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Encyclopedia > Montanus

Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. Although the mainstream Christian church prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, this sect persisted in some isolated places into the eighth century. Some people have drawn parallels between Montanism and Pentecostalism (which some call Neo-Montanism). The most widely known Montanist was undoubtedly Tertullian, who is sometimes called the "Father of the Western Church". Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian (b. ...

Contents

History

Shortly after Montanus' conversion to Christianity, he began travelling among the rural settlements of Asia Minor, preaching and testifying, accompanied by two women, Prisca and Maximilla, who also purported to be the embodiments of the Holy Spirit that moved and inspired them. He claimed to have received a series of direct revelations from the Holy Spirit or the paraclete of John. As they went, "the Three" as they were called, spoke in ecstatic visions and urged their followers to fast and pray, so that they might share the personal revelations. His preachings spread from his native Phrygia, where he proclaimed the village of Pepuza as the site of the New Jerusalem, across the contemporary Christian world, to Africa and Gaul. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Paraclete comes from the Greek word meaning one who consoles or one who intercedes on our behalf, which first appears in the Gospel of John (16:7). ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... New Jerusalem is the concept of Jerusalem (in the definite or indefinite sense) as being renewed or rebuilt, either in the present day or in the future, either at the Temple Mount or in a different location. ...


The divisive movement was partly inspired by a gnostic reading of the Gospel of John— "I will send you the advocate [paraclete], the spirit of truth" (Heine 1987, 1989; Groh 1985); the response to this continuing revelation split the Christian communities, and the episcopal hierarchy fought to suppress it. Bishop Apollinarius found the church at Ancyra torn in two, and he opposed the "false prophesy" (quoted by Eusebius 5.16.5) Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ... Paraclete comes from the Greek word meaning one who consoles or one who intercedes on our behalf, which first appears in the Gospel of John (16:7). ... In general, continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ...


Priscilla claimed that the Christ had appeared to her in female form. When she was excommunicated, she exclaimed "I am driven away like the wolf from the sheep. I am no wolf: I am word and spirit and power." The Greek λόγος or logos means word. Logos was used by Heraclitus, one of the more eminent Pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, to describe human knowledge and the inherent order in the universe, a background to the essential change which characterizes day-to-day life. ... The concept of power occurs in multiple areas. ...


The most widely known defender of Montanists was undoubtedly Tertullian, a champion of orthodox belief, who believed that the new prophecy was genuinely motivated and began to fall out of step with what he began to call "the church of a lot of bishops" (On Modesty). Irenaeus, who visited Rome during the height of the controversy, in the pontificate of Eleutherus, returned to find Lyon in dissension, and was inspired to write the first great statement of the mainstream Catholic position, Adversus Haereses. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian (b. ... St. ... ...


Although the mainstream Christian church prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, inscriptions in the Tembris valley of northern Phrygia, dated between 249 and 279, openly proclaim their allegiance to Montanism. A letter of Jerome to Marcella, written in 385, refutes the claims of Montanists that had been troubling her [1] (http://www.ccel.org/fathers/NPNF2-06/letters/letter41.htm). This sect persisted into the eighth century, and some of its emphasis on direct, ecstatic personal presence of the Holy Spirit bears resemblance to all forms of Pentecostalism. Events Trajan Decius becomes Roman emperor. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 279 ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


Differences between Montanism and Catholicism

The beliefs of Montanism contrasted with mainstream Catholicism in the following ways:

  • The belief that the Trinity consisted of only a single person, similar to Sabellianism, but in contrast to the Catholic view that the Trinity is one God of three persons.
  • The encouragement of ecstatic prophesying and speaking in tongues, contrasting with the more sober and disciplined approach to theology dominant in mainstream Catholicism at the time and since.
  • The view that Christians who fell from grace could not be redeemed, also in contrast to the Catholic view that contrition could lead to a sinner's restoration to the church.
  • The prophets of Montanism did not speak as messengers of God: "Thus saith the Lord," but described themselves as possessed by God and spoke in his person. "I am the Father, the Word, and the Paraclete," said Montanus (Didymus, De Trinitate, III, xli); This possession by a spirit, which spoke while the prophet was incapable of resisting, is described by the spirit of Montanus: "Behold the man is like a lyre, and I dart like the plectrum. The man sleeps, and I am awake" (Epiphanius, "Hæreses", xlviii, 4).
  • A stronger emphasis on chastity, the avoidance of sin, and church discipline than in mainstream Catholicism.

This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the second-century belief that the three persons of the Trinity are merely different modes or aspects of God, rather than three distinct persons. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Paraclete comes from the Greek word meaning one who consoles or one who intercedes on our behalf, which first appears in the Gospel of John (16:7). ...

See also

For a description of the personality trait, see Charismatic authority. ...

External links

Sources

Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend of] Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ...

Further reading

  • Groh, Dennis E. 1985. "Utterance and exegesis: Biblical interpretation in the Montanist crisis," in Groh and Jewett, The Living Text (New York) pp 73 – 95.
  • Heine, R.E., 1987 "The Role of the Gospel of John in the Montanist controversy," in Second Century v. 6, pp 1 – 18.
  • Heine, R.E., 1989. "The Gospel of John and the Montanist debate at Rome," in Studia Patristica 21, pp 95 – 100.
  • Pagels, Elaine, 2003. Beyond Belief A brief layman's introduction, with notes in chapter "God's Word or Human Words?"
  • Trevett, Christine, 1996. Montanism: Gender, Authority and the New Prophecy (Cambridge University Press)

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Montanists (3775 words)
Montanus was a recent convert when he first began to prophesy in the village of Ardabau in Phrygia.
He is said by Jerome to have been previously a priest of Cybele; but this is perhaps a later invention intended to connect his ecstasies with the dervish-like behavior of the priests and devotees of the "great goddess".
Probably from the beginning some bishops excluded the followers of Montanus, and this severity was growing common before the death of Montanus; but it was hardly a general rule much before the death of Maximilla in 179; condemnation of the prophets themselves, and mere disapproval of their disciples was the first stage.
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