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Encyclopedia > Montenegrin language
Montenegrin
Crnogorski/Црногорски
Spoken in: Montenegro [1]
Total speakers: Over 22% percent of Montenegro's population - about 144.838 people (2003
Ranking: not official
Language family: Indo-European
 Slavic
  South Slavic
   Western South Slavic
    Serbian
     Montenegrin 
Official status
Official language of: None
Regulated by: Unknown
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: none (B)  none (T)
ISO/FDIS 639-3: none 

Montenegrin language (Montenegrin: crnogorski jezik / црногорски језик) is the name given to the Ijekavian-Štokavian dialect, spoken in Montenegro. Some Montenegrins refer to their specific dialect as a language on its own, while others consider it a dialect of the Serbian language. As of 2005, there is an ongoing controversy on this issue. Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 14,026 km² (160th)   5,414... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 14,026 km² (160th)   5,414... Montenegrins (Serbian (Sometimes referred to as Montenegrin): Црногорци / Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Official status and speakers' preference

The language issue is a debated issue in Montenegro. In the previous census of 1991, the majority of Montenegrin citizens declared themselves as speakers of the then official language: Serbo-Croatian. According to the constitution of Montenegro, the official language of the republic, since 1992, is Serbian of the Ijekavian standard. After World War II and until 1992, the official language of Montenegro was Serbo-Croatian. In the late nineties and early twenty-first century, organizations promoting Montenegrin as a distinct language appeared. Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United Kingdom United States and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Franklin Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000...


On the last census in 2003, 21.53% of the population of Montenegro declared that Montenegrin is their native language, while 63.5% of the population declared that Serbian language is their mother tongue. Comparing those figures with ethnic preference of the population (32% declared themselves as Serbs, while 42% as Montenegrins), it would turn out that a majority of ethnic Montenegrins also call their language Serbian. However, as the issue is political rather than linguistic, the percentages were likely to change in the meantime in favor of Montenegrin as the political climate marked the victory of Montenegrin nationalism. No polls however, were conducted in the meantime (As of 2006). This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through census results. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Montenegrins (Serbian (Sometimes referred to as Montenegrin): Црногорци / Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some people might compare the situation with Montenegrin language with the position of Croatian and Bosnian languages, and even come to the conclusion that position of Montenegrin parallels the positions of the others. However, there are significant differences between the three: while Croatian and Bosnian are standard languages and official languages, there is no accepted standard for Montenegrin and it is not official anywhere (the official language of the Republic of Montenegro is still Serbian), although this is likely to change now Montenegro has regained its independence. Further, while most speakers of the Croatian and Bosnian dialects claim to speak Croatian and Bosnian language, respectively, most speakers of Montenegrin dialects still claim to speak the Serbian language. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


Linguistic considerations

Montenegrins speak subdialects of Shtokavian dialect (what used to be known as Serbo-Croatian language): Eastern Herzegovinian (in the west and southwest, similar to the one spoken in most of Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik area) and Zeta dialect (spoken in the east and southeast). Their borders are blurred due to migration of population and influence of standard language, based on Eastern Herzegovinian; the principal difference is in accentuation. The vocabulary of the dialect has some distinct features, but words different from other dialects are few (e.g. "sjutra" is used in Montenegro instead of "sutra", which is used in standard Serbian, Bosnian or Croatian). Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... Herzegovina (natively Hercegovina/Херцеговина) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 14 335 km² Location Population 43,770 Mayor Dubravka Šuica Stradun, Dubrovniks main street Republic of Ragusa before 1808 The walled city of Dubrovnik Dubrovnik (Croatian with tone marks: Dùbrōvnik, stress on first syllable, IPA [ˈdǔ.bro̞ːʋ.nik], Dalmatian, Latin, Italian, and former...

Proposed Montenegrin language alphabet, which contains 3 more letters than Serbian-Croatian counterpart — Ś, Ź, and З
Proposed Montenegrin language alphabet, which contains 3 more letters than Serbian-Croatian counterpart — Ś, Ź, and З

Both subdialects are also charactericized by several "hyper-ijekavisms" (nijesam, sjutra where the rest of shtokavian area uses nisam, sutra) and "hyper-iotations" (đevojka for djevojka, đeca for djeca etc). These features, especially the hyper-iotation, are more prominent in Zeta subdialect. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (718x1122, 23 KB) Summary Proposed Montenegrin language alphabet, which contains 3 more letters than Serbian-Croatian counterpart. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (718x1122, 23 KB) Summary Proposed Montenegrin language alphabet, which contains 3 more letters than Serbian-Croatian counterpart. ...


