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Encyclopedia > Montenegrins
Montenegrins
(Црногорци - Crnogorci)
Total population

approximately 600,000-800,000 (est.) [1]

Regions with significant populations
  Montenegro (2003):[2]

  267,669 (as Montenegrins)
  198,414 (as Serbs)
Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized...


  Serbia (2002)[3] :
  69,049 (as Montenegrins)
  ca 200,000 (as Serbs)
Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ...


  Croatia (2001):[4]
  4,926


  Republic of Macedonia (2002):[5]
  2,686 For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


  Slovenia (2002):[6]
  2,667


  Albania (2000):[7]
  Over 2,000


  Canada (2001):[8]
  1,055

Languages
Serbian, Montenegrin
Religions

Serbian Orthodox, Montenegrin Orthodox and small Roman Catholic and Sunni Muslim minority . Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

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Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. In both English and Serbo-Croatian, the term denotes both the nation and the ethnic group with a slightly different meaning, as well as being a regional designation. Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian Government • President • Prime Minister Republic Filip Vujanović Milo Đukanović Independence Part of Serbia and Montenegro Area  - Total    - Water (%)   13,812 km² (157th if ranked) 5,333 sq mi  N/A Population  - 2003 est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...

Contents

Identity and population

In Montenegro, ethnic Montenegrins and Serbs are divided largely on the basis of ethnic self-identification. The issue of Montenegrin ethnicity is debated, especially since the late 20th century, as more and more Montenegrins ceased to opt for Serbian ethnic affiliation as the primary one. The split has deepened further since the movement for full Montenegrin independence from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia began to gain ground in the mid-1990s, and ultimately narrowly succeeded in the referendum of May 2006 (having been rejected in 1992). The Serb Montenegrins though, do not consider themselves separate from the Montenegrin nation and do not see Serbia as their nation-state, but Montenegro rather. The sense of belonging to the Montenegrin is somewhat accepted by all of the country's Slavs, especially the Muslims by nationality who mostly declare their native language Serbian. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Montenegrin independence referendum was a referendum on the independence of the Republic of Montenegro from Serbia and Montenegro that was held on May 21, 2006. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe people who spoke Serbo-Croatian language and professed Islam that werent identified as one of the other nations. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Part of a series of articles on
Montenegrins

Culture
Literature · Music · Art · Cinema
Cuisine · Costume · Sport Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Montenegro. ... The culture of present-day Montenegro is as fascinating as its history and geographical position suggests. ... Montenegrin literature is literature written in South Slavic country of Montenegro in Serbian language. ... Montenegro is a part of the state of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegros geographic position and its long history. ...

Montenegrins by region or country
Diaspora
Albania · Australia · Austria
Argentina · Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canada · Croatia · Denmark · France
Germany · Italy · Luxembourg
Republic of Macedonia · Russia
Serbia (Kosovo • Vojvodina) · Slovenia
Sweden · Switzerland · UK · United States The Montenegrins of Serbia are a national minority in the republic. ... Montenegrins form an ethnic minority in Kosovo. ... Montenegrins are the sixth largest etnic community in the Vojvodina province of Serbia. ...

Religion
Eastern Orthodoxy (Serbian • Montenegrin)
Roman Catholicism · Islam The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... Map of Montenegro The Catholic Church in Montenegro is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Islam in Montenegro is the second largest religion after Serbian Orthodoxy. ...

Languages and dialects
Serbian · Montenegrin · Shtokavian Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ...

History · Rulers The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... // Stefan Vojislav, (c. ...

v  d  e

In the 2003 census, over 270,000 or 43% of the population of Montenegro identified themselves as ethnic Montenegrins, while around 200,000 or 32% identified themselves as Serbs. The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates wildly from census to census, not due to real changes in the populace, but due to changes in how people experience their identity. According to the 2002 census, there are around 70,000 ethnic Montenegrins in Serbia, accounting for 0.92% of the Republic's population. The number of Montenegrin citizens in Serbia runs to several hundreds of thousands (nearly 300,000 est.), but most of them identify as Serbs. In addition, a significant number of Serbs in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina are of Montenegrin ancestry, but exact numbers are difficult to assess - the Montenegrins contributed greatly to the colonization of Serbia in the 19th century, with the entire population of Sumadija and the surroundings being populated by Montenegrins, with the majority of the Serbian 19th & early 20th century ruling classes and intelligence being from Montenegro. This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ... Ethnic map of Serbia // Demographics of Serbia Population of Serbia (including Kosovo) Serbs 66% Albanians 17% Hungarians 3. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ...


