southeastern Europe Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire, from the 15th to 20th centuries Bosna, Bulgaria, a village in...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Montenegro

The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox South Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries. The culture of present-day Montenegro is as fascinating as its history and geographical position suggests. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in [43] (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Towers of the Saint Tryphon cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Tryphonis located in the city of Kotor, one of the best preserved medieval fortified towns in the Mediterranean. ... Crkva Gospa od Å krpjela (Church of Our Lady of the Rocks) Our Lady of the Rocks (Serbian/Croatian: Gospa od Å krpjela) is one of the two islets off the coast of Perast in Bay of Kotor, Montenegro(Other being Sveti ĐorÄ‘e Island). ... Savina (Serbian: Савина) is an old Serb Orthodox monastery near the city Herceg Novi in Boka Kotorska, Serbia and Montenegro. ...


The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, a circle dance that involves dancers standing on each other's shoulders in a circle while one or two dancers are dancing in the middle.


The first literary works written in the region are ten centuries old, and the first Montenegrin book was printed five hundred years ago. The first state-owned printing press was located in Cetinje in 1494, where the first South Slavic book, Oktoih, was printed the same year. Ancient manuscripts, dating from the thirteenth century, are kept in the Montenegrin monasteries. [44] 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in teal) The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Oktoih is a book printed in Cetinje, Montenegro in 1494. ...


Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centers of culture and the arts in the country.


Education

Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science. Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Government of Montenegro. ... The current Government of the Republic of Montenegro was founded in 2003? or possibly earlier or later. ...


Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Serbian: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years. The students may continue their secondary education, which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura). Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


Sports

Morača Sports Center, venue of Eurobasket 2005
Morača Sports Center, venue of Eurobasket 2005

Serbia and Montenegro were represented by a single football team in the 2006 FIFA World Cup tournament, despite having formally split just weeks prior to its start. Following this event, this team has been inherited by Serbia, while a new one was organized to represent Montenegro in international competitions.[45] On March 24, 2007, the Montenegrin national team came from behind to win its first ever fixture, 2-1, in a friendly game against Hungary at the Podgorica Stadium. [46] On their 119th Session in Guatemala City in July 2007, the International Olympic Committee granted recognition and membership to the newly formed Montenegrin National Olympic Committee. Montenegro is set to debut at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... First international Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia[1] (Antwerp, Belgium; 28 August 1920) Brazil 2 - 0 Yugoslavia (Porto Alegre, Brazil; 23 December 1994) Serbia and Montenegro 2 - 2 Azerbaijan (Podgorica, Serbia and Montenegro; 12 February 2003) Czech Republic - Serbia (Prague, Czech Republic; 16 August 2006 Largest win Yugoslavia 10 - 1 India... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... First international Montenegro 2 - 1 Hungary (Podgorica, Montenegro; March 24, 2007) Biggest win Montenegro 2 - 1 Hungary (Podgorica, Montenegro; 24 March 2007) Biggest defeat Japan 2 - 0 Montenegro (Shizuoka, Japan; 1 June 2007) World Cup Appearances - (First in -) Best result - European Championship Appearances - (First in -) Best result - The Montenegro national... An exhibition game is the North American term for a sporting event in which there is no gain or loss from whether the competitors are victorious or not in the competition. ... Pod Goricom Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Podgorica, Montenegro. ... Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Guatemala. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


In popular culture

The first official international representation of Montenegro as an independent state was in the Miss World 2006 celebrated on September 30, 2006 in Warsaw, Poland. Ivana Knežević from the city of Bar was the first Miss Montenegro at any international beauty pageant. Both Montenegro and Serbia competed separately in this pageant for the first time after the state union came to an end. The 56th Miss World pageant took place in Warsaw, Poland on Saturday, September 30th at Sala Kongresowa, the main 2,897-seat auditorium at the Palace of Culture and Science. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Ivana Knežević (Ивана Кнежевић) (born circa 1988) is a beauty queen from the city of Bar, Montenegro who is Miss Crna Gora 2006. ... Coordinates Mayor Žarko Pavićević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 598 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 13,719 40,037 67. ...


Part of the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale is set in Montenegro, although the filming was done in Italy and the Czech Republic. 007 redirects here. ... Casino Royale (2006) is the 21st film in the James Bond series and the first to star Daniel Craig as MI6 agent James Bond. ...