Proponents of Montenegrin favour the Latin over the Cyrillic alphabet and propose amending of the alphabet with three letters Ś, Ź, and З (representing IPA: [ç], [ʝ] and [ʣ] respectively). The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...


Opponents acknowledge that these sounds can be heard by most Montenegrin speakers, however, argue that they are relatively rare and do not form minimal pairs, and so are not considered phonemes by that criteria. In addition, there are speakers in Montenegro who don't utter them and speakers of Serbian and Croatian outside of Montenegro (notably in Herzegovina and Bosanska Krajina) who do. In addition, introduction of those letters could pose significant technical difficulties (Eastern European code page ISO/IEC 8859-2 does not contain letter З, for example, and the corresponding letters were not proposed for Cyrillic). Within phonetics, a phone is a speech sound or gesture considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the phonology of a language. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... Herzegovina (natively Hercegovina/Херцеговина) is a historical region in the Dinaric Alps that composes the southern part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... ISO 8859-2, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-2 or less formally as Latin-2, is part 2 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


Montenegrin language proponents

The chief proponent of Montenegrin is Zagreb-educated dr Vojislav Nikčević, professor at the Department of Language and Literature at the University of Montenegro and the head of the Institute for Montenegrin Language in the capital Podgorica. His dictionaries and grammars are printed by Croatian publishers as the major Montenegrin publishing houses such as Obod in Cetinje, as always, opt for the official nomenclature specified in the Constitution (Serbo-Croat until 1992, Serbian after 1992). Introduction of Montenegrin language has also been supported by other important academic institutions, such as Matica Crnogorska and Montenegrin Academy of Arts and Sciences. Zagreb at night, from Sljeme Zagreb cathedral St. ... Vojislav Nikčević (prof. ... The University of Montenegro (Serbian Univerzitet Crne Gore, Универзитет Црна Гора) is a university located in Podgorica, Montenegro. ... Mayor Municipality area {{{municipalaty}}} km² Population  - city  - municipality 14,700 18,749 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded Latitude Longitude Area code +381 86 Car plates CT Official website:[1] Cetinje (Цетиње) is a small city (population 14,700 in 2003) located in Serbia and Montenegro. ...


Montenegro's prime minister Milo Đukanović declared his open support for the formalization of the Montenegrin language by declaring himself as a speaker of the Montenegrin language, in an October 2004 interview with Belgrade daily Politika. At one point during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, official Montenegrin government communiqués were officially given in English and Montenegrin. The Government has since switched back to Serbian. The official web page of the President of Montenegro states that it is provided in "Montenegrin-Serbian version" (Crnogorsko-srpska verzija). while the official website of the Government of Montenegro has an English and a Serbian version. [2] Milo Đukanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born February 15, 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is the current Prime Minister of the republic of Montenegro. ... Politika/Политика is a Serbian newspaper. ... The NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ...


In an attempt to resolve the language naming problem, in 2004, the government of Montenegro changed the school curriculum in such a way that name of the mandatory classes teaching the language was changed from "Serbian language" to "Mother tongue (Serbian, Montenegrin, Croatian, Bosnian)". This change was made, according to the government, in order to better reflect the diversity of languages spoken among citizens in the republic and to protect human rights of non-Serb citizens in Montenegro who declare themselves as speakers of other languages.