There is no greater Montenegrin community in the diaspora, because most of them have accepted a Serbian national affiliation.


History

Main article: History of Montenegro
See also: Demographic history of Montenegro

The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ...

Medieval Times

During medieval times, its territories often shifted possession, but the medieval principalities of Doclea and Zeta under local rulers were fairly long-lived and have paved the path for what will ultimately become the modern Montenegro. In 1496, Zeta fell under Ottoman rule, but the Turkish influence was fairly limited to cities while Montenegrins tribes, although disunited, had control over the surrounding hills. They formed a loosely governed theocracy of "prince-bishops", starting with Archbishop Vavil in 1516. Duklja (Latin: Doclea or Dioclea, after the town of Dioclea) was a vassal state of Byzantium until it won its independence in 1042, ruled by the Vojislavljevic Dynasty, located in Zeta, or modern Montenegro and northern Albania including the city of Shkodër. ... Zeta was one of the first Montenegrin states in the Middle Ages. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Map of bratstva and plemena in Montenegro (In Serbian Cyrillic) English translations of terms Pleme and Bratstvo is very inconsistent, varying from source to soruce [1]. Pleme (plural - plemena) is a traditional territorial and political unit in Montenegro and parts of Herzegovina. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Vavila was a vladika (prince-bishop) of Montenegro. ...


During the 12th century, the area became known as the Principality of Zeta. Between 1276 and 1309, Zeta was ruled by the Queen Jelena, widow of the Serbian King Uroš I. She secured autonomy for Zeta within Nemanjić's Serbia and built and restored around 50 monasteries, most notably Saint Srđ and Vakh on the Bojana River under Shkodër/Skadar. The name Montenegro (Crna Gora) is mentioned for the first time in the charter of St. Nicholas' monastery in Vranjina, dating to 1296 during Jelena's reign. Under King Milutin (Uroš II) Nemanjić, at the beginning of the 14th century, the Archdiocese in Bar was the biggest feudal lord in Zeta. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Zeta was the Serbian independent principality that replaced the ancient Kingdom of Duklja (Latin: Doclea) for the Serbian territories roughly encompassing present-day Republic of Montenegro. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... Stefan UroÅ¡ I (Стефан Урош I) (d. ... The House of Nemanjić (Serbian: Немањићи; Anglicised: Nemanyid) was a medieval Serbian ruling dynasty. ... Monastery of St. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Events March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ...


Throughout the 14th century, the Houses of Balšić and Crnojević contested for control over the Montenegrin territories until the Crnojevićs attained supremacy in the 14th century. Under the Crnojevićs, the Serbian Church reached its peak. In 1496, the Ottomans conquered part, but not all, of Montenegro. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The House of BalÅ¡ić was a Serbian medieval dynasty that ruled Zeta. ... The House of Crnojević was a medieval dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Zeta. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern

The Montenegrin clans of Montenegro have created a unique tribal organization under Ottoman rule since the 16th century, and achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century. The Montenegrins were gathered around the Metropolitans of the Cetinje Metropolitanate, which further led to national awakening of the Montenegrins, the creation of a theocratic state and its advancement into a secular and independent country. Map of the Serb clans (In Serbian Cyrillic). ...


The rule of the House of Petrović in the 18th and 19th century unified the Montenegrins and established strong ties with Russia and later Serbia, with occasional help from Austro-Hungarian Empire. That period was marked by several clashes with Turkish conquerors as well as by a firmer establishment of a self-governed principality. The House of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Петровић-Његоши) is the Royal House of Montenegro. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ...


In 1878, the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world. Montenegro participated in the Balkan Wars of 1911-1912, as well as in World War I on the side of allies. The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam Paşa, Zeki Paşa, Esat Paşa, Abdullah Paşa, Ali Rıza Paşa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Yugoslavia-era

Montenegro unconditionally joined Serbia in November 26, 1918 in a controversial decision of the Podgorica Assembly, and soon afterwards became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed to Yugoslavia. A number of Montenegrin chieftains, disappointed by the effective disappearance of Montenegro, which they perceived to have resulted from political manipulation, rose up in arms during January 1919 in an uprising known as the Christmas Rebellion, which was crushed in a severe, comprehensive military campaign in 1922-23. In 1929 the newly renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia was reorganised into provinces (banovine) one of which, Zeta Banovina, encompassed the old Kingdom of Montenegro and had Cetinje as its admistrative centre. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Podgorica Assembly (Serbian: Подгоричка скупштина) a. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... On Orthodox Christmas, January 7, 1919, a national uprising occurred in Montenegro. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Zeta Banovina is coloured pink, in the central part of the map) The Zeta Banovina or Zeta Banate (Serbian Bosnian, and Croatian: Зетска бановина Zetska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ...