Nero Wolfe, the eccentric fictional detective created by American writer Rex Stout, is Montenegrin by birth. One Nero Wolfe novel, The Black Mountain, takes place in Tito-era Montenegro. Bitter End — Carl Mueller illustrated Rex Stouts Nero Wolfe novella for The American Magazine (November 1940) Nero Wolfe is a fictional detective, created by the American mystery writer Rex Stout, who made his debut in 1934. ... Rex Stout, full name Rex Todhunter Stout, (December 1, 1886 - October 27, 1975) was an American writer best known as the creator of the larger-than-life fictional detective Nero Wolfe. ... The Black Mountain is a Nero Wolfe mystery novel by Rex Stout, first published by Viking Press in 1954. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ...


Jay Gatsby, the main character of the F. Scott Fitzgerald novel The Great Gatsby, has supposedly fought in Montenegro in World War I, and has been given a medal of honour by the Montenegrin King Nicholas I. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... This article is about the novel. ... Coat of arms of Petrović-Njegoš King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-Njegoš (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ...


Montenegrin Holidays

Holidays
Date Name Notes
1 January New Year's Day (non-working holiday)
7 January Orthodox Christmas (non-working)
7 April Orthodox Good Friday Date for 2007 only
8 April Orthodox Easter Date for 2007 only
9 April Orthodox Easter Monday Date for 2007 only
1 May Labour Day (non-working)
9 May Victory Day
21 May Independence Day (non-working)
13 July Statehood Day (non-working)

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Gallery

See also

The Communications of Montenegro basically consists of one landline telecommunications company (Telecom Montenegro) and two mobile telecommunications companies (ProMonte and Monet GSM. Though, these companies have beenby other major telecommunications companies (ProMonte: Telenor and Telecom Montenegro (including Monet GSM subsidiary): Magyar Telekom (A subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom)). Categories: | | ... Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegros geographic position and its long history. ... The culture of present-day Montenegro is as fascinating as its history and geographical position suggests. ... GDP (purchasing power parity): $ 3. ... In a referendum on May 21, 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... The Republic of Montenegro has one offical language, the Ijekavian dialect of Serbian. ... Law enforcement in Montenegro is primarily the responsibility of the Montenegro Civil Police, a law enforcement agency under the authority of the Montenegro Ministry of Internal Affairs. ... // Vladikas (Prince-Bishops) of Montenegro, from the Petrović-Njeguš Dynasty, 1696-1852 Danilo I 1696-1735 Sava II 1735-1781 Vasilije joint ruler with Sava II 1750-1766 Petar I 1782-1830 Petar II 1830-1851 Danilo II 1851-1852 Princes of Montenegro, 1852-1910 Danilo II 1852-1860 Nikola... After the Montenegro separation from the Serbia and Montenegro State Union the Military of Serbia and Military of Montenegro will be separated. ... First page of Pobjeda, May 22, 2006. ... The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... 100 perpers coin, minted in 1910 The perper was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1918. ... Music of Montenegro represents a mix of the countrys unique musical tradition and Western musical influences. ... Politics of Montenegro will undergo rapid change since its independence. ... membership badge of the Savez Izviđača Crne Gore. ... The Sport of Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports: football, basketball, water polo, volleyball and handball. ... NTO of Montenegro - Logo Tourism in Montenegro is in a rapid expansion. ... Montenegro road & rail map // Airports Montenegro has two international airports, with their IATA Airport Codes: Podgorica Airport - TGD Tivat Airport - TIV Podgorica Airport has a new and modern terminal building, and Tivat Airport underwent terminal expansion and can now handle night landings. ...