This decision resulted in a dozen Serb teachers declaring a strike and a number of parents refusing to send their children to schools. The cities affected by the strike included Nikšić, Podgorica, Berane, Pljevlja and Herceg Novi. Mayor Labud Sljukić Area km² Population  - city  - district  - density 61,700 in 2003 /km² Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded IV Century AD as Onogost Latitude Longitude 42. ... Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a Area  - city  - municipality km² 1,399 km² Population  - city  - municipality 136,473 169,132 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 14th Century Latitude Longitude 42°47 N 19°28 E Area code +381 81 Car plates PG Official Website Podgorica... Mayor Relja Jovancevic Area  - city  - municipality {{{city}}} km² {{{municipalaty}}} km² Population  - city  - municipality 21,000 in 2003 40,900 in 2003 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded 1862 Latitude Longitude 42° N 19° E Area code +381 87 Car plates BA Official Website Map of... Coordinates Mayor Radoman Gogić Municipality area 1346 km² Population  - city  - municipality 27,000 in 2003 36,918 in 2003 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded between VI - VII century Area code +381 89 Car plates PV Official Website http://www. ... Coordinates Mayor Dejan Mandić Municipality area 235 km² Population  - city  - municipality 12,739 33,034 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded 1382 Area code +381 88 Car plates HN Official Website www. ...


See also

Slavic languages
East Slavic Belarusian | Old East Slavic † | Old Novgorod dialect † | Russian | Rusyn (Carpathians) | Ruthenian † | Ukrainian
West Slavic Czech | Kashubian | Knaanic † | Lower Sorbian | Pannonian Rusyn | Polabian † | Polish | Pomeranian † | Slovak | Slovincian † | Upper Sorbian
South Slavic Banat Bulgarian | Bosnian | Bulgarian | Bunjevac | Burgenland Croatian | Church Slavonic | Croatian | Macedonian | Molise Croatian | Montenegrin | Old Church Slavonic † | Serbian | Serbo-Croatian | Slavic (Greece) | Slovenian
Other Proto-Slavic † | Russenorsk † | Slavonic-Serbian † | Slovio
Extinct

A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Montenegrins (Serbian (Sometimes referred to as Montenegrin): Црногорци / Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code rue, is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) The Rusyn language of the Carpathian Mountains is an... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbsce) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: банатски българи, banatski balgari, calling themselves palkene or palchene) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, and Old Slavonic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavonic dialect of Thessaloniki by 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ... Slavic (Greek: Σλάβικα, Slávika) is the term sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula. ... Slavonic-Serbian language (славеносерпски, славјаносербски, словенски) is a form of the Serbian language which was dominately using by the end of the 18th century and the begining of the 19th century by the educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina and Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... Slovio is a written and spoken constructed language created by Swiss-based Slovak linguist Mark Hucko and published on the Internet in 2001. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Examples of nomenclature

  • Official government page with srpski or 'Serbian' at the bottom
  • Official page of President of Montenegro with Crnogorsko-srpska verzija or 'Montenegrin-Serbian version' in top left corner
  • Official page of Montenegrin Government with CRNOGORSKI or 'Montenegrin' in top left corner
  • Montenegrin language on Montenegrina

  Results from FactBites:
 
Montenegrin language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1100 words)
On the last census in 2003, 21.53% of the population of Montenegro declared that Montenegrin is their native language, while 63.5% of the population declared that Serbian language is their mother tongue.
Montenegrins speak subdialects of Shtokavian dialect (what used to be known as Serbo-Croatian language): Eastern Herzegovinian (in the west and southwest, similar to the one spoken in most of Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik area) and Zeta dialect (spoken in the east and southeast).
The chief proponent of Montenegrin is Zagreb-educated dr Vojislav Nikčević, professor at the Department of Language and Literature at the University of Montenegro and the head of the Institute for Montenegrin Language in the capital Podgorica.
Montenegrins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3259 words)
The disappointment in the union with Serbia led to a movement for re-recognition of Montenegrin ethnicity, which was ultimately achieved under the Communist regime of the second Yugoslavia and maintained in the democratic regimes after the fall of Communism.
The royal Yugoslav government made the national unification of the Montenegrins and the Serbians into a policy, although this unconditional merger voted on by the Podgorica Assembly on November 26, 1918 was seen by some of the Montenegrins as an imposition, given that Montenegro was downgraded into a province of the new Yugoslav kingdom.
The population of Montenegro is presently roughly divided on ethnic and political issues between the group composed of the ethnic Montenegrins, ethnic Bosniaks and Albanians on one side, and the group composed of the ethnicSerbs on the other.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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