Between two world wars, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia opposed the Yugoslav monarchy and its unification policy, and supported Montenegrin autonomy, gaining considerable support in Montenegro. During World War II, many Montenegrins joined the Yugoslav partisan forces, although the portion joining the chetniks was also significant. One third of all officers in the partisan army were Montenegrins. They also gave a disproportional number of highest ranked party officials and generals. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... For the WWII guerilla force, see Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland. ...


When the second Yugoslavia was formed in 1945, the Communists who led the Partisans during the war formed the new régime. They recognized, sanctioned and fostered a national identity of Montenegrins as a people distinct from the Serbs and other south Slavs. The number of people who were registered as Montenegrins in Montenegro was at 90% in 1948, it has been dropping since, to 62% in 1991. With the rise of Serbian and Montenegrin nationalism in the late 80's the number of citizens who declared themselves Montenegrin dropped sharply from 61.7%, in the 1991 census, to 43.16% in 2003. For a detailed overview of these trends, see the Demographic history of Montenegro. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ...


Initially, after the fall of Communism in the early 1990s, the idea of a distinct Montenegrin identity has been taken over by independence-minded Montenegrins. The ruling Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) (reformed communists), led by the prime minister Milo Đukanović and the president Momir Bulatović, was firmly allied with Slobodan Milošević throughout this period and opposed such movements. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Serbian/Montenegrin: Демократска Партија Социјалиста Црне Горе / Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crne Gore) is a political party in Montenegro. ... Milo Đukanović   (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former three mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1998 and 2003 - 2006) and president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged Criminal Tycoon. ... Momir Bulatović (born September 21, 1956) is a former President of Montenegro and Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Požarevac, Nedićs Serbia, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...


Seeking Independence

However, in 1997 a full-blown rift occurred within DPS, and Đukanović's faction won over Bulatović's, who formed a new Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP). The DPS distanced itself from Milošević and gradually took over the independence idea from Liberal Alliance of Montenegro and SDP, and has won all elections since. The Socialist Peoples Party of Montenegro is a political party in Montenegro. ... The Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (Serbian/Montenegrin: Либерални Савез Црне Горе or Liberalni Savez Crne Gore - LSCG) was a liberal political party in Montenegro. ... The Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (Socijaldemokratska Partija Crne Gore) is a political party in Montenegro. ...


In the fall of 1999, shortly after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the Đukanović-led Montenegrin leadership came out with a platform for the re-definition of relations within the federation that called for more Montenegrin involvement in the areas of defence and foreign policy, though the platorm fell short of pushing for independence. After Milošević's overthrow on October 5, 2000, Đukanović for the first time came out in support of full independence and succeeded in his quest by winning a vote on independence on 22 May 2006. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Controversy about Montenegrin ethnic identity

While Montenegro and Serbia have practically always (up to 1918) been distinct states, the prominent Montenegrins of the time almost universally considered themselves as Serbs. In the 19th century national romanticism among the South Slavs fuelled the desire for unification, particularly between the Montenegrins and the Serbians. These were increasingly thought to be considered by serbs as two parts of a single Serb nation. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of...


The closeness of the Montenegrin ethnic identity with that of the Serbs is evidenced by a number of cultural and political factors during this period:

Cover of the "Serbian textbook" of 1836
Cover of the "Serbian textbook" of 1836
  • During Petar I Petrović Njegoš's reign, the basic textbook in state schools was called "The Serb elementary reading book". Another edition was published during Petar II Petrović Njegoš's rule;
  • During the reign of Danilo II Petrovic Njegos, the pupils had classes in Serb Grammar; Montenegrin History; and Serb History.
  • The geography syllabus at the College of Theology consisted of "studying the Serb lands independent, subjugated and occupied as well as the main cities, places and villages in the entire Serbdom".
  • The geography textbook for the 3rd grade of elementary school, in 1911, said:
In Montenegro live only true and pure Serbs who speak the Serbian language... Besides Montenegro there are more Serb lands in which our Serb brothers live... Some of them are as free as we are and some are subjugated to foreigners.
  • Numerous school certificates, passports and similar documents preserved marked the bearer's nationality as "Serbian";
  • The 1909 census, undertaken by the Principality of Montenegro, recorded that 95% of the population identified themselves as Serbs.