References

Montenegro Portal
  1. ^ CIA World Factbook: Montenegro
  2. ^ HDI 2004, source: Government of Montenegro
  3. ^ List of members to the United Nations by joining date
  4. ^ Directorate of Communication - The Republic of Montenegro becomes 47th Council of Europe member state
  5. ^ Geography
  6. ^ this literal translation is used in Mainland China and Hong Kong; Taiwanese Mandarin uses 蒙特內哥羅 "méngtènèigēluó", a phonetic transcription of "Montenegro"
  7. ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 2006-09-26
  8. ^ Montenegro.org: Duklja, the first Montenegrin state
  9. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Duklja (Doclea), the first Montenegrin state - Vojislavljevic' rule
  10. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Balsics' Rule (1356-1427)
  11. ^ Montenegro.org: Zeta (Duklja) under the second Montenegrin dynasty, the Balsic (1356-1427)
  12. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Prince Bishops Rule (Vladikat)
  13. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Nicholas I Petrovic (1860-1918)
  14. ^ Montenegro.org: King Nikola I of Montenegro
  15. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Podgorica's Assembly 1918
  16. ^ Montenegro.org: How the Montenegrin State and Kingdom Was Abolished in 1918
  17. ^ Montenegro.org: Christmas Uprising, 1919
  18. ^ Kotor
  19. ^ PORODICA NEDŽIBA LOJE O NJEGOVOM HAPŠENJU I DEPORTACIJI 1992. GODINE [1]
  20. ^ "Russia pushes peace plan", BBC, 1999-04-29. 
  21. ^ BBC News: Montenegro vote result confirmed
  22. ^ BBC News: Montenegro declares independence
  23. ^ http://index.hu/politika/kulfold/kvz0906/
  24. ^ Vijesti: Crna Gora tražila javno izvinjenje zbog afere "kvazidržava"
  25. ^ Government of Montenegro: Iceland recognises Montenegrin independence
  26. ^ Government of Montenegro: Switzerland recognises Montenegrin independence
  27. ^ Estonia recognized the independence of Montenegro
  28. ^ Government of Montenegro: Russia recognises Montenegrin independence
  29. ^ Government of Montenegro: Croatia recognises Montenegrin independence
  30. ^ JamaicaObserver.com: Bosnia recognises Montenegro as independent state
  31. ^ Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Vzpostavitev diplomatskih odnosov s Črno goro
  32. ^ Governement of Montenegro: European Union recognises Montenegrin independence
  33. ^ Government of Montenegro: United Kingdom recognises Montenegrin independence
  34. ^ People's Daily Online: China recognizes independence of Montenegro
  35. ^ Government of Montenegro: France recognises Montenegrin independence
  36. ^ BBC News: Montenegro gets Serb recognition
  37. ^ DTT-NET.COM: Montenegro set to become member of OSCE
  38. ^ smh.com.au: Montenegro recommended as UN membership
  39. ^ UN News Centre: Annan, General Assembly welcome Montenegro as 192nd UN Member State
  40. ^ Directorate of Communication - The Republic of Montenegro becomes 47th Council of Europe member state
  41. ^ : Montenegro hopes to apply for EU membership next year
  42. ^ Official results of the 2003 Montenegrin census
  43. ^ Kotor
  44. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Crnojevic Rule
  45. ^ UEFA: Montenegro set for big adventure
  46. ^ Montenegro take a bow at victory

Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Taiwanese Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai2-wan1 Kuo2-yü3; also 台灣華語, Táiwān Huáyǔ) is the dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on Taiwan. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro by Elizabeth Roberts (Hurst & Co, 2007) ISBN 978-1-85065-868-9
  • Montenegro: The Divided Land by Thomas Fleming (2002) ISBN 0-9619364-9-5

External links

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Government
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General information
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  • The Njegoskij Fund Public Project Private family archives-based digital documentary fund focused on historic and modern Sovereign Montenegro.
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  • Internet Krstarica - Montenegro Search Engine
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Tourist guides
  • Visit-Montenegro.com Tourist portal
  • Montenegro Tourism Directory - Montenegro Tourism and Travel Guide Everything you need to know before coming to Montenegro
  • Discover-montenegro.com general and touristical information about Montenegro
  • Photo- Montenegro.com Enjoy Hundreds of Photos from Montenegro
  • Tourism- Montenegro.com Largest Tourist Directory
  • Destination-Montenegro.com - Tourist destinations in Montenegro
  • Montenegro Summer Budva, Kotor, Tivat - Destinations in Montenegro
  • Visit Montenegro site of the National Tourism Organisation of Montenegro
  • Eurotrek Discuss travel to Montenegro with travellers
  • Uherope Travel Tips to Montenegro
  • The Unofficial Guide to Montenegro
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  • Travel to Montenegro Information and Picture Gallery on Montenegro Wild Beauty
  • Stevan Kordic's Photography - Photos from the costal area of Montenegro
  • Rivijera.net Budva, Montenegro - Tourist Guide
Geographic locale
International membership

  Results from FactBites:
 
Montenegro - MSN Encarta (562 words)
Montenegro is bounded on the north by Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the east by Serbia, on the south by Albania, and on the southwest by the Adriatic Sea.
Montenegro is mostly mountainous, with elevations ranging from 800 to 2,400 m (2,500 to 8,000 ft).
Montenegro’s few regions suitable for farming are in river valleys, mainly the one along the Zeta River; on the plain around Lake Scutari in the southwest; and near the town of Cetinje.
Montenegro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4075 words)
Montenegro's native name, Crna Gora, was first mentioned in a charter of St. Nicholas Monastery (Vranjina) issued by the Rascia's/Serbian King Milutin, in 1296 and translates literally to "fl mountain", a reference to the dark forests that once covered the slopes of the Dinaric Alps as seen from the coast.
Montenegro began the process of seeking international recognition as well as a seat at international organizations, and on June 28, 2006, it became the 192nd member state of the United Nations.
Montenegro borders Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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