On the other hand, it is undeniable that the uniqueness of the Montenegrin identity is based on centuries-long distinct traditions, statehood, and dialectal and cultural particularities. The exact roots of the idea of a distinct Montenegrin ethnic identity are difficult to trace[citation needed], although Montenegrins were documented as an ethnic group since before the 1900's[9]. Download high resolution version (600x892, 126 KB)1836 Montenegro textbook. ... Download high resolution version (600x892, 126 KB)1836 Montenegro textbook. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Peter of Cetinje Petar I Petrović NjegoÅ¡ (St. ... For other uses, see Textbook (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Petar II Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Петар II Петровић-Његош) (November 13 (November 1 Old Style), 1813 - October 31 (October 19 Old Style), 1851) was the ruler of Montenegro and the Cetinje Episcope of the Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Владика). He made Montenegro a secular state and is considered by many to be among... Danilo II Petrovic Njegos, (May 25, 1826 – August 13, 1860), Prince Daniel II of Montenegro, was sovereign ruler of Montenegro from 1851 to 1860. ... For the surname, see Grammer. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Perhaps the turning point came with the Podgorica Assembly, where the pro-independence group called zelenaši (" the greens"), which promoted "nationalism, localism, and chauvinism" lost to the pro-unionist bjelaši ("the whites"), which promoted "national nihilism" under debatable conditions.[10] The repercussions of that unfortunate split last to this day. The proponents of Montenegrin uniqueness are sometimes pejoratively referred to as "zelenaši" by the pro-unionists, while the proponents of Montenegrin-Serb dual identity are sometimes called pejoratively "bjelaši" by the Montenegrin independists. The split into communist partisans and royalist chetniks during World War II, although chiefly ideological, was not without consequences to the national identity issue. The communists, who won the war against the Chetniks, actively promoted Montenegrin ethnicity and nationhood since 1945. As witnessed by the censuses 1948-1991, the introduction of Montenegrin ethnicity was embraced by many. Proponents of pro-unionist ideas in Montenegro maintain that this was due either because it was not actively confronted by a Serbian identity, or because it was (as many Serb nationalists put it) imposed by propaganda and force. However, during the latest national census that was conducted in a free and democratic manner, most Montenegrins still declared themselves as having a Montenegrin ethnicity - without opting for the optional Serbian identity. This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ...


Present situation

The political rift in late 1990s caused the Serbian/Montenegrin ethnic issue to resurface.

Montenegrins in Montenegro according to the 1991 census
Montenegrins in Montenegro according to the 1991 census
Montenegrins in Montenegro according to the 2003 census
Montenegrins in Montenegro according to the 2003 census

The population of Montenegro is presently roughly divided on ethnic and political issues between the group composed of the ethnic Montenegrins, ethnic Bosniaks, ethnic Muslims, ethnic Croats and Albanians on one side, and the group composed of the ethnic Serbs on the other. The former group forms a majority over the latter and has repeatedly won national elections. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (929x723, 197 KB)Ethnic map of Montenegro 1991 census (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (929x723, 197 KB)Ethnic map of Montenegro 1991 census (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (929x723, 207 KB)ethnic map of Montenegro (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (929x723, 207 KB)ethnic map of Montenegro (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe people who spoke Serbo-Croatian language and professed Islam that werent identified as one of the other nations. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


Various notable people in Montenegro support Montenegrin independence and acknowledge the right of citizens in Montenegro to declare themselves as ethnic Montenegrins. Noted supporters of independence include famous statesman Milo Đukanović and the Speaker of Montenegro's Parliament Ranko Krivokapić. Of the minorities, these include the historical scientist Šerbo Rastoder (a Bosniak from Berane), don Branko Sbutega (a Roman Catholic priest from Kotor, declared as a Croat, who died April 27 2006), and journalist Esad Kočan (a Bosniak). Milo Đukanović   (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former three mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1998 and 2003 - 2006) and president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged Criminal Tycoon. ... Ranko Krivokapić is the current President of the Parliament of the Repbulic of Montenegro and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) Biography Ranko was born on August 12, 1961 in Kotor, Montenegro, Yugoslavia. ... Prof. ... Mayor Relja Jovancevic Area  - city  - municipality {{{city}}} km² {{{municipalaty}}} km² Population  - city  - municipality 21,000 in 2003 40,900 in 2003 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 1862 Latitude Longitude 42° N 19° E Area code +381 87 Car plates BA Official Website Map of... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Coordinates Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 335 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 1,331 22,947 {{{density}}} No. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ...


A number of notable ethnic Montengrins include famous footballer Dejan Savićević, politician Slavko Perović, comedian Branko Babović, Sekula Drljević, popular singer Vlado Georgiev, actor Žarko Laušević, Šako Polumenta, fashion model Marija Vujović, the rock group Perper, renowned musician Rambo Amadeus, Archbishop Miraš Dedeić, Montenegrin ruler Ivan I Crnojević and former President of Serbia and Montenegro Svetozar Marović. Dejan Savićević (Serbian Cyrillic: Дејан Савићевић) (born September 15, 1966 in Titograd, Montenegro, SFR Yugoslavia), is a Montenegrin former football player and the current president of the Montenegro FA [1]. Born to Vladimir Savićević and Vojislava Đurović, young Dejan had an immediate affinity for football and quickly developed his natural... Slavko Perović (Cyrillic: Славко Перовић), born on 2 August 1954, was a co-founder and the leader of Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, a former party that was fighting for independence of Montenegro and promoting liberalism in Montenegro throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. ... Branko Babović is famous Montenegrin actor from NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro. ... Sekule Drljević (1884-1945) was a Montenegrin separatist and Nazi collaborator. ... Vlado Georgiev (born June 6, 1976 in Dubrovnik) is a popular Montenegrin pop singer. ... Žarko LauÅ¡ević (Born 19 January 1960 in Cetinje, Montenegro) is a Montenegrin actor. ... Å ako Polumenta is a Bosniak-Montenegrin singer, famous in the Former Yugoslavia. ... Marija Vujović (Марија Вујовић; born 19 May 1984 in Titograd, Yugoslavia, now Podgorica, Montenegro) is a Montenegrin supermodel. ... Perper is a prominent Montenegrin band. ... Rambo Amadeus (Serbian and Montenegrin: Рамбо Амадеус), born June 14, 1963 in Kotor, Montenegro, SFR Yugoslavia, is the stage name of the Belgrade-based Montenegrin singer-songwriter Antonije PuÅ¡ić, popular all over the former Yugoslavia. ... MiraÅ¡ Dedeić (sometimes as Dedejić) is the current head of the self-styled Montenegrin Orthodox Church and declared Archbishop of Cetinje and Montenegrin Metropolitate. ... The statue of Ivan Crnojević in Cetinje Ivan I Crnojević (Serbian Cyrillic: Иван Црноjeвић) was the Montenegrin ruler of the medieval country of Zeta (1465-1490). ...


A number of Montenegrins living outside of Montenegro, primarily in Serbia, still maintain the Montenegrin lore, family ties and clan affiliation. They remain nominally Montenegrins by these standards, yet at censa they declare themselves mostly as Serbs. Some have risen to high cultural, economic and political positions and are widely known as Serbs while few know that they to be of Montenegrin roots. For example, even Slobodan Milošević was a Serb of Montenegrin descent, the first generation of his family to be born in Serbia. Meanwhile, his brother, the former ambassador to Russia Borislav Milošević, declares himself an ethnic Montenegrin. Look up lore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Požarevac, Nedićs Serbia, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...


Other prominent Serbs descending from partly or fully from Montenegro include linguist and major reformer of modern Serbian language Vuk Karadžić, revolutionary leader and founder of the Karađorđević dynasty Đorđe Petrović (most notably Aleksandar Karađorđević), first Serbian modern monarch and founder of the Obrenović dynasty Miloš Obrenović, notable Balkanologist and geographer Jovan Cvijić, Serbian monarchist politician and orchestrator of opposition against Milosevic's dictatorship in Serbia Vuk Drašković, the wartime leader of the Bosnian Serbs Radovan Karadžić,[11] current democratic President of Serbia Boris Tadić,[12] assassinated warlord Željko Ražnatović-Arkan who was only half-montenegrin,[13] famous poet and writer Matija Bećković, editor-in-chief of high circulation Večernje novosti daily Manojlo Vukotić, former basketball star Žarko Paspalj, current BIA chief Rade Bulatović, Serbian Interior Minister Dragan Jočić[1], Serbian constitutional court president Slobodan Vučetić[2], and half-montenegrin actress Milla Jovovich.[14] Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serb linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... The KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Karadjordjevic) Serbian ruling dynasty is descended from KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e (Karadjordje). ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e or Карађорђе (November 3, 1768 – July 13, 1817) was the leader of the First Serbian uprising against the Turks, and the founder of the House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević. He was born Ђорђе Петровић (ĐorÄ‘e Petrović). Because of his dark complexion and short temper he was nicknamed Black Djordje... Prince Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević, oil technique, painter Uros Knezevic Aleksandar KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic Александар Карађорђевић) (1806–1885) was the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858. ... The house Obrenović(i) ruled Serbia from 1815-1842 and 1858-1903. ... MiloÅ¡ Obrenović Milosh Obrenovich (MiloÅ¡ Obrenović or in Cyrillic Милош Обреновић 1780 - 1860) was prince of Serbia between 1817 and 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. ... Portrait of Jovan Cvijić by UroÅ¡ Predić Jovan Cvijić (Cyrillic Јован Цвијић) (1865 - 1927), greatest Serbian geographer, president of Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and rector of Belgrade University. ... Vuk DraÅ¡ković, Warsaw (Poland), June 28, 2006 Vuk DraÅ¡ković (Вук Драшковић) (born November 29, 1946, MeÄ‘a village near ŽitiÅ¡te, Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia), leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement is a Serbian politician who is presently the temporary Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... Standard flag of President of Serbia Current Serbian President Boris Tadić The President of Serbia is the head of state of the Republic of Serbia. ... Boris Tadić   (Борис Тадић) (born 15 January 1958) is the President of Serbia. ... Željko Ražnatović (Serbian: Жељко Ражнатовић), widely known as Arkan (Serbian: Аркан), (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), was a Serbian paramilitary leader accused on numerous accounts of war crimes committed during Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. ... Ćeraćemo se joÅ¡ by Matija Bećković Matija Bećković (Born November 29, 1939, Senta, Danube Banate, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is a Serbian writer and poet of Montenegrin origin. ... Žarko Paspalj (Serbian: ; born March 27, 1966 in Pljevlja, Yugoslavia, now Montenegro) is a former montenegrin professional basketball player. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dragan Jočić Dragan Jočić (Cyrillic Драган Јочић) is the Serbian Minister of Interior in cabinet of prime minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica. ... Milla (Militza) Jovovich (Serbian Милица Јововић/Milica Jovović, Ukrainian Cyrillic: Мілла Йовович/MÑ–lla Jovovič; born December 17, 1975) is an American supermodel, actress, musician, singer, and fashion designer. ...


Language

Main article: Montenegrin language
Further information: Serbian language

Montenegrins speak the Ijekavian variant of Shtokavian dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language. Neo-shtokavian Eastern-Herzegovinian sub-dialect is spoken in the North-West (largest city Niksic), and old shtokavian Zeta subdialect is spoken in the rest of Montenegro, including capitals Podgorica and Cetinje, and eastern Sanjak. The North-Western, Eastern-Herzegovinian, dialect has been favoured by the Yugoslav establishment during 20th century as being more compatible with canonised Serbian/Serbo-Croatian dialects. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ...


Zeta dialect features additional sounds : ɕ, ʑ (occurring in other jekavian dialects as well) and ʣ (shared with other old-štokavian dialects). Both subdialects are charactericized by highly specific accents (shared with other old-štokavian dialects) and several "hyper-ijekavisms" (i.e. nijesam, where the rest of shtokavian area uses nisam) and "hyper-iotations" (đevojka for djevojka, đeca for djeca etc) (these features, especially the hyper-iotation, are more prominent in Zeta subdialect). This puts them on the opposite side of Serbian, in the ekavijan-ijekavijan spectrum, Croatian and Bosnian being in the middle. The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal voiceless or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ...


On sociolinguistic level, the language has been classified as a dialect of Serbian, being previously a dialect of Serbo-Croatian. Montenegrin constitution currently defines Serbian as the official language. However, along with the campaign for independence, a movement for recognition of Montenegrin language as separate from Serbian has emerged, finding the basis for separate language identity mostly in above-mentioned dialectal specifics. The current pro-independence government did not particularly embrace the movement, but did not oppose it either; trying to overcome the situation, the language school classes were renamed from "Serbian language" to "mother language", with fierce opposition from pro-Serbian circles. In the 2003 census, 63.49% of Montenegrin citizens stated that they speak the Serbian language, while 21.53% stated that they speak Montenegrin. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Montenegro

The most important dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethic ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, roughly translated as "Humanity and Bravery". Another result of its centuries long warrior history, is the unwritten code of Chivalry that Marko Miljanov, one of the most famous warriors in his time, tried to describe in his book Primjeri Čojstva i Junaštva (Examples of Humanity and Bravery) at the end of 19th century. Its main principles stipulate that to deserve a true respect of its people, a warrior has to show virtues of integrity, dignity, humility, self-sacrifice for the just cause if necessary, respect for others, and Rectitude along with the bravery. In the old days of battle, it resulted in Montenegrins fighting to the death, since being captured was considered the greatest shame. The culture of present-day Montenegro is as fascinating as its history and geographical position suggests. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... 17th Century Brazilian Tapuia A warrior is a person habitually engaged in warfare. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Marko Miljanov Marko Miljanov Popović (born April 25th, 1833 in Medun near Podgorica, Ottoman Empire, today Montenegro – death February 2nd, 1901, Herceg Novi, Austria-Hungary, today Montenegro) was a Montenegrin writer and a leader of the Kuči clan. ... Look up integrity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about virtue. ... Humility is a quality or characteristic ascribed to a person who is considered to be humble. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the... This article is about the attitude of acknowledgement. ... Bravery can mean: Courage, the human condition to confront pain and fear The Bravery, a rock band from the US The Bravery (album), the bands self-titled debut album This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that the section Shame campaign from the article Smear campaign be merged into this article or section. ...


It is still very much engraved, to a greater or lesser extent, on every Montenegrin's ethical belief system and it is essential in order to truly understand them. Coming from non-warrior backgrounds, most other South-Slavic nations never fully grasped its meaning, resulting in reactions which ranged from totally ignoring it, in the best case, to mocking it and equating it with backwardness.


Most of extraordinary examples of Montenegrin conduct during its long history can be traced to the code. Its importance is also reflected in the generally very low level of religiousness in the Montenegrin population. It is probably fair to say that the ethical beliefs of Montenegrins more closely match those of Stoicism than those of Christianity. A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Montenegrins' long-standing history of fighting for independence is invariably linked with strong traditions of folk epic poetry. A prominent feature of Montenegrin culture is the gusle, a one-stringed instrument played by a story-teller who sings or recites stories of heroes and battles in decasyllabic verse. These traditions are stronger in the northern parts of the country and are also shared with people in eastern Herzegovina, western Serbia and central Dalmatia. The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... Serbian Gusle The gusle or gusla (Albanian: Lahuta, Bulgarian: Гусла, Croatian: Gusle, Serbian: Гусле, Gusle) is a single-stringed instrument used in the Balkans and on the Dinarides area. ... Decasyllable verse or meter (in Italian decasillabo) is a kind of verse used mostly in epic poetry of the Southern Slavs (for example Serbian epic poetry sung to the gusle instrument). ... Herzegovina (natively Hercegovina/Херцеговина) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


On the substratum of folk epic poetry, poets like Petar II Petrović Njegoš, the Montenegrin icon, have created their own expression. Njegoš's epic book Gorski Vijenac (The Mountain Wreath) presents the central point of Montenegrin culture. Petar II Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Петар II Петровић-Његош) (November 13 (November 1 Old Style), 1813 - October 31 (October 19 Old Style), 1851) was the ruler of Montenegro and the Cetinje Episcope of the Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Владика). He made Montenegro a secular state and is considered by many to be among... The Mountain Wreath (Serbian: Горски вијенац or Gorski vijenac, in original orthography: Горскıй вıенацъ) is a poem and play, commonly considered a literary masterpiece, written by Montenegrin Prince-Bishop and poet Petar II Petrović-NjegoÅ¡. NjegoÅ¡ published The Mountain Wreath, in 1847. ...


On the other hand, Adriatic cities like Herceg-Novi, Kotor and Budva had strong trade and maritime tradition, and presented an entry-point for Venetian, Ragusan and other Catholic influences. Possession of those cities often changed, but their population was basically a mixture of Orthodox and Catholic religions and traditions. These cities were incorporated into Montenegro only after the fall of Austria-Hungary. In those cities, stronger influences of medieval and renaissance architecture, painting, and lyric poetry can be found. Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ... Coordinates Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 335 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 1,331 22,947 {{{density}}} No. ... Coordinates Mayor Rajko Kuljača Municipality area 122 km² Population  - city  - municipality 10,918 15,909 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 5th Century B.C. Area code +381 86 Car plates BD Official Website http://www. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... // Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry and dramatic poetry, but is of a more personal nature instead. ...


Montenegrin Names

There are many Montenegrin names unique to Montenegro or mostly found or originate in Montenegro and display the culture of the Montenegrins. ...

Religion

Historically, most Montenegrins, living in the hinterland, nominally belonged to the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC), whose presence on the territory dates from early medieval times. The Roman Catholic Church had a stronger influence in the Adriatic cities, especially in the area of the Bay of Kotor, known as the Boka which was ruled by the Venetians for 500 years until 17971, to be followed by Austria until 1918. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ...


The two communities lived in religious tolerance and a maintained a good relationship. After the decline of the Venetian Republic and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and following the incorporation of the coastal cities into the modern Montenegrin state, the number of Catholics steadily declined. Today, the remaining slavic Catholics in Montenegro identify as Croats, Bokelji, or Montenegrins in the ethnic sense. Catholics of Albanian ethnicity are also known as Malisori, meaning highlanders in Albanian. The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... A Bokelj in traditional Bokelj clothes The Bokelj people (pl. ...


As with ethnic affiliation and the name of the language, the split among Montenegrins is also present in the choice of religion (albeit to a far lesser extent). In 1993, the Montenegrin Orthodox Church was formed (claiming continuation from the autocephalous Montenegrin Orthodox Church from 1894/7-1918/20). The church is not recognized by other Orthodox churches, and its founders were condemned by the SOC Holy Synod. The exact number of followers of the MOC is not known exactly, as the 2003 census only recorded whether someone was Eastern Orthodox, but not which church they belonged to. However, it is safe to say that the overwhelming majority of the Eastern Orthodox Montenegrins belong to the Serb Orthodox Church, which numerous polls have shown to be the single most trusted institution in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... Demographics of Montenegro (based on the 2003 census) Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the census The 2003 census was undertaken by Montenegro, which, together with Serbia, constitutes Serbia and Montenegro. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Trivia

Nero Wolfe is a fictional detective, created by the American mystery writer Rex Stout, who made his debut in 1934. ... Rex Stout, full name Rex Todhunter Stout, (December 1, 1886 - October 27, 1975) was an American writer best known as the creator of the larger-than-life fictional detective Nero Wolfe. ...

See also

Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ... This is a list of prominent Montenegrins. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Bokelj in traditional Bokelj clothes The Bokelj people (pl. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Red Croats migrated to modern Montenegro as part of the migration of the Croats in 610-641 A.D., as part of the expanding Avar kingdom. ...

External links

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

  1. ^ Note: A very large number of people originating from within Montenegro's present borders declare ethnic affiliation in censuses as Serb. Thus, it is difficult to establish the exact numbers; up to few million people in Serbia and BiH might have one or more ancestors from Montenegro.
  2. ^ Unofficial results of Montenegro census 2003
  3. ^ Official results of Serbia census 2002, Republic bureau of statistics)
  4. ^ Official Results of Croatia census 2001, Central Bureau of Statistics of Croatia
  5. ^ Official Results of Macedonia census 2002, State Staticistal Office of the Republic of Macedonia
  6. ^ Official Results of Slovenia census 2002, Staticistal Office of the Republic of Slovenia
  7. ^ State Report of Albania from CoE, PDF
  8. ^ Official Results of Canada census 2001, National Staticistal Agency of Canada
  9. ^ Immigration Form, 1906
  10. ^ D.Vujovic, Ujedinjenje Crne Gore i Srbije, Istorijski institut NRCG, 1962, p. 8: Cited by "History of Montenegro", Montenet.org
  11. ^ BBC: Profile: Radovan Karadzic
  12. ^ Kurir, June 30 2004: Veselin konjevic: O'kle je Boris
  13. ^ IWPR: Milka Tadic: Arkanova Crnogorska Veza
  14. ^ Glas Javnosti, July 17 2000: Koreni iz lepih Vasojevića (an interview with Milla's father)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Montenegrins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3267 words)
The disappointment in the union with Serbia led to a movement for re-recognition of Montenegrin ethnicity, which was ultimately achieved under the Communist regime of the second Yugoslavia and maintained in the democratic regimes after the fall of Communism.
The royal Yugoslav government made the national unification of the Montenegrins and the Serbians into a policy, although this unconditional merger voted on by the Podgorica Assembly on November 26, 1918 was seen by some of the Montenegrins as an imposition, given that Montenegro was downgraded into a province of the new Yugoslav kingdom.
The population of Montenegro is presently roughly divided on ethnic and political issues between the group composed of the ethnic Montenegrins, ethnic Bosniaks and Albanians on one side, and the group composed of the ethnicSerbs on the other.
The Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija (III) (14482 words)
Ruza Petrovic, Marina Blagojevic: The Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija
Montenegrins were, at the beginning of this period, the third largest group, but their number decreased and share dropped from 3.9% to only 1.7% so that in the last census they were fewer in number than the Moslems and Romanies.
A comparison of the Serbian and Montenegrin population in the Province in 1971 according to the type of settlement and structure of the sample, shows a strong concordance in the representation of the rural and urban populations, with bigger differences in representation of the population from mixed urban-rural settlements.